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Ideology

(2,060 words)

Author(s): Heintel, Peter | Berger, Wilhelm
1. Term 1.1. An early history of the concept of ideology might be reconstructed from F. Bacon (1561–1626). The actual word itself, however, goes back to A.-L.-C. Destutt de Tracy (1754–1836), who first used it in a talk in 1796 to refer to the strictly scientific study of ideas. In the tradition of sensationalist epistemology, sense perception was for him the source of perceptions (idées), by an exact analysis of which we may attain to sure knowledge and proper rules for politics, morality, and education. The philosophical school of the Idéologues adopted the principles that De…

Institution

(1,609 words)

Author(s): Kehrer, Günter | Berger, Wilhelm | Heintel, Peter | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Social Sciences – III. Theology I. Religious Studies If an institution is understood as a set of norms that regulate action in a precise manner, then, from the perspective of religious studies, a differentiation can be made between institutions that regulate religious action and normative standards that regulate non-religious action but are religiously justified. However, it always needs to be taken into consideration that this distinction is made by the external …