Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Holt, P.M." ) OR dc_contributor:( "Holt, P.M." )' returned 57 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first


(526 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, a neo-Mamlūk household and faction in Ottoman Egypt in the 11th/17th and 12th/18th centuries. The eponym, Ḳāsim Bey the Defterdār, is an obscure figure, who apparently flourished in the early 11th/17th century, although an origin-legend given by al-D̲j̲abartī places him in the reign of Sultan Selīm I .The household, in which there appears to have been originally a Bosniak element, emerged as an effective force in politics about the middle of the 11th/17th century, its power ¶ resting on accumulated wealth and an alliance with the older indigenous faction of Ḥarām, just…


(725 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
( Lāčīn ), al-Malik al-Manṣūr Ḥusām al-Dīn , alias S̲h̲uḳayr or al-As̲h̲ḳar , Turkish Mamlūk sultan. Originally a mamlūk of al-Malik al-Manṣūr ʿAlī b. Aybak, Lād̲j̲īn was purchased after his master’s deposition in 658/1259 by the future sultan Ḳalāwūn [ q.v.], on whose accession he was raised to the amirate, and sent to Damascus as governor of the citadel (D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 678/April 1280). His appointment alarmed the provincial governor, Sunḳur al-As̲h̲ḳar, who proclaimed himself sultan. The revolt was suppressed by an expeditiona…

Baḥr al-G̲h̲azāl

(1,201 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(1) A tributary of the Baḥr al-Ḏj̲abal (upper White Nile) forming an outlet-channel for an extensive swampy area. The swamps are fed by numerous rivers (e.g. Tond̲j̲, Ḏj̲ūr) originating in the Nile-Congo divide, and by the Baḥr al-ʿArab which forms the southern limit of Baḳḳāra [ q.v.] nomadism. The Baḥr al-G̲h̲azāl channel extends 144 miles from Mas̲h̲raʿ al-Rīk (the name is variously spelt and derived) to its confluence with the Baḥr al-D̲j̲abal at Lake No, which it enters from the west at lat. 9° 29′ N. (2) The region formed by the basin of the streams which ultimately supply …

Abu ’l-D̲h̲ahab

(471 words)

Author(s): Holt, P. M.
, kunya of muḥammad bey , a grandee of Ottoman Egypt. Acquired as a mamlūk by Bulūṭ ḳapān ʿAlī Bey [ q.v.] (the date, 1175, given in D̲j̲abartī, ʿAd̲j̲āʾib , i, 417, is obviously incorrect), he became the chief officer in his master’s household as k̲h̲āzindār in 1174/1760. When in 1178/1764-5 he was raised to the beylicate, he obtained his kunya by distributing a largesse of gold. In 1184/1770 he commanded the expeditionary force sent by ʿAlī Bey to install a Hās̲h̲imite protégé in Mecca. As commander of the force sent by ʿAlī Bey in 1185/1771 to co-oper…

D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳāriyya

(627 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, (alternatively Faḳāriyya , Zulfaḳāriyya ); a Mamlūk household and political faction in Egypt during the 17th and 18th centuries. (1) Origin and first ascendancy. The eponymous founder of the household, D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār Bey, is a shadowy figure, who seems to have flourished in the first third of the 17th century, but is not mentioned by contemporary chroniclers. The account (in Ḏj̲abartī, ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-Āt̲h̲ār , i, 21-3) which makes D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār and the rival eponym, Ḳāsim, contemporaries of sultan Selīm I is legendary. The political importance of the Faḳāriyya began with the amīr al-…

K̲h̲āʾir Beg

(581 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(K̲h̲āyir or K̲h̲ayr Bey), the last Mamlūk governor of Aleppo, subsequently first Ottoman viceroy of Egypt. He was the son of Malbāy b. ʿAbd Allāh al-D̲j̲arkasī ( sic), a Muslim Abaza trader in Circassian mamlūk s. He was born at Samsun (on the Black Sea coast within the Ottoman Empire), and his father presented him, although not a slave, with his four brothers to the Mamlūk Sultan al-As̲h̲raf Ḳāʾit Bāy [ q.v.]. He was enrolled in the Royal Mamlūks, and was formally “emancipated” by the grant of a steed and uniform. He became an amīr of Ten in 901/1495-6, and subsequently an amīr ṭablk̲h̲āna


