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Canytelis

(116 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Kanytella?). Large village (κώμη) within the chora of  Elaiussa (epigraphically only evident as Κανυτηλλέων or Κανυτηλιδέων δήμος; Kanytēléōn/ Kanytēlidéōn dḗmos [1. 49]), which, centred around a c. 60 m deep karst dolina on a hillside above the Cilician coast, was already in existence at the time of the Hellenistic priest-rulers of  Olba; a three-storey dynastic dwelling-tower dates from that period. From the late Hellenistic to early Byzantine periods, there are numerous residential buildings; at the s…

Sisium

(66 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Σίσιον/ Sísion, Σίσσιον/ Síssion). Town in Cilicia Pedias, modern Kozan. A 7th-cent. BC king of Kundi (Kyinda) and Sizu is documented here [1. 57 f.71]. S. was a border fortress of the Byzantines and the Arabs in the 8th-10th centuries, capital of the kingdom of Little Armenia (until 1375), an Armenian archbishopric. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography 1 A. Erzen, Kilikien bis zum E. der Perserherrschaft, 1940 2 Hild/Hellenkemper, s. v. S.

Zephyrium

(770 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Et al.
(Ζεφύριον/ Zephýrion). Name used especially in the eastern Mediterranean region for foothills and the cities near them that are exposed to the west wind (Zephyrus). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Cape on the north eastern coast of Crete Cape on the north-eastern coast of Crete (Ptol. 3,17,5), probably modern Cape Agios Ioannis at the north-eastern end of the Gulf of Mirabello. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Cape on the south western coast of Cyprus (or Ζεφυρία/ Zephyría). Cape on the south-western coast of Cyprus. According to Ptol. 5…

Pinarus

(69 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Πίναρος/ Pínaros), modern Deli Çayı. A river, dry in summer, rising in the Amanus mountains and flowing into the Issikos Kolpos (Bay of İskenderun) to the south of Issus. On its banks Alexander [4] the Great gained a victory over Darius [3] in 333 BC (Pol. 12,17,4f.; Arr. Anab. 2,10,1; 5; Str. 14,5,19). Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography A. Janke, Auf Alexanders des Großen Pfaden, 1904, 55-74  Hild/Hellenkemper, 380.

Cotenna

(88 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Κότεννα; Kótenna). City in eastern Pamphylia. The name C. is possibly related to the Katenneis tribe that inhabited the mountainous region above Side and Aspendus [1]. In sympolity with Erymna, its western neighbour [2]; bishopric of Pamphylia I (with metropolis in Side) [3; 4. 242]. Modern Gökbel (formerly Menteşbey, Gödene). Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography 1 Zgusta, 240f., 294 2 M. Zimmermann, Untersuchungen zur histor. Landeskunde Zentrallykiens (Antiquitas 1/42), 1992, 137 3 J. Darrouzès, Notitiae episcopatuum Ecclesiae Constantinopol…

Nagidus

(109 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Νάγιδος; Nágidos). Samian colony (Mela 1,77) [1. 117f.], 18 km east-north-east of Anemurium on the coast of Cilicia Tracheia, modern Bozyazı; with 5th- or 4th-cent. BC city wall and a harbour protected by the island of Nagidusa lying opposite to the south. In the Roman period, N. seems to have lost its status as polis to its eastern neighbour Arsinoe [III 3], and by the Middle Ages it was known only as a ruin. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography 1 E. Blumenthal, Die altgriechische Siedlungskolonisation im…

Corycus

(149 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Zenobia (Κώρυκος/ Kṓrykos). Port in Cilicia Tracheia, which, in rivalry with the neighbouring Elaeussa, declined to a village ( kṓmē) at the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD, but then became a bishopric (suffragan to Tarsus in Cilicia I) and, according to the evidence of numerous inscriptions and impressive buildings (more than 10 basilicae), a commercial and industrial metropolis of supra-regional significance. The last Christian port on the southern coast of Asia …

Soli

(466 words)

Author(s): Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Σόλοι; Sóloi). [German version] [1] City on the northern coast of Cyprus This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Kypros | Diadochi and Epigoni | Education / Culture City on the northern coast of Cyprus at modern Karavostasi with a harbour which was also usable in winter (Scyl. 103; Str. 14,6,3). According to Plut. Solon 26,2 named after Solon [1], who advised the king Philocyprus of Aepeia to relocate his unfavourably situated city to the plain. But according to Str. loc. cit. S. was founded by Phalerus and Ac…

Apadnas

(125 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Ἀπάδνας; Apádnas). Town with monastery in  Isauria; according to Procop. Aed. 5,9,33 refurbished by Emperor Justinian I. Probably the assemblage of structures above a   mansio on the Roman road through the  Taurus to Lycaonia; nowadays called Alahan Manastır. An early Christian anchorite settlement was developed in the 5th cent. AD into a place of pilgrimage, with a ἀπαντητήρια ( apantētḗria; hostel) attested by inscriptions; two monumental churches were linked by a c. 130 m long   porticus . Also used as a monastery, abandoned in the middle of the Byzantine period. Hil…

Lamus

(231 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
(Λάμος/ Lámos). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon, king of the Laestrygones Son of Poseidon, old king of the Laestrygones and constructor of their stronghold at Telepylus (Hom. Od. 10,81ff.; Ov. Met. 14,233). On account of the identity of Telepylus and Formiae, Hor. Carm. 3,17 imagines his friend Aelius Lamia from Formiae to be L.'s offspring. Walde, Christine (Basle) [German version] [2] Eponym of the Thessalian town Lamia (also Lamius). Son of Hercules and Omphale, eponym of the Thessalian town Lamia (Diod. Sic. 4,31). He persecutes his half-brother Bargasu…

