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 Ziegenbalg and Muslims in Tamil India

(4,162 words)

Author(s): Jeyaraj, Daniel
Lutheran-Muslim dialogue in Tranquebar, South India Bartholomew Ziegenbalg Date: Early 18th century Original Language: German DescriptionZiegenbalg’s perceptions and portrayals of Islam are concentrated in the first two volumes of the nine-volume work known as the  Halle reports, which began with an initial letter from missionaries in India and continued with subsequent instalments. Each volume is divided into 12 such continuations. All references given here to Ziegenbalg’s dialogues with Muslims are to vol. 1 or vol…

Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg

(1,029 words)

Author(s): Jeyaraj, Daniel
Bartholomew Ziegenbalg Date of Birth: 10 July 1682 Place of Birth: Pulsnitz, Germany Date of Death: 23 February 1719 Place of Death: Tharangambadi, India BiographyBartholomäus Ziegenbalg was born near Dresden in Saxony in 1682. Both his parents died when he was still a young boy, but he remembered especially his mother for her piety. After completing his school education in Görlitz in 1702, he enrolled on a course of study to improve his knowledge of biblical and classical European languages at a high s…


(675 words)

Author(s): Jeyaraj, Daniel
[English Version] . Die Th. führen ihre Anfänge auf den Apostel Thomas (Didymus) zurück, der gemäß der Tradition in Edessa, Persien und Südindien Kirchen gründete und 79 n.Chr. in Mylapore bei Chennai (Südindien) als Märtyrer starb. Als Beleg gelten die Thomasakten, die mündliche Überlieferung sowie die alten Kirchen von Kodungalur, Niranam und Quilon in Kerala. Auch wenn eine Tätigkeit des Apostels in Indien als unhist. gelten muß, sind die frühen Anfänge des Christentums in Indien unstrittig. Um…


(276 words)

Author(s): Jeyaraj, Daniel
[English Version] Schwartz, Christian Friedrich (8.10.1726 Sonnenburg bei Kostrzyn – 13.2.1798 Tanjore, Indien), Mis…


(377 words)

Author(s): Jeyaraj, Daniel
[English Version] Tranquebar, Dorf an der Coromandel-Küste in Südindien, 1619/20–1845 dänische Kolonie. Zu Beginn der Kolonisation stellten der dänische Aristokrat Ove Gjedde (1594–1660) und Ragunatha, der nayak (König) von Tanjore (1600–1630), die rel. Freiheit für Hindus, Muslime und Christen sicher. Die Dänen errichteten in den 20er Jahren des 17.Jh. das Fort Dansborg und gründeten 1701 die Zionskirken (Dänische Missionen). T. war ein internationaler Handelsplatz. 200 Jahre lang prägten indisch…

Schwartz, Christian Friedrich

(292 words)

Author(s): Jeyaraj, Daniel
[German Version] (Oct 8, 1726, Sonnenburg, Kostrzyn – Feb 13, Tanjore, India) worked as missionary in Tranquebar (1750–1762), Tiruccirappalli (1762–1772), and Tanjore (1772–1798). He established churches, primary schools, and introduced vaccination for smallpox. Under his leadership, special Christian settlements for persecuted Indian Christians were founded in Tanjore. His language skills (Ger., Gk, Heb., Tamil, Eng., Pers., and Marathi) enabled him to draw insights from different sources and work as a trusted person among various groups of people. He mediated between the warring South Indian princes, Muslim rulers and the army of the English East India Company (EIC). He convinced the officers of the EIC in Chennai (earlier Madras) to adopt (at least for some time) humane and just rules to collect taxes and conduct trade. Two of his students contributed much to Tamil society: King …

Ziegenbalg, Bartholomäus

(264 words)

Author(s): Jeyaraj, Daniel
[German Version] (Jul 10, 1682, Pulsnitz, Saxony – Feb 23, 1719, Tranquebar, South India) was profoundly influenced by the piety of his mother, the sermons of A.H. Francke, the writings of J.A. Freylinghausen, the training he received from J. Lange in Berlin, and his encounter with P.J. Spener. During his time as a pastor in Berlin, the Danish court chaplain Franz Julius Lütkens (1650–1712), acting on behalf of King Frederick II, reported to Lange and his friends the need for missionaries in the D…

Thomas Christians (Malabar Christians)

(710 words)

Author(s): Jeyaraj, Daniel
[German Version] Thomas Christians trace their origin back to the apostle Thomas Didymus, a disciple of Jesus Christ, who is believed to have established churches in Edessa, Persia, and South India, and died a martyr’s death in Mylapore near Chennai in South India (72 ce). They say the Acts of Thomas, oral traditions, and the ancient churches at Kodungalur, Niranam, and Quilon in Kerala prove their claims. Even though an act of the apostles in India has to be counted as unhistoric, the early origins of Christendom are indisputably in India. About 345 ce, Thomas of Cana led a group of Ea…


(411 words)

Author(s): Jeyaraj, Daniel
[German Version] ¶ is a seashore village on the Coromandel Coast in southern India. When it became a Danish col…


(1,741 words)

Author(s): Michaels, Axel | Jeyaraj, Daniel | Forrester, Duncan
[German Version] I. India – II. Caste and Christianity (in History) – III. Missiology I. India “Caste” (from Port. casta, “pure, unadulterated, chaste”) is the term used to denote Indian social groups based on criteria of consanguinity and, in part, fictional genealogy; they are distinguished by common occupations, names,…