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Cercaphus

(43 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Κέρκαφος; Kérkaphos). One of the seven  Heliadae, of  Cydippe [3] father of the eponyms of the Rhodian towns of Lindus, Ialysus and Cameirus (Pind. Ol. 7,73 with schol. 7,131c-d; 132c; 135; Diod. Sic. 5,57,8; Str. 14,2,8). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)

Metragyrtai

(239 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Μητραγύρται; Mētragýrtai).Wandering ‘beggars of the Mḗtēr’ (according to Aristot. rhet. 1405a 20f. and later sources; older terms are kýbēbos: Semonides frag. 36 West; agersikýbēlis: Kratinos frag. 66 PCG); they spread and and carried out the rituals of the Mḗtēr/ Kybele by dancing ecstatically to the sound of the týmpana and kýmbala followed by begging, apparently as early as the 7th century BC in Greece, later also in Rome ( Mater magna, compare. e. g.Cic. leg. 2,40). Castration probably only took place occasionally (e.g.. Ant…

Mythographus Homericus

(325 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] Since [7], Mythographus Homericus has been the name given to the unknown author of a Greek mythological commentary on Homer from the early Imperial period. It has been possible to deduce its existence from the mythological tales ( historíai) of the Byzantine scholia and it has now been attested by finds of papyri and an ostrakon from the period of the 1st/2nd to the 5th cent. AD ( historíai not appearing in the scholia are in POxy. 61,4096 = [1. No. 53]). The enarratio historiarum on mythical figures (genealogies, deeds), the founding of localities ( ktíseis) and the origin…

Orphics

(368 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ὀρφικοί/ Orphikoí). In our sources, Orphikoi are exclusively 'authors of Orphic writings' (schol. Eur. Alc. 1 = OF 40; cf. Plat. Crat. 400c = OF 8: οἱ ἀμφὶ Ὀρφέα/ hoi amphì Orphéa) or 'priests who perform Orphic initations' (Ach. Tat. Isagoge in Arati phaenomena 4, p. 33,17; 6, p. 37,8 Maass = OF 70) and are also called Orpheotelestaí (Theophr. Char. 16,11 = OF T 207; Philod. Perí poiēmátōn II fr. 41 Hausrath = OF T 208; Plut. Mor. 224e). Only a bone tablet from  Olbia [1] (from the 5th cent. BC), published in 1978, appears to document the genera…

Perimedes

(147 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Περιμήδης/ Perimḗdēs). [German version] [1] Companion of Odysseus Companion of Odysseus who, sometimes with Eurylochus [1], helped him in the sacrifice to the dead (Hom. Od. 11,23-24; visual representation i.a. on the Nékyia by Polygnotus, cf. [1]) and strengthened his chains as they travelled past the Sirens ( ibid. 12,195-196). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [2] Son of Eurystheus Son of Eurystheus, killed by the Athenians in the defence of the Heraclidae (Ps.-Apollod. 2,168) or by Heracles [1] after his final travail because the latter fel…

Teiresias

(327 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Τειρεσίας/ Teiresías, Lat. Teresias/ Tiresias, Etruscan Teriasals, Terasias). Blind seer from Thebes, son of Eueres and the nymph Chariclo, father of Manto and Historis. At the time when T. was connected to the myth of Odysseus in the Nekyia (Hom. Od. 10,490-495; 11,90-151), an established seer figure had already been part of the tradition, as in the Melampodia, where it is told that T. explains —after two sex changes— that women experience greater pleasure during the act of love. For this, Hera blinds him but Zeus c…

Melanion

(274 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Μελανίων/ Melaníōn, Μειλανίων/ Meilaníōn; Latin *Milanion; personal name from μέλας/ mélas, ‘black’). An Arcadian, son of Amphidamas. In the ‘Arcadian’ version of the myth, he is the suitor of Atalante (according to Ps.-Apollod. 3,105 her cousin), with whom he has a son Parthenopaeus (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 99; Ps.-Apollod. 3,109; Paus. 3,12,9; among the latter's alternative fathers none is the Hippomenes [1] of the ‘Boeotian’ version). As a participant in the games in honour of Pelias, M. was to be seen on the Cypselus Chest ( c. 600 BC, according to Paus. 5,17,10; …