Hagia Thekla

(180 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Ἁγία Θέκλα; Hagía Thékla), modern Ayatekla, Meryemlik. Important place of pilgrimage extended in the manner of a city with a wall, cisterns, an aqueduct and several huge churches (monasteries) south of Seleucia on the Calycadnus in western Cilicia with a cult tradition involving older sanctuaries of Apollo Sarpedonius, Athene, and Artemis (as πότνια θηρῶν, ‘Mistress of beasts’). Aside from the apocryphal Acts ( Pauli) et Theclae, the vita and miracula of St Thecla are preserved from the middle of the 4th cent. [1]. Gregory of Nazianzus stayed here…

Sarpedon

(481 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Σαρπηδών/ Sarpēdṓn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. In the Trojan War, S. and his cousin Glaucus [4] command the Lycians (Lycii), the strongest and remotest allies of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,876-877; the name S. is also of Lycian origin [1]). Zeus' son S. wins a duel with Zeus' grandson Tlepolemus (ibid. 5,628-662) and plays a decisive part in storming the defensive wall around the Greek camp (ibid. 12,290-471). Here his rousing speech to Glaucus (ibid. …

Eirenoupolis

(73 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Εἰρηνούπολις; Eirēnoúpolis). Today Çatalbadem (formerly İrnebol) in Cilicia Tracheia (in the region of Lacanitis, Ptol. 5,7,6). Founded by Antiochus IV of Commagene. From AD 355 to 359, the city was surrounded by a wall. From the early 4th cent., it belonged to the province of Isauria; diocese (suffragan of Seleucea on the Calycadnus). Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography G. Bean, T. B. Mitford, Journeys in Rough Cilicia 1964-1968, 1970, 205ff. Hild/Hellenkemper, s.v. E. 1).

Cydnus

(123 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Κύδνος; Kýdnos). Aside from Pyramus and Sarus, the third large river of the Kilikia Pedias. In front of its estuary it formed the so-called Ῥῆγμα ( Rhêgma, ‘chasm’), a lagoon that served as the harbour of  Tarsus and originally flowed through Tarsus, before it was diverted, after a flood, by Justinian I eastward around the town (Procop. Aed. 5,5,17). After bathing in its cold waters (impressive waterfalls north of Tarsus) Alexander the Great fell gravely ill (Arr. Anab. 2,4,7). In the Middle Ages C. was c…

Arsinoe

(1,871 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀρσινόη; Arsinóē). I. Myth [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Leukippos Daughter of Leucippus, sister of the Leucippids, who were abducted by the Dioscuri, she was the mother by Apollo of the Messenian Asclepius (Hes. fr. 50; Apollod. 3,117f.; Paus. 2,26,7; 4,3,2). In Sparta A. had a shrine (Paus. 3,12,8); on the agora of Messene there was an A. spring (Paus. 4,31,6), in the Messenian Asclepieum there was, amongst other things, a painting of A. (Paus. 4,31,11f.). The relationship of the Messenian to the …

Tarsus

(522 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Byzantium | Christianity | Xenophon | Zenobia | | Alexander | Commerce | Ḫattusa | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Rome | Rome | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Ταρσός/ Tarsós, Ταρσοί/ Tarsoí, Latin Tarsus). City with river port in the west of Cilicia Pedias on the lower Cydnus, modern Tarsus in Turkey. T. was located on the route from Antiochia [1] through the Cilician Gates [1] to the western coast of Asia Minor, to Co…

Olba

(150 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Hellenistic states | Pompeius (Ὄλβα/ Ólba = Ὑρία/ Yría in Steph. Byz.?). Town in Cilicia Tracheia, 24 km north-northeast of Seleucia on the Calycadnus, modern Ura. In the 6th cent. BC, it was the capital of Pirindu (Meydancıkkale) until the the province of Cilicia was established in AD 72. O. was the centre of a temple state that stretched as far as the coast. The settlement around the temple of Zeus Olbios, situated 4 km to the west in Uzunca…

Diocaesarea

(118 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Διοκαισάρεια; Diokaisáreia). [German version] [1] Temple settlement Temple settlement around the Zeus sanctuary of Olba in Cilicia Tracheia, which became an independent town under Tiberius and later a diocese (suffragan of Seleucia on the Calycadnus). Archaeological finds: generous extension of the settlement with city walls, colonnade street, aqueduct, theatre, temple of Tyche; during the early Byzantine period the temple of Zeus was converted into a three-aisled colonnaded basilica. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography Hild/Hellenkemper, s.v. D. [German version] [2] …

Mandane

(155 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Μανδάνη; Mandánē). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Medean king Astyages According to Hdt. 1,107, Xen. Cyr. 1,2,1 and Iust. 1,4,4, daughter of the Medean king Astyages, wife of the Persian Cambyses [1] and mother of Cyrus [2]. It seems that the dynastic link thus transmitted was meant to lend retrospective legitimation to the claims of Cyrus to the Medean (and, if M.'s mother was the Lydian princess Aryenis (Hdt. 1,74), also the Lydian) throne. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Darius [1] I and sister of Xerxes I According to the court story surviving in …

Corasium

(62 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Κοράσιον; Korásion). Harbour in the Cilicia Trachea. Together with  Korykos [2], to which it was connected through korasiodrómos (messenger service), C. reached great prosperity in late antiquity without becoming a polis or a diocese; today's Susanoğlu. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography H. Hellenkemper, F. Hild, Neue Forschungen zu Kilikien (Denkschriften der Österreichischen Akad. der Wissenschaften: Philosoph.-Hist. Klasse 186) 1986, 311f.
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