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Oete

(205 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Οἴτη/ Oítē, Lat. Oeta, Oete). In a more narrow sense, O. is the central section of the mountain wall to the south of the Spercheus valley which is dominated by this mighty limestone wall (15 km in length) and its gigantic escarpment. The 'funeral pyre' ( pyrá) of Hercules, on which he is supposed to have been burnt, a great altar of ashes, and a small, 3rd cent. BC Doric temple and adjacent buildings are found in the present-day village of Pavliani (1800m high). Cult lasted from the Archaic period to the Imperial period. In a broader sense, the western continuation of Mt.…

Makra Kome

(93 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μακρὰ κώμη; Makrà kṓmē). Town in the upper valley of the Spercheius, in 198 BC conquered by the Aetolians during a plundering raid on Thessalia (Liv. 32,13,10). Makra Kome (MK) is localized near the ruins of the modern village of MK (formerly Varibopi) on the northern bank of the Spercheius. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography Y. Béquignon, La vallée du Spercheios, 1937, 316ff. B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 67 F. Stählin, s.v. M.k., RE 14, 808f.

Sosthenis

(82 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Σωσθενίς; Sōsthenís). City in the  Spercheus valley, its location at modern Vardates is not without dispute. S. originally belonged to the Oetaei and probably went into decline with the end of Aetolian rule over this region (Syll.3 421 Z. 22; 636 Z. 13) after 168 BC. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography Y. Béquignon, La vallée du Spercheios, 1937, 306 f.  A. Kontogiannis, Σ., in: La Thessalie (Actes du colloque international Lyon 1990), 1994, vol. 2, 239-244  F. Stählin, s. v. S., RE 3 A, 1198 f.

Pharsalus

(631 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture (ἡ Φάρσαλος/ hē Phársalos). Peleus, king of the Myrmidons, father of Achilles, rules in the city of Phthia,which in Antiquity had been identified with the city of P. located on the southwestern edge of the Thessalian plain. Hom. Il. 1,155 knows only Phthia. The Thessali founded P. when they took over the land at the source of the Apidanus. They called this part of the plain Phthiôtis, while the subjected territory of the indigenous population that had been pushed ba…

Lamia

(900 words)

Author(s): Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] Female spirit (Λάμια; Lámia). A female spirit who specialized in attacking children (Duris, FGrH 76 F 17; Diod. Sic. 20,41,3-5; Str. 1,2,8; [1. ch. 5]). In this function, L. was often confused with Gello, Mormo and the Strix. In later sources, L. also seduces and destroys attractive men (Philostr. VA 4,25; cf. Apul. Met. 1,17). Her name is etymologically related to laimós (‘maw’), which is an expression of her all-consuming hunger (cf. Hor. Ars P. 340; Hom. Od. 10,81-117 on Lamus, the king of the cannibalistic Laestrygones; lamía is also a designation for ‘shark’…

Echinus

(668 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Ἐχῖνος; Echînos). [German version] [1] Town on the northern shore of the Gulf of Malia Town on the northern shore of the Gulf of Malia near today's village of Achino. Originally part of the Achaea Phthiotis, Echinus was granted by Philippus II to the Malieis in 342 with whom E. belonged to the Aetolian league from c. 235. In 210, E. was conquered by Philippus V (Pol. 9,41; [1]) who refused to return it to the Aetolians; after 193, the Romans conquered it and assigned E. to Malis again in 189. In Roman times, E. was considered part of Achaea Phthiot…

Asopus

(479 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἀσωπός; Asōpós). [German version] [1] Small river, flowing to the north out of the Oete range Small river, flowing to the north out of the  Oete range. Before flowing into the plains of Heraclea and Trachis, it forms a deep gorge, passable only in summer ( c. 2.5 km in length, up to 200 m deep, with a width of 6 m at the entrance, and about 30 m at the exit). At the time of the Persian Wars, the A. still had its own delta into the sea (Hdt. 7,200), today it flows under the name of Karvunarja into the  Spercheus. In 480 BC, the Persians by…

Callidromus

(115 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (ὁ/ἡ Καλλίδρομος; ho/hē Kallídromos; τὸ Καλλίδρομον; tò Kallídromon; Lat. Callidromus). Name of the massif above  Thermopylae (Str. 9,4,13), modern Saromata, up to 1374 m in height, its spatial extent variously defined. Generally it is seen as part of the Oete ( Oetaei). The C. massif consists of Mount Acrurium (later known as Galate, Plut. Phocion 33), Mount C. itself, Mount Phricion (summit with the fortress of C., Liv. 16-18; App. Syr. 77; 81; 85). By going across Mount C., both the Persians in 480 BC ( Persian War) and the Romans in 191 BC bypassed Thermopylae. Kramol…

Mondaea

(69 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μονδαία/ Mondáia). A city, mentioned only in inscriptions, in the neighbourhood of Perrhaebian Azorus in north-western Thessaly. It is identified with the ruin at Lutron Elassonos, c. 25 km north-west of Elasson. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography G. Lucas, La Tripolis de Perrhébie et ses confins, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographique antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 93ff., 109f.  F. Stählin, s.v. Mondaia, RE 16, 106f. (sources).

