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Tradition

(8,661 words)

Author(s): Baumann, Martin | Hezser, Catherine | Liss, Hanna | Schröter, Jens | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In general usage, tradition (from Lat. transdare/ tradere, “hand on, transmit”) connotes retention and safeguarding, understood as a conservative handing down of mores, customs, norms, rules, and knowledge. The emphasis is on continuity with the past. Jan Assmann interprets tradition as an exemplary case of “cultural memory,” an enduring cultural construction of identity. In religions appeal to tradition is a prominent element justifying interpretations, practices, clai…

Selfishness

(298 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] The term selfishness denotes the disastrous focus of finite persons on their own selves (Self), perverting their creaturely self-love through inversion of the proper relation between relationship to God, the world, and self. 1. When one’s relationship to God is subordinated to relationship to oneself or is replaced entirely, selfishness manifests itself as hubris, the desire to be like God (Gen 3:5), spiritual pride, and self-righteousness. Theologically, therefore, there has been a tendency to identify selfishness with sin per se (Augustine, Puritanism ¶ [Purit…

Ordo Salutis

(1,102 words)

Author(s): Marquardt, Manfred | Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics The focus of the problems addressed by the Protestant doctrine of ordo salutis is the relationship between the action of God’s grace ( gratia dei applicatrix) and the human experience of salvation. Based on the Reformers’ doctrine of justification but also going beyond it, it describes the working of the Holy Spirit or God’s grace in the life of the justified believer in all its unity and diversity. The beginnings of the doctrine are already visible in the Augsburg Confession of 1530 ( CA 6 and 12) and – in greater detail – in the…

Self

(2,419 words)

Author(s): Wesche, Tilo | Huxel, Kirsten | Herms, Eilert | Ziemer, Jürgen
[German Version] I. Philosophy The term self (ἑαυτοῦ/ heautoú; αὑτοῦ/ hautoú) appears as a noun (“the self”) but more often in compounds such as self-consciousness, self-relation, self-assertion, self-actualization, self-determination, self-assurance, and self-realization. Its basic meaning has to do with autonomy: self is something that can be by itself and stand by virtue of itself alone. Greek philosophy already emphasized this meaning: what something is of itself (καϑ᾿ αὑτά/ kath’ hautá; Arist. Metaph. 1017a 27) is what is independent of accidentals. What is self-moving (α…

Causality

(3,429 words)

Author(s): Schütt, Hans-Peter | Russell, Robert John | Steiger, Johann Anselm | Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Science – III. Dogmatics – IV. Ethics I. Philosophy Causality (from Lat. causa, “cause”), also causal nexus, causal relationship, is a term for the characteristic relationship between cause and effect. The things related are generally assumed to be pairs of events (event causality), though in some cases they may be an active thing and an event (agent causality); whether agent causality can be reduced to event causality is disputed. In either ca…

Imputation

(768 words)

Author(s): Maurer, Ernstpeter | Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics “Imputation” (Lat. imputare, Gk λογίζεσθαι/ logízesthai) specifies that the justification of the sinful person is through the effective judgment of God: God ascribes the righteousness of Christ to the sinner through faith. Human self-justification encounters the quite different righteousness of God which takes human sin upon itself and does away with it in Jesus Christ. This confrontation aims at a new relationship with God on the part of the individua…

Penitence

(1,671 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] Penitence, like the related terms contrition, repentance, regret, and remorse (cf. Ger. Reue), denotes a common human feeling in which a person feels painfully affected by the effects of his or her actions or attitudes, and is moved to wish these things had not happened and to attempt to revise them in future behavior or make good their effects. The concept of penitence presupposes the processual nature of personal being (Process), which in the case of finite persons has a temporal structure …

Soul

(8,968 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl | Seebass, Horst | Gödde, Susanne | Necker, Gerold | Rudolph, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. Phenomenology Western, Christian connotations of the concept of the soul, imposed on the religio-historical evidence by outside studies, must be generally excluded if the soul is understood as the principle of manifestations of life that are perceptible (or culturally considered to be perceptible), although they are rarely categorized under a common umbrella term. It is therefore reasonable to speak of a multiplicity of souls – for example four among the Ob-Ugrians (Hasenfratz, Einführung, 38–41), five among the Proto-Germanic peoples ( ib…

