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(420 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
6. Early Arabic Presses in The Netherlands and England The principal centre of Arabic printing in Protestant Europe was originally Leiden, where the scholar-printer Franciscus Raphelengius cut an Arabic fount and printed specimens in his Specimen characterum Arabicorum officinae Plantinianae Raphelengii (1595). The characters were modelled on the Medicean fount but were of inferior elegance. After being used for the posthumous ¶ printing of his Arabic-Latin lexicon (1613) and other works, the Raphelengian equipment was bought by the pioneer English Arabis…

Muḥammad Abu ’l-D̲h̲ahab

(557 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, a Mamlūk bey of the Ḳāzdug̲h̲liyya [ q.v.] group. ¶ He had entered the household of Buluṭ Ḳāpān ʿAlī Bey al-Kabīr [ q.v.] by 1174/1760-1, and quickly became his treasurer ( k̲h̲āzindār ). In 1178/1764-5, after returning from Pilgrimage with his master (when he was emancipated), he was elevated to the beylicate, and obtained his nickname from scattering a largesse of gold coins on his appointment. His subsequent career falls into two periods: (1) Until 1185/1771 he was ʿAlī Bey’s principal lieutenant, and…

S̲h̲āfiʿ b. ʿAlī

(314 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
al-ʿAsḳalānī , Nāṣir al-Dīn, historian of Mamlūk Egypt (born D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 649/February-March 1252, died 24 S̲h̲aʿbān 730/12 June 1330). The son of a sister of the chancery clerk Ibn ʿAbd al-Ẓāhir [ q.v.], he served as clerk first Baraka K̲h̲ān b. Baybars, then Ḳalāwūn [ q.v.]. His official career ended when he was blinded by an arrow at the battle of Ḥimṣ (680/1281) [ q.v.], although he claimed to have ¶ played a significant part in the abrogation of the truce with the Latin kingdom (689/1290). He spent his long retirement as a littérateur and bibliophile. …


(836 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
( umm durmān ), a t own on the west bank of the Nile at the confluence of the Blue and White Niles (lat. 15°38′ N., long. 32°30′ E.), now linked with Khartoum ( al-k̲h̲urṭūm [ q.v.]) and Khartoum North as the principal conurbation of the Republic of the Sudan. The etymology of the name is unknown, although several fanciful explanations have been given. Omdurman is first mentioned as the village of a holy man, Ḥamad b. Muḥammad al-Mas̲h̲yak̲h̲ī, known as Wad (i.e. Walad) Umm Maryūm (1055-1142/1645-6 to 1729-30) (see Ibn Ḍayf Allāh, Kitāb al-Ṭabaḳāt , ed. Yūsuf Faḍl Ḥasan, 2Khartoum 1974, 174-82…


(4,558 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Holt, P.M. | Chalmeta, P. | Andrews, P.A. | Burton-Page, J.
(a.), lit. “an instrument or apparatus for providing shade, ẓill ,” apparently synonymous with the s̲h̲amsa , s̲h̲amsiyya , lit. “an instrument or apparatus for providing shelter from the sun”, probably therefore referring to the sunshade or parasol born on ceremonial occasions and processions [see mawākib ] over early Islamic rulers. 1. In the ʿAbbāsid and Fāṭimid caliphates. The historical sources provide a few references on practice in the ʿAbbāsid caliphate. Thus the official Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Malik al-Zayyāt [see ibn al-zayyāt ] was responsible in al-Muʿtaṣim’s time fo…


(420 words)

Author(s): Capot-Rey, R. | Holt, P.M.
( El Fasher ), the capital of Dār Fūr [ q.v.], formerly a sultanate, now a province of the Republic of the Sudan. The term fās̲h̲ir , meaning a royal residence, more precisely signified an open space, serving for public audience by a sultan, or as a market-place, and was also used in Sinnār under the Fund̲j̲ [ q.v.], and in Waddāī, where war a appears as a synonym (see J. L. Burckhardt, Travels in Nubia , London 1819, 486). The fās̲h̲ir of the Fūrāwī sultan was established in 1206/1791-2 at Wādī Tandaltī, on a sandy ridge, overlooking a seasonal lake. Around this royal resid…