(1,465 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, the third of the great neo-Mamlūk households of Ottoman Egypt. The Ḳāzdug̲h̲liyya differed from the D̲h̲u’l-Faḳāriyya and the Ḳāsimiyya [ qq.v.] in that it was founded and maintained in its first decades by officers of the Seven Corps of the Ottoman garrison, not by beys. Its eponym, Muṣṭafā al-Ḳāzdug̲h̲lī, is described by D̲j̲abartī as being Rūmī by origin, i.e., he was Rūm ūs̲h̲āg̲h̲i̊ , hence free-born and not a mamlūk (cf. Stanford J. Shaw (ed.), Ottoman Egypt in the eighteenth century: The Niẓâmnâme-i Mıṣır of Cezzâr Aḥmed Pasha , Cambridge, Mass. 1962; …


(617 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(commonly bazinger , bazingir , basinger , besinger ), slave-troops, equipped with firearms; a term current in the (Egyptian) Sudan during the late Khedivial and Mahdist periods. Etymology: The derivation is obscure. Sir Reginald Wingate’s assertion ( Mahdiism and the Egyptian Sudan , London 1891; 28, n. 1) that it was the name of a tribe may be rejected: it does not appear to come from any southern Sudanese language. Professor E. E. Evans-Pritchard’s statement (“A history of the kingdom of Gbudwe”, Zaire , Oct. 1956, no. 8; 488, n. 36) that it derives from a Nubian (?Dunḳulāwī) word, bezingr…

al-Muʾayyad S̲h̲ayk̲h̲

(754 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
( al-Malik ), Circassian Mamlūk sultan. He was brought to Egypt by the k̲h̲wād̲j̲ā Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh (732/1380-1), and bought by al-Ẓahir Barḳūḳ [ q.v.] whence his nisbas of al-Maḥmūdī al-Ẓāhirī. He was then about 12 or possibly (following Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī) some 10 years older, and was in due course emancipated and promoted in the sultan’s entourage. In 802/1400 he was appointed governor of ¶ Tripoli by al-Nāṣir Farad̲j̲ [ q.v.], and spent the next 12 years in Syria, holding various appointments. He was deeply involved in the factional politics in which the Ẓāhiriyy…


(340 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
( Khartum , Khartoum ), a city at the confluence of the Blue and White Niles, now the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. The name is said to be derived from the resemblance of the site to an elephant’s trunk. At the time of the Turco-Egyptian invasion (1821), Khartum was a small village, the residence of a holy man. It was chosen as the military and administrative headquarters of the conquered territories by the governor, ʿUt̲h̲mān Bey D̲j̲arkas, in 1824. With the…


(8,817 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, the Mamlūk sultanate, i.e. the régime established and maintained by (emancipated) mamlūks [see preceding article] in Egypt from 648/1250 to 922/1517, and in Syria from 658/1260 to 922/1516; and with the role of their successors, the neo-Mamlūks, in Ottoman Egypt. It surveys (i) political history, and (ii) institutional history. On military history, see the relevant sections by D. Ayalon of the articles baḥriyya (i.e. navy), bārūd , ḥarb , ḥiṣār ; on the bureaucracy, see dīwān , ii. Egypt (H. L. Gottschalk). (i) Political History (a) Origins of the Mamlūk sultanate The Mamlūk sultanat…


(913 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, the name of two Mamlūk sultans. 1. al-Malik al-Kāmil , (son of al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Ḳalāwūn [ q.v.]), who succeeded his full brother, al-Ṣāliḥ Ismāʿīl, on the latter’s death on 4 Rabīʿ II 746/4 August 1345. His accession was brought about by a faction headed by his stepfather, Arg̲h̲ūn al-ʿAlāʾī, who had been in effect regent for Ismāʿīl. A rival faction led by the vicegerent of Egypt, Almalik, supporting his half-brother Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī, rapidly lost power, and Arg̲h̲ūn became the dominant magnate throughout the reign. His sound pol…

Dār Fūr

(4,079 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, “the land of the Fūr”, a province of the Republic of the Sudan, formerly a Muslim sultanate. Geography and inhabitants. Dār Fūr was one of the chain of Muslim states composing bilād al-Sūdān . Its eastern neighbour was Kordofān, from which it was separated by a tract of sand-hills. To the west lay Waddāī. The Libyan desert formed a natural boundary on the north, while the marshes of the Baḥr al-G̲h̲azāl [ q.v.] marked the southern limits. Dār Fūr comprises three main zones: a northern zone, the steppe fringe of the Sahara, providing grazing for camel-owning tribes …


(976 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(1) A group of tribes in the Republic of the Sudan. The principal tribes of this group, mainly sedentary in their way of life, inhabit the banks of the main Nile from the Dongola [ q.v.] region southwards to the Fifth (Sabalūka) Cataract. Other tribes and clans in Kurdufān (Kordofan) and elsewhere attach themselves to this group. The link among the tribes of the D̲j̲aʿaliyyūn is traditionally expressed in genealogical form: their eponymous founder (rather than ancestor) is said to have been a certain Ibrāhīm known as D̲j̲aʿal ( i.e., “he made”, because he made himself a following fr…

