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(1,359 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
Origins: The Fund̲j̲ appear in the early 10th/16th century as a nomadic cattle-herding people, gradually extending their range down the Blue Nile from Lūl (or Lūlū), an unidentified district, to Sinnār. The foundation of Sinnār, subsequently the dynastic capital, is ascribed to ʿAmāra Dūnḳas in 910/1504-5. Hypotheses of remoter Fund̲j̲ origins among the Shilluk, in Abyssinia, or among the Bulala, are unsubstantiated, while the Sudanese tradition of their Umayyad descent is a typical device for the legitimation of a parvenu Muslim dynasty. Fund̲j̲ kings to the establishment of…

Darb al-Arbaʿīn

(367 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, one of the principal routes linking bilād al-Sūdān with the north, obtained its name from the forty days’ travelling-time required to traverse it. W. G. Browne, the only European to have gone the whole way (in 1793) took 58 days from Asyūṭ to “Sweini” (al-Suwayna) near the southern terminus. Muḥammad ʿUmar al-Tūnusī in 1803 covered the same distance in 60 days. Starting from Asyūṭ, the route ran to the K̲h̲ārd̲j̲a oasis, an outpost of Ottoman Egypt. Thence it proceded across the …


(279 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, although strictly signifying the Fulānī [ q.v.], is used in the Nilotic Sudan generally for Muslim immigrants from the western Bilād al-Sūdān , and in particular for those from northern Nigeria. The term has largely superseded the older Takārīr or Takārna (which had a similarly loose application), presumably after the Fulānī conquests under ʿUt̲h̲mān dan Fodio. The Takārīr/Fallāta immigrants are primarily pilgrims en route to Mecca: their first appearance in the Nilotic Sudan can hardly have been before the establishment of ¶ Muslim sultanates in Dār Fūr [ q.v.] and Waddāī during …


(638 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(II) bi’llāh , Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Aḥmad b. al-Ẓāhir Muḥammad, the first ʿAbbāsid “shadow” caliph in Cairo. When the Mongols captured Bag̲h̲dād (656/1258), he and a number of other ʿAbbāsids were released from confinement, and he took refuge among the Arab tribesmen of ʿIrāḳ. A group of Arabs brought him to Cairo, where he was given a ceremonious welcome by the sultan, al-Ẓāhir Baybars, on 9 Rad̲j̲ab 659/9 June 1261. Four days later, his genealogy was formally attested by the chief judge, who performed the bayʿa to him followed by the sultan, the dignitaries and …


(1,517 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(variant, Kasalā; conventional spelling, Kassala), a town and province in the east of the republic of the Sudan, extending from the frontier of Egypt to that of, Ethiopia. Geographically, the province contains five distinct types of country. (1) A rough triangle in the south, bounded by the railway, the river Rahad and the Ethiopian frontier, where al-Ḳallābāt (Gallabat) is the principal town, is a westward extension of the central clay plains of the Sudan. (2) North of This is the Buṭāna, a pla…


(19,029 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Jong, F. de | Holt, P.M.
(i) The history of the institution of the caliphate A study of the caliphate, its institution and subsequent developments, has never been attempted in its entirety until the present. The principal reason is that it has not seemed possible to conduct such a survey independently of historical studies relating to different reigns, which are still in most cases insufficient, or even non-existent, whereas studies of doctrine, while more advanced, have not been developed to the same extent with regard to the v…


(622 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(conventional spelling, Gerri), a site on the east bank of the main Nile in the Sudan, lying at the southern end of the Sabalūḳa gorge, about 44 miles north of the confluence of the Blue and White Niles. At the convergence of the route along the Nile and one across the Bayūḍa desert crossing the Nile at this point, Ḳerrī was a settlement of political importance from the 10th/16th to the 12th/18th century as the seat of the ʿAbdallābī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲s , who levied tribute on the nomads during their annual migration-cycle, and, as the principal vassals of the Fund̲j̲ [ q.v.] of Sinnār, were regarded …


(4,934 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Deverdun, G. | Holt, P.M.
, form generally used by Arabic authors for the name of the Turkish Og̲h̲uz people. The origin of the Og̲h̲uz, which for long was obscure because of the diversity of the transcriptions of the names of peoples in the Chinese, Arabic, Byzantine and other sources, seems to have been clarified by J. Hamilton, Toguz Oghuz et On-Uyghur , in JA, ccl/1 (1962), 23-64. At the beginning of the 7th century A.D. there was formed, among the eastern Turkish T’ie-lo tribes, a confederation of Nine Clans = Toḳuz Og̲h̲uz (a form known to the Arabic authors), who revolted…