(491 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(II) bi’llāh , Abu ’l-Faḍl al-ʿAbbās, tenth ʿAbbāsid “shadow’’ caliph in Egypt, son of al-Mutawakkil (I) Muḥammad by a Turkish concubine, Bay K̲h̲ātūn. He succeeded his father on 1 S̲h̲aʿbān 808/22 January 1406. Accompanying the sultan al-Nāṣir Farad̲j̲ [ q.v.] on his expedition against the rebel amīr s, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Maḥmūdī (governor of Aleppo) and Nawrūz al-Ḥāfiẓī (governor of Tripoli), he fell into their hands when the sultan was defeated at al-Lad̲j̲d̲j̲ūn on 13 Muḥarram 815/25 April 1412. There was virtual anarchy…


(1,327 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(usual Ar. form, Bud̲j̲a), nomadic tribes, living between the Nile and Red Sea, from the Ḳina-Ḳuṣayr route to the angle formed by the ʿAṭbarā and the hills of the Eritrean-Sudanese frontier. The principal modern tribes are the ʿAbābda [ q.v.], Bis̲h̲ārīn [ q.v.], Ummarār, Hadanduwa and Banī ʿĀmir. The ʿAbābda now speak Arabic; the others (except the Tigre-speaking sections of B. ʿĀmir) speak tu-Beḍawiye, a Hamitic language. The Bed̲j̲a subsist mainly on their herds of camels, cattle, sheep and goats. Since grazing is sparse, they move u…


(748 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(Barbar):(1) Tribal territory. The name originally signified the territory of the Mīrafāb (Mayrafāb), an Arabic-speaking tribe claiming kinship with the Ḏj̲aʿliyīn. It extended on both banks of the Nile from the Fifth Cataract (lat. 18° 23′ N.) to the river ʿAṭbarā. The Mīrafāb included both riverain cultivators and semi-nomads. The ruler ( makk ) was a vassal of the Fund̲j̲ sultan of Sinnār. On the death of a makk, the sultan nominated his successor from the ruling family of Timsāḥ. He also levied, at intervals of four or five years, a tribute of gold, horses a…


(480 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
Arabic-speaking nomads of the Sūdān, occupying territories from Lake Chad to the White Nile between 9° and 13° N. Their livelihood is the herding of cattle ( baḳar ), whence their name. The dry season is spent in the southern river-lands. With the rains, they move northwards to the seasonal grasslands. Grain sown on this journey is harvested on the return. Baḳḳāra origins are obscure; the genealogies reflect existing groupings rather than give evidence of descent. They are probably connected with the …

Ḳānṣawh al-G̲h̲awrī

(1,588 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(usually but incorrectly vocalized Ḳānṣūh al-G̲h̲ūrī), the penultimate Mamlūk sultan of Egypt, was of Circassian origin and a mamlūk of Sultan Ḳāʾitbāy. He was trained in the military school ( ṭabaḳa ) named al-G̲h̲awr. whence his nisba . He became governor ( kās̲h̲if ) of Upper Egypt (886/1481-2), was appointed an amīr of Ten (889/1484), and took part in operations against the Ottomans on the Syrian-Cilician frontier, during which time he was governor ( nāʾib ) of Ṭarsūs. In Rabīʿ II 894/March-April 1489 he was appointed grand chamberlain ( ḥād̲j̲ib al-ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲āb


(21,303 words)

Author(s): Miquel, A. | Brice, W.C. | Sourdel, D. | Aubin, J. | Holt, P.M. | Et al.
, a sovereign State, of the Muslim religion, for the most part Arabic-speaking, situated at the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent. i.—Geography The structure of ʿIrāḳ paradoxically derives its originality from the fact that it forms part of a large geographical block of territory. From the Arabo-Syrian desert tableland which it faces along its south-western flank, it takes its general aspect and its climate. All along its frontiers on the North-East, on the other hand, it shares the orientation and ¶ relief of the folded mountain-chains of western Asia, which give it its t…


(16,887 words)

Author(s): Winter, M. | Kably, M. | Farouk, Ahmed | de La Véronne, Chantal | Teule, H.G.B. | Et al.
II. 1. In the Arab world. (c) The period 1500 to 1800. i. The Ottoman occupation of the central Arab lands The Ottoman Empire, in a few decisive battles, destroyed the Mamlūk Sultanate (1250-1517 [see mamlūks ]), which included Egypt, Syria and parts of Anatolia (with the Ḥid̲j̲āz within its sphere of influence). Egypt, the centre of empires for centuries, and ¶ also Syria became tax-paying Ottoman provinces for the next three, nominally four, centuries. Later in the 16th century, the Yemen, ʿIrāḳ and North Africa (with the exception of Morocco) were also…