Homonoia

(281 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (ὁμόνοια; homónoia). The word homonoia (‘unity’) was evidently reshaped in Athens's crisis of 411 BC (referred to in Thuc. 8,75,2; 93,3) as an exhortation of the democrats to internal cohesion (cf. Antiphon 87 B 44-71; Thrasymachus 85 B 1; Gorgias 82 B 8a DK). Homonoia within the polis is from then on mostly based on socio-economic conflicts (antonym   stásis : Lys. 18,17-18), bilateral and trilateral homonoia (from the Hellenistic period) as well as border conflicts primarily in the rank disputes of Asia Minor in the Imperial period but also in…

Semele

(454 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Σεμέλη/ Semélē, Etruscan Semla; also Θυώνη/ Thyṓnē). Daughter of Cadmus [1] and Harmonia, sister of Agave, Autonoe, Ino and Polydorus (Hes. Theog. 975-978). S. is of significance due to the Theban myth of the birth of Dionysus: when she was pregnant by Zeus (Actaeon is said to have been her first suitor: Hes. fr. 217A M.-W.), she was persuaded by Hera to ask him to show himself in his true form. The weather god appeared as a thunderbolt, with which he killed her. He removed the unborn …

Hippocoon

(281 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Ἱπποκόων; Hippokóōn). Son of  Oebalus and Bateia (Nicostrate: Schol. Eur. Or. 457), halfbrother or brother of  Tyndareus, whom he drove out of Sparta. As a consequence of H.'s refusal along with the Hippocoontides to purify Heracles, or because they are allied with  Neleus, but above all, because they had struck Oeonus dead,  Heracles takes revenge on them (aition of Athena Axiopoinos) and reinstalls Tyndareos (Diod. Sic. 4,33,5f.; Paus. 3,1,4; 15,3-6; 19,7; Ps.-Apollod. 2,143; 3,123-125; as ear…

Hippotes

(259 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Ἱππότης; Hippótēs). [German version] [1] Father of Aeolus The rarely mentioned father of  Aeolus [2]: Hom. Od. 10,2; 36; Apoll. Rhod. 4,778; 819; due to the confusion between Aeolus [1] and Aeolus [2], the son of Mimas (schol. Hom. Od. 10,2; Diod. Sic. 4,67,3). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [2] Founder of the cult of Apollo Karneios Son of  Phylas, grandson of Antiochus, great-grandson of Hercules, father of  Aletes [1] ([5. 7-10]; genealogical table [1; 4. 306 A 20]). In Naupactus H. kills the seer Carnus and is forced into exile for 10 …

Onomacritus

(377 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ὀνομάκριτος/ Onomákritos) from Athens, second half of the 6th/beginning of the 5th cent. BC, oracle interpreter and supervisor of the oracle of Musaeus [1] ( chrēsmológos te kai diathétēs chrēsmṓn) closely connected with the Peisistratids, whose interests he did not always serve. When Lasus [1] of Hermione convicted him for adding an oracle to those of Musaeus, he was banished by Hipparchus [1]. Yet he accompanied the Peisistratids after their downfall to Xerxes in order to induce him, by means of a deliberate choice of oracles, to march against Greece (Hdt. 7,6). Sour…

Maenads

(945 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Μαινάς/ Mainás, pl. Μαινάδες/ Mainádes; Lat. Maenas, pl. Maenades). In modern research both the mythical companions (and antagonists) of Dionysus and their historical admirers are mostly called Maenads. But in Greek cult terminology the women who honour the god with a dance ritual every three years are especially called Bákchai (singular Bákchē, Lat. Bacchae), while the substantivized adjective Mainás (‘the mad one’, from maínesthai: ‘to be mad’), apart from four Hellenistic inscriptions with poetic tendencies [7. 52 with note 83], appears t…