(263 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, A nomadic Bed̲j̲a [ q.v.] tribe, now occupying two areas: (a) the ʿAtbāy, or western slopes of the Red Sea Hills, between approximately 23° and 19° N; (b) the banks of the ʿAṭbarā and adjoining lands between about 17° and 16° N. The tribe is divided into two main clans: (a) Umm ʿAlī, in the north-eastern ʿAtbāy; (b) Umm Nād̲j̲ī, in the south-western ʿAtbāy and on the ʿAṭbarā. Tribal genealogies indicate a connection with the Arab Awlād Kāhil (Kawāhla), who, in the 14th century, lived near ʿAyd̲h̲āb…


(473 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(for Barābira; sing. Barbarī): Nubianspeaking Muslims inhabiting the Nile Banks between the First and Third Cataracts. The tenu includes the Kunūz, Sukkūt and Maḥas. The name Barābra is not commonly used by these peoples of themselves, and is stated by Lane (i, 177, col. 3) to be a late and modern application of the term used by earlier writers for the Berbers of the Mag̲h̲rib. The Danāḳla [ q.v.], who live above the Third Cataract, are linguistically and physically allied to the Kunūz but do not regard themselves as Barābra. The territory now inhabited by the B…


(620 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, a geographical region of Egypt, which today, as usually in the past, forms an administrative province. The Fayyūm, which derives its name from the Coptic, Phiom (“the Sea”), is a roughly triangular depression, about 35 miles from north to south, and about 49 miles from east to west. It is in Middle Egypt, lying in the Libyan Desert, east of the Nile valley. The cliffs separating it from the river valley are breached at one point, thereby admitting a stream which branches off from the Nile near Asy…

Awlād al-Balad

(304 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
was the term used during the Sudanese Mahdiyya (1881-98) to designate persons originating from the northern riverain tribes, of which the Danāḳla group and Ḏj̲aʿliyyīn were the most important. Many awlād al-balad were domiciled, temporarily or permanently, away from their tribal centres by the main Nile. The Danāḳla were boatbuilders and sailors, especially on the White Nile, while both they and the Ḏj̲aʿliyyīn played an important rôle as merchants and slavetraders in Kurdufān, the Baḥr al-G̲h̲azāl and Dār Fūr. The Mahdī Muḥammad Aḥmad found much support among the awlād al-balad, pa…


(2,746 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, the regnal title of five Mamlūk sultans: 1. al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Ḳalāwūn, regn . 693/1293-4, 698-708/1299-1309, 709-41/1310-41. 2. al-Nāṣir Aḥmad b. al-Nāṣir Muḥammad, regn. 742-3/1342. 3. al-Nāṣir Ḥasan b. al-Nāṣir Muḥammad, regn. 748-52/1347-51, 755-62/1354-61. 4. al-Nāṣir Farad̲j̲ b. Barḳūḳ, regn. 801-8/1399-1405, 808-15/1405-12. See farad̲j̲ . 5. al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Ḳāʾitbāy, regn. 901-4/1496-8. 1. al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Ḳalāwūn (684-741/1285-1341). His mother, As̲h̲lūn K̲h̲ātūn, was the daughter of a Mongol notable, S̲h̲aktāy, who migrated from …


(873 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Abū Saʿīd Sayf al-Dīn al-Nāṣirī al-Muʾayyadī , Mamluk sultan of the Burd̲j̲īs (regn. 19 Ramaḍān 865-10 Rabīʿ I 872/22 June 1461 9 October 1467). By origin a Rūmī (i.e. perhaps a Greek, but the term had a wide range of meanings), he was born ca. 815/1413. Brought as a boy to Egypt by the slave-merchant K̲h̲wād̲j̲ā Nāṣir al-Dīn, he was purchased by the sultan al-Muʾayyad S̲h̲ayk̲h̲, whence his two nisba s. He rose through the grades of promotion of the Royal Mamlūks as k̲h̲āṣṣakī , sāḳī and amīr , finally succeeding al-Muʾayyad Aḥmad b. Īnāl as atābak al-ʿasākir


(5,885 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, a movement in the Egyptian Sudan, launched in 1881 by Muḥammad Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh (Muḥammad al-Mahdī) for the reform of Islam. It had from the outset a political and revolutionary character, being directed against the Turco-Egyptian régime ( al-Turkiyya ), which it overthrew, establishing a territorial state. Under the Mahdī’s successsor, the K̲h̲alīfa ʿAbd Allāh [see ʿabd Allāh b. Muḥammad al-Taʿāʾis̲h̲ī , and K̲h̲alīfa. iv], this developed essentially into a traditiona…


(215 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
Aḥmad , Egyptian historian of the 12th/18th century. Nothing is known of his life beyond the fact that he held the post of katk̲h̲udā of the ʿAzabān regiment in Cairo, …
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