(398 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(Damietta), a town of Lower Egypt situated on the eastern arm of the Nile, near its mouth. Dimyāṭ, which was an important town before the Muslim conquest, was captured by a force under al-Miḳdād b. al-Aswad, sent by ʿAmr b. ¶ al-ʿĀṣ. As a Muslim town, it suffered repeated naval raids, at first from the Byzantines and subsequently from the Crusaders. After an attack in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 238/June 853, al-Mutawakkil ordered the construction of a fortress at Dimyāṭ as part of a general plan to fortify the Mediterr…

Kanz, Banu ’l

(297 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
( awlād al-kanz ), a clan descended from Rabīʿa tribesmen who migrated to the region of Aswān in the 3rd/9th century, intermarried with Bed̲j̲a [ q.v.], and ultimately gained control of the gold-mines of al-ʿAllāḳī [ q.v.]. The eponym of the clan, whose personal name was Abu ʾl-Makārim Hibat Allāh, received in 397/1007 from the Fāṭimid caliph al-Ḥākim [ q.v.] the honorific of Kanz al-Dawla for his services in capturing the rebel Abū Rakwa. The title continued to be borne by his successors. As marcher-chiefs of the frontier of Islam ¶ with the Bed̲j̲a and Nubians, the Banu ʾl-Kanz wer…


(46,751 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J. | Bosworth, C.E. | Becker, C.H. | Christides, V. | Kennedy, H. | Et al.
, Egypt A. The eponym of Egypt B. The early Islamic settlements developing out of the armed camps and the metropolises of the conquered provinces C. The land of Egypt: the name in early Islamic times 1. Miṣr as the capital of Egypt: the name in early Islamic times 2. The historical development of the capital of Egypt i. The first three centuries, [see al-fusṭāṭ ] ii. The Nile banks, the island of Rawḍa and the adjacent settlement of D̲j̲īza (Gīza) iii. The Fāṭimid city, Miṣr al-Ḳāhira, and the development of Cairo till the end of the 18t…


(514 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(Arabic, Dunḳula, Dunḳulā; obsolete forms, Dumḳula, Damḳala), the name of two towns in Nubia; more generally, the riverain territory dependent on these towns. All lie within the present Republic of the Sudan. The arabized Nubians of Dongola are called Danāḳla, a regional, not a tribal, designation. (1) Old Dongola (Dunḳula al-ʿad̲j̲ūz), on the right bank of the Nile, is on the site of a pre-Islamic town, the capital of the Christian kingdom of al-Maḳurra. It was besieged by an army under ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿd b. Abī Sarḥ [ q.v.] in 31/652, but the Muslims withdrew after concluding a convention ( b…


(830 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
6. In the Mamlūk Sultanate In the early Mamlūk sultanate, mawkib designates specifically the royal ride which formed an item in the sultan’s installation ceremonies. The term is explicitly used by Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī ( Nud̲j̲ūm , vii, 41) on the accession of al-Manṣūr ʿAlī b. Aybak: “He rode on Thursday, 2 Rabīʿ II [655/19 April 1257] with the insignia of the sultanate from the Citadel to Ḳubbat al-Naṣr in an awe-inspiring procession ( mawkib hāʾil ). Then he returned and entered Cairo by Bāb al-Naṣr. The amīr s dismounted and marched before him…. Then al-Manṣū…


(238 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, (Ḏj̲ird̲j̲ā; an obsolete form Dad̲j̲ird̲j̲ā is also found), a town and province of Upper Egypt. The name is said to be derived from a monastery of St. George (V. Denon, tr. A. Aikin, Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt , London 1803, ii, 25). The town originated in the late 8th/14th century ¶ as the tribal centre of Hawwāra [ q.v.], who dominated Upper Egypt for the following two centuries. About 983/1576, the power of this tribe was broken, and Girgā. became the seat of the governor of Upper Egypt, who was also kās̲h̲if of the Girgā district. The governors, who are variously referred to as ḥākim al-Ṣ…

Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a

(1,638 words)

Author(s): Kahle, P. | Holt, P.M.
, the eldest son of Muḥammad ʿAlī [ q.v.], general, and viceroy of Egypt. He is often described as Muḥammad ʿAlī’s “adopted” son. Amīna, a relative of his foster-father, the governor ( čorbad̲j̲i̊ ) of Kavalla in Macedonia, was certainly a divorced woman when Muḥammad ʿAlī married her in 1787, and it cannot be denied that Muḥammad ʿAlī had a certain preference for his son Ṭūsūn, who died on 28 September 1816; there was certainly also a rivalry between Ibrāhīm and Ṭūsūn. The year of his birth is decisive, h…
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