Ṭūmān Bāy

(573 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(al-Malik al-As̲h̲raf Abu ’l-Naṣr min Ḳānṣawh al-Nāṣirī), the last Mamlūk sultan of Egypt, r. 922-3/1516-17. Born ca. 878/1474-5, he was purchased as a mamlūk by his paternal uncle Ḳānṣawh al-G̲h̲awrī [ q.v.], and presented to the reigning sultan, Ḳāʾit Bay [ q.v.], by whose son and successor, al-Nāṣir Muḥammad [ q.v.] he was manumitted. During Ḳānṣawh al-G̲h̲awrī’s sultanate his career prospered. Appointed dawādār kabīr in 913/1507, he became in effect the sultan’s chief minister, acquiring also the great offices of high steward ( ustādār al-ʿāliya ) and kās̲h̲if al-kus̲h̲s̲h̲āf .

Emīn Pas̲h̲a

(891 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(Eduard Carl Oscar Theodor Schnitzer) was born on 28 March 1840 at Oppeln in Prussian Silesia. He graduated in medicine at Berlin in 1864. He entered the Ottoman service as a medical officer in Albania in 1865, and assumed the name of Ḵh̲ayr Allāh; later, in the Sudan, he became known as Meḥmed Emīn (Muḥammad Amīn, not al-A.). He went to Egypt in October 1875, whence he proceeded to khartoum, and (in May 1876) to Lado, the capital of the Equatorial Provinces, where he was appointed medical offic…

Ibrāhīm Bey

(807 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
al-Kabīr al-Muḥammadī (i.e., the mamlūk of Muḥammad Bey Abu ’l-D̲h̲ahab) was raised to the beylicate in 1182/1768-9, and held the appointments of amīr al-ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ in 1186/1772-3 and daftardār in 1187/1773-4. When Abu ’l-D̲h̲ahab went on campaign against S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Ẓāhir al-ʿUmar (Muḥarram 1189/March 1775), he left Ibrāhīm as his deputy in command of Cairo. On his death, the ascendancy in Egypt passed to his retainers (the Muḥammadiyya) headed by Ibrāhīm and Murād Bey, the former becoming s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-balad . The characters of the two men were str…


(491 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(II) bi’llāh , Abu ’l-Faḍl al-ʿAbbās, tenth ʿAbbāsid “shadow’’ caliph in Egypt, son of al-Mutawakkil (I) Muḥammad by a Turkish concubine, Bay K̲h̲ātūn. He succeeded his father on 1 S̲h̲aʿbān 808/22 January 1406. Accompanying the sultan al-Nāṣir Farad̲j̲ [ q.v.] on his expedition against the rebel amīr s, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Maḥmūdī (governor of Aleppo) and Nawrūz al-Ḥāfiẓī (governor of Tripoli), he fell into their hands when the sultan was defeated at al-Lad̲j̲d̲j̲ūn on 13 Muḥarram 815/25 April 1412. There was virtual anarchy…


(1,327 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(usual Ar. form, Bud̲j̲a), nomadic tribes, living between the Nile and Red Sea, from the Ḳina-Ḳuṣayr route to the angle formed by the ʿAṭbarā and the hills of the Eritrean-Sudanese frontier. The principal modern tribes are the ʿAbābda [ q.v.], Bis̲h̲ārīn [ q.v.], Ummarār, Hadanduwa and Banī ʿĀmir. The ʿAbābda now speak Arabic; the others (except the Tigre-speaking sections of B. ʿĀmir) speak tu-Beḍawiye, a Hamitic language. The Bed̲j̲a subsist mainly on their herds of camels, cattle, sheep and goats. Since grazing is sparse, they move u…


(748 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(Barbar):(1) Tribal territory. The name originally signified the territory of the Mīrafāb (Mayrafāb), an Arabic-speaking tribe claiming kinship with the Ḏj̲aʿliyīn. It extended on both banks of the Nile from the Fifth Cataract (lat. 18° 23′ N.) to the river ʿAṭbarā. The Mīrafāb included both riverain cultivators and semi-nomads. The ruler ( makk ) was a vassal of the Fund̲j̲ sultan of Sinnār. On the death of a makk, the sultan nominated his successor from the ruling family of Timsāḥ. He also levied, at intervals of four or five years, a tribute of gold, horses a…
▲   Back to top   ▲