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Justice and Righteousness

(8,833 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart | Klaiber, Walter | Höffe, Otfried | Holmes, Stephen R. | Anzenbacher, Arno | Et al.
[German Version] I. Bible – II. Philosophy – III. History of Theology and Dogmatics – IV. Ethics – V. Law – VI. Social Politics, Social Ethics – VII. Missiology – VIII. Islam I. Bible 1. Ancient Near East and Old Testament The concept of justice in the ancient Near East and the Hebrew Bible is basically one of connectivity. It designates the positive relation of the king to the gods and to his people, of the individual to the various collectives ranging from the family to the entire nation, of the deed to the doer's well-being,…

Philosophy of Life

(1,357 words)

Author(s): Höffe, Otfried
[German Version] The concept of philosophy of life or vitalism cannot be defined unambiguously; it is used as a label by a wide variety of philosophical schools. Their common denominator is that they begin with a view of life (IV) as a primary and immediate force or creative process, with less emphasis on being and more on becoming. In transcending the rationalistic subject/object division, they prefer a holistic vision that treats mind and body as one. Since the end of the 19th century, this visi…

Rawls, John

(436 words)

Author(s): Höffe , Otfried
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1921, Baltimore, MD – Nov 24, 2002, Lexington, MA). The English-speaking world owes to the philosopher Rawls the most important 20th-century contribution to political ethics. His monumental work A Theory of Justice (1971, 21999) succeeds in making a change of paradigm comprising five aspects: 1.While meta-ethical studies had dominated up to that point, Rawls turned directly to a normative theme, namely justice (II; IV; VI). 2. Inasmuch as the anglophone world discussed normative questions, it favored utili…

Philosophy of Law

(2,219 words)

Author(s): Höffe, Otfried
[German Version] The philosophy of law studies law (Law and jurisprudence) solely with the tools of common human reason (including common human experience), without appealing to divine revelation or legal authority. Unlike legal doctrine, legal history, and legal sociology, it asks (II) what law actually is (“legal analysis”), (III) why we need law (“legal anthropology”), and (IV) what the normative criteria that define and govern law (“fundamental legal ethics”) are, so as to assess fundamental topical problems by applying these criteria (“applied legal ethics”). I. Historical…