Compassion

(1,239 words)

Author(s): Deeg, Max | Huxel, Kirsten | Mürmel, Heinz
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Christianity – III. Buddhism I. Religious Studies The term compassion bears Christian connotations: compassion (cf. Lat. compassio; Gk συμπάϑεια/ sympátheia) refers to the capacity or ability to share concretely in the suffering of others, to sympathize and to draw consequences for one's own behavior. In this regard, the religions answer the question of the appropriate object for compassion – for example all people, only people of a certain group, …

Gambling Habit

(155 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] The gambling habit is a powerful inclination that places a person between desire and aversion in a tense state of agitation under intense pressure to engage in gaming (Play). The carefree ease of gaming is thus reduced to a meaningless waste of time or elevated to a compulsive addiction to a recklessness that jeopardizes life and property. Gaming becomes perverted into a symbol of personal bondage in which the player flees into an alternative world instead of attending to his or h…

Social Psychology

(1,678 words)

Author(s): Fraas, Hans-Jürgen | Huxel, Kirsten | Santer, Hellmut
[German Version] I. The Concept Social psychology studies the modes of social experience and behavior and the interaction processes both of individuals and between individuals and social systems (Community and the individual) of varying complexity (microsystems like partnerships, families [Family], groups; mesosystems like organizations and institutions; macrosystems like social, political and cultural entities), as well as the relationship of social systems to each other. The basic issues, which are…

Tact

(303 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] (Ger. Takt, Fr. tact, Lat. tactus, “sense of touch, feeling, influence”) denotes the practical judgment that enables the accurate application of rules in concrete cases by drawing on the totality of the determinants present in the mind as universal rules of common sense or experience, without being elevated to the level of conscious scientific clarity (I. Kant). In a moral sense, tact is sensitivity to what is right and proper given the distinctive character of a particular situation a…

Rationality

(2,088 words)

Author(s): Fricke, Christel | Petzoldt, Matthias | Huxel, Kirsten | Linde, Gesche
[German Version] I. Philosophy Rationality is derived from Latin ratio (“calculation, consideration, reason”) and medieval Latin rationalitas (“reason, capacity for thought”). The term denotes various intellectual capacities that distinguish human beings as “rational animals” from the other more highly developed animals. In German, from the 18th century, these capacities were generally designated as Verstand (Intellect: I) and Vernunft (Reason: I). Under the influence of the English term rationality, and the usage of various scientific disciplines, especially s…

Urteil

(1,957 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit | Huxel, Kirsten | Oser, Fritz | Greger, Reinhard
[English Version] I. Philosophisch U. (lat. iudicium, engl. judgement, franz. le jugement) ist die gedankliche Entscheidung (: I.), die den Prozeß der Meinungsbildung oder der Erkenntnis zum Abschluß bringt; es kann, muß aber nicht mit der Äußerung des entsprechenden Satzes einhergehen. Philos. gehört das U. zu den wichtigsten Problemen von Logik, Erkenntnistheorie, praktischer Philosophie und Ästhetik (Urteilskraft). Wie bereits bei Aristoteles (De interpretatione), der in der α᾿πο´ϕαn̆σις/apóphansis die Verbindung von Begriffen in der mit Anspruch auf Real…

Sinn

(2,404 words)

Author(s): Künne, Wolfgang | Sarot, Marcel | Huxel, Kirsten | Siemann, Jutta
[English Version] I. Philosophisch Die Rede vom S. einer sprachlichen Äußerung ist syst. mehrdeutig. Den verschiedenen Sinnbegriffen entsprechen verschiedene Stufen des Verstehens (Sinnerfassens). Die ersten drei gehören zum Themenfeld der Semantik: (1) Ist der geäußerte Satz P in der Sprache des Sprechers frei von lexikalischer und grammatischer Mehrdeutigkeit, so versteht der Interpret die Äußerung zumindest in einer Hinsicht, wenn er weiß, welchen sprachlichen (lexikalisch-grammatischen) S. der Satz P hat. (2) Ist P mehrdeutig, so versteht man die Äuße…

