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(36,781 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J. | Makdisi, G. | Rahman, Munibur | Hillenbrand, R.
, in modern usage, the name of an institution of learning where the Islamic sciences are taught, i.e. a college for higher studies, as opposed to an elementary school of traditional type ( kuttāb ); in mediaeval usage, essentially a college of law in which the other Islamic sciences, including literary and philosophical ones, were ancillary subjects only. I. The institution in the Arabic, Persian and Turkish lands 1. Children’s schools. The subject of Islamic education in general is treated under tarbiya. Here it should merely be noted that the earliest, informal institution…


(1,957 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J. | Hillenbrand, R.
(a.), the noun of place from ṣallā “to perform the Muslim worship, ṣalāt [ q.v.]”, hence the place where the ṣalāt is performed on certain occasions. 1. Historical and legal aspects. ¶ When Muḥammad had fixed his abode in Medina, he performed the ordinary ṣalāts in his dār , which was also his masd̲j̲id (not in the sense of temple). The extraordinary ṣalāts, however, were performed on a place situated southwest of the city in the territory of the Banū Salima, outside the wall, northeast of the bridge on the wādī , where at present the street from the suburb of al…


(46,928 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Hillenbrand, R. | Rogers, J.M. | Blois, F.C. de | Darley-Doran, R.E.
, a Turkish dynasty of mediaeval Islam which, at the peak of its power during the 5th-6th/11th-12th centuries, ruled over, either directly or through vassal princes, a wide area of Western Asia from Transoxania, Farg̲h̲āna, the Semirečye and K̲h̲wārazm in the east to Anatolia, Syria and the Ḥid̲j̲āz in the west. From the core of what became the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire, subordinate lines of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ family maintained themselves in regions like Kirmān (till towards the end of the 6th/12th century), Syria (till the opening years of…


(6,427 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S. | Hillenbrand, R.
, a town and district north-west of Tehran and south of Gīlān. The town is situated in 36° 15 N. and 50° E., at a height of 4,165 ft. above sea level, about 90 miles from Tehran, on the edge of a wide alluvial plain with mountains about five miles to the north. It stands on the site of an ancient city built by S̲h̲āpūr II, which according to tradition was in turn on the site of a city built by S̲h̲āpūr b. Ardas̲h̲īr (Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, Taʾrīk̲h̲-i guzīda , ed. E. G. Browne and R. A. Nicholson, 1910-13, 830, French tr. Barbier de Meynard, Description historique de la ville de Kazvin , in JA (1857)). Its po…

Manāra, Manār

(11,039 words)

Author(s): Hillenbrand, R. | Burton-Page, J. | Freeman-Greenville, G.S.P.
(a.) minaret. 1. In the Islamic lands between the Mag̲h̲rib and Afg̲h̲anistan. Unlike the other types of Islamic religious building, such as the mosque and the madrasa , the minaret is immediately and unambiguously recognisable for what it is. The reasons for this are worth investigating. It seems on the whole unrelated to its function of the ad̲h̲ān [ q.v.] calling the faithful to prayer, which can be made quite adequately from the roof of the mosque or even from a house-top. During the lifetime of the Prophet, his Abyssinian slave Bilāl [ q.v.], was responsible for making the call to …


(77,513 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J. | Hillenbrand, R. | Burton-Page, J. | Andrews, P.A. | Pijper, G.F. | Et al.
(a.), mosque, the noun of place from sad̲j̲ada “to prostrate oneself, hence “place where one prostrates oneself [in worship]”. The modern Western European words (Eng. mosque , Fr. mosquée , Ger. Moschee , Ital. moschea ) come ultimately from the Arabic via Spanish mezquita . I. In the central Islamic lands A. The origins of the mosque up to the Prophet’s death. The word msgdʾ is found in Aramaic as early as the Jewish Elephantine Papyri (5th century B.C.), and appears likewise in Nabataean inscriptions with the meaning “place of worship…