Heliadae

(156 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ἡλιάδαι; Hēliádai). The sons of  Helios and Rhodos (Rhode: Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 137; schol. Hom. Od. 17,208 confused with Clymene, mother of Heliades [1]): Ochimus, Cercaphus, Actis, Macar(us) (Macareus), Candalus, Triopas and Phaethon (= Tenages: Pind. Ol. 7,71-73; cf. schol. 131a-c, 132a). According to a Rhodian local myth in Pind. Ol. 7,34-55 [2. 2849] Helios advised the H. to be the first to sacrifice to Athena after her birth. In their haste, however, they forgot the fire for …

Historis

(73 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ἱστορίς; Historís). Daughter of the seer  Teiresias (hence the probable derivation from *ιδ-, ‘to see, to know’). In the context of Theban statues of Pharmacides (= Moirai), Paus. 9,11,3 tells us that H. was able to outwit them like  Galinthias in Nicander. The epithet of Juno Historia (CIL XI 3573) can probably be traced back to H. [1]. Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) Bibliography 1 M. Renard, Iuno Historia, in: Latomus 12, 1953, 137-154.

Naus

(98 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ναός/ Naós). Descendant of Eumolpus in the third generation. Obeying the oracle of Delphi, he brought the Eleusinian cult of Demeter to Arcadian Pheneus, where in the temple of Demeter the Eleusinia were celebrated in Attic rite (Paus. 8, 15, 1). This import supplemented the older epichoric cults of Demeter Kidaria and Demeter Thesmia, as the Pheneatic tradition is said to have noticed (Paus. 8, 15, 2-4). The name, which means ‘temple, may indicate the erection of such an edifice in a new sanctuary.  Eleusis [1] Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) Bibliography Jost, 30, 318f. Nilss…

Mythographi Vaticani

(385 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] is the name under which three collections of myths, which have their origins in the teaching of literature in the Middle Ages, are subsumed ever since their publication from Vatican manuscripts by A. Mai in 1831. MV I (anon., no title, now dated between around 875 and 1075, [3]): 233 short fabulae  are compiled simply in three volumes without any discernible overall theme (Main sources: Serv. in Verg.; [Lactantius Placidus] scholia in Stat. Theb.; Ps.-Lactantius Placidus, Narrationes fabularum Ovidianarum; additionally i.a. Remigius of Auxerre). MV II (anon., no…

Orgia

(252 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (ὄργια/ órgia, nom. plur.; Latin sacra). Etymologically órgia, like orgeṓn (O rgeones ), probably derives from the root *εργ [2] and is thus related to ἔρδω/ érdō - ῥέζω/ rhézō ('I do', 'I sacrifice'; cf. H. Hom. ad Cererem 273f.). A connection with the Mycenaean adjective wo-ro-ki-jo-ne-jo cannot be ruled out [1]. The word ó rgia can mean 'ritual conduct' or 'cult actions', including sacrifices (Syll.3 57,4; Aesch. Sept. 180; Soph. Ant. 1013, Soph. Trach. 765), but may also denote - often clarified by ἄρρητος/ árrhētos ('unspeakable') - '(secret) rites' in the m…

Galinthias

(263 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Γαλινθιάς; Galinthiás). According to Nicander (Heteroiumena 4 = Antoninus Liberalis 29) G. (Galanthis in Ov. Met. 9,285-323 [5. 469f.];  Historis in Paus. 9,11,3; Akalanthis in Lib. narrationes 8, s. [1]), daughter of Proetus, helped  Alcmene when the Moirai and Eilithyia, on Hera's behalf (cf. Hom. Il. 19,119), delayed the birth of  Hercules by folding their hands. With her false report of his birth, G. alarmed them so much that they broke the magical spell and Hercules was born.…

Hermaphroditus

(475 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ἑρμαφρόδιτος; Hermaphróditos). Androgynous figure which, like that of Priapus (cf. Diod. Sic. 4,6; [6. 76-79]), did not appear before the 4th cent. BC. Though androgynous gods of the Orient like  Astarte, ‘dual-sexuality’ gods like Aphrodite-Aphroditus on Cyprus, joint cults of Hermes and Aphrodite (see below) have rites involving changing gender roles and the exchange of clothing, as well as a background of myths of successive ( Caeneus,  Teiresias) and simultaneous (e.g. Pl. Symp. 189d-192d) bisexuality, its origin remain somewhat unclear [6. 69]. The na…
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