Selbst

(2,191 words)

Author(s): Wesche, Tilo | Huxel, Kirsten | Herms, Eilert | Ziemer, Jürgen
[English Version] I. Philosophisch Der Begriff S. (ε῾αυτου˜/heautoú; αυ῾του˜/hautoú) kommt als substantiviertes Adverb vor, häufiger aber als Kompositum in Begriffen wie Selbstbewußtsein, Selbstverhältnis, Selbstbehauptung, Selbstvollzug, Selbstbestimmung, Selbstvergewisserung, Selbstverwirklichung u.a. Seine Grundbedeutung ist die der Selbständigkeit: Das, was selbst sein kann und für sich selbst zu stehen vermag. Bereits der Sprachgebrauch der antiken Philosophie hebt diese Bedeutung hervor: Das, was etwas selbst ist (καϑ᾿ αυ῾τα´/kath' hautá; Arist.metap…

Zurechnungsfähigkeit

(238 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[English Version] (Imputabilität) bez. ethisch und rechtlich die bei einer mündigen Person im Normalfall vorauszusetzende Fähigkeit, im Kontext einer gegebenen Handlungssituation die Sittlichkeit bzw. Rechtmäßigkeit einer Handlung, d.h. eines freiwillentlichen Tuns oder Unterlassens, einzusehen und dieser Einsicht gemäß zu handeln sowie ggf. für die Handlungsfolgen rechenschaftspflichtig zu sein und haftbar gemacht werden zu können. Der Begriff entstammt der Imputationslehre (Zurechnung, Rechtfert…

Selbstgenügsamkeit

(373 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[English Version] Selbstgenügsamkeit, ethisch. S., von griech. αυ᾿τα´ρκεια/autárkeia (lat. sufficientia sui), bez. nach dem Ethos antiker Philos. die sittliche Grundhaltung, durch die der Mensch das Ziel seines Lebens, wahre Eudaimonie, zu erreichen sucht, indem er sein Glück in der Unabhängigkeit von äußeren Gütern und den Wechselfällen des Schicksals in der inneren Verfassung seiner Seele (: III.,3.) erstrebt, wobei S. in die Nähe der Tugend der Besonnenheit rückt (Demokrit). Xenophon zeichnet das Bi…

Sozialpsychologie

(1,515 words)

Author(s): Fraas, Hans-Jürgen | Huxel, Kirsten | Santer, Hellmut
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Die S. erforscht die Weisen des sozialen Erlebens bzw. Verhaltens und die Interaktionsprozesse (Interaktion) sowohl interindividuell als auch zw. Individuen und sozialen Systemen (Gemeinschaft und Individuum) unterschiedlicher Komplexität (Mikrosysteme wie Partnerschaften, Familien, Gruppen; Mesosysteme wie Organisationen, Institutionen; Makrosysteme wie gesellschaftliche, polit. oder kulturelle Einheiten) bzw. die Beziehung sozialer Systeme zueinander. Die Grundprob…

Shaftesbury

(674 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten | Lavalette, Michael
[English Version] 1.Anthony Ashley Cooper , (26.2.1671 London – 4.2.1713 Neapel), Third Earl of Sh., bedeutender Aufklärungsphilosoph, Moralist und Vorreiter der Ästhetik. Sein Großvater gleichen Namens, ein berühmter Politiker, betraute J. Locke mit der Erziehung Sh.s, der durch Elizabeth Birch eine sorgfältige Ausbildung in den klassischen Sprachen, antiker und moderner Lit. erhielt. Nach der Zeit am Winchester College (1683–1686), Reisen durch Europa (1686–1689) und Jahren privater Studien betäti…
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