Sepias

(130 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Σηπιάς/ Sēpiás). [German version] [1] Coastal strip of the Magnesia Peninsula Strip of the coast of the southeastern Magnesia [1] Peninsula, where a Persian fleet moored in 480 BC and suffered great losses due to a storm (Hdt. 7,183-191). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) [German version] [2] City in the south of the Magnesia Peninsula City in the south of the Magnesia [1] Peninsula (Hdt. 7,183), which was incorporated into the synoikismós of Demetrias [1] in about 290 BC (Str. 9,5,15). Its ruins are near modern Puri. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) [German version] [3] Cape on the sout…

Boebe

(197 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Βοιβή, Βοιβηὶς λίμνη; Boibḗ, Boibēìs límnē). City on the steep, southern bank of the eponymous lake that stretched, north-west to south-east, along the Pelion and that was mentioned as early as the Iliad, in the Catalogue of Ships (Hom. Il. 2,711f.). B. belonged to Magnesia and, in 293 BC, became part of  Demetrias. In the Byzantine Period it was transferred to the edge of the lake. Of that locale (the medieval Karla) there still exists a church, Hagios Nikolaos between Glafira and Ka…

Elatea

(685 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἐλάτεια; Eláteia). [German version] [1] Phocian town This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture In antiquity together with  Delphi (Str. 9,3,2) the largest (Paus. 10,34,1-2; Str. 9,2,19; Harpocr., Suda s.v. E.) and most famous Phocian town. Located in the farthest north of the Cephissus valley near modern Elatia (Leftà), E. dominated the road that led south from Thessaly and Locris through the passes of Thermopylae and Hyampolis. This location made E. a lively c…

Gomphi

(239 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Γόμφοι; Gómphoi). Settlement created by synoecism in the 4th cent. BC; its location close to the modern G. (formerly Mouzaki) is verified. Together with  Metropolis, Pelinnaion, and  Tricca, G. formed the belt of fortifications of the Thessalian Hestiaeotis on the Pindus passes to Dolopia, Athamania, and Epirus. On coins from the 4th and 2nd cents., G. bears the name of Philippopolis (HN 295). Towards the end of the 3rd cent., G. was under Aetolian rule; during the wars of the ear…

Oeniadae

(493 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] [1] Acarnian town This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Οἰνιάδαι/ Oiniádai, occasionally Οἰνειάδαι/ Oineiádai). Acarnanian city near the mouth of the Achelous [1] (Thuc. 2,102,2f.; Str. 10,2,21). The city area, located near what is now Katochi, is located on a hill measuring 3 km in length and 2 km in width. Remains of the six-kilometer long city wall have been preserved, along with gate and tower installat…

Melambium

(65 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μελάμβιον/ Melambion). Philip V reached the region of Scotussa at M. on the day before the battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC. The town, mentioned only in Pol. 18,20,6 and Liv. 33,6,11, is thought to have been to the east of Scotussa. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography J.-Cl. Decourt, La vallée de l'Enipeus en Thessalie, 1990, 109ff. F. Stählin, s.v. Melambion, RE 15, 390f.

Orchomenus

(1,667 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] City in north-western Boeotia This item can be found on the following maps: Linear B | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Oracles | Persian Wars | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Boeotia, Boeotians (Ὀρχομενός/ Orchomenós; Boeotian Ἐρχομενός/ Erchomenós, LSAG 95, no. 17). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) [German version] A. Geography City in north-western Boeotia (Hom. Il. 2,511) at the foot of Mount Acontium on the north-western shore of Lake Copais near modern Skripou, today once more called Orkhomenos. The polis had an extensive hinterland, in…

Laceria

(80 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Λακέρεια; Lakéreia). Settlement on the northern shore of Lake Boebe in Magnesia, only attested in archaic times (Pind. Pyth. 3,58f.); its location - like that of its neighbouring settlement Amyrus - has yet to be established. L. was said to be the home of Coronis, the mother of Asclepius. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Le ‘Dotion Pedion’, Lakereia et les origines de Larisa, in: Journal des Savants 1987, 127ff. F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 58f.

Phylace

(188 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Φυλάκη; Phylákē). [German version] [1] City of Achaea Phthiotis City, mentioned in Homer and other early verse as well as passages dependent on them, belonging to Achaea Phthiotis in the Halmyrus plain. P. was the home of Protesilaus; as late as Pind. I.1,83f. P. is mentioned with a sanctuary of Protesilaus. Later P. was evidently absorbed in Thebae Phthiotides (Heraclides fr. 3,3 identifies P. with it), which continued the cultural and mythological tradition of P. A more precise location at Thebae is not possible. Sources: Hom. Il. 2,695; 13,696; 15,335; Str. 9,5,8; 9,5,14. Kramolisc…

Ossa

(232 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Ὄσσα/ Óssa). [German version] [1] Mountain range in central Greece, modern Kissavos Mountain range (1978 m) of lime and slate, divided from Olympus [1] in the north by the erosion gorge that is the Vale of Tempe and from Pelion (modern Kissavos) in the south by the Agia depression. Politically it was part of Magnesia [1]. The steep eastern slopes down to the Aegaean were uninhabited, in spite of a coastal road from Homole in the north to Meliboea [2]. On the western slopes there were Thessalian towns (Elat…

Halus

(411 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Ἅλος; Hálos). The remains of H. lie at the south end of the Κρόκιον πεδίον (Krokion plain) and on the north foot of a foothill of Othrys, where the passage from the Malian Gulf to the Gulf of Pagasae was easy to block, because the coasts were only a few hundred metres apart (today c. 2 km). H. owes its name to the rich saline spring of Amphrysus at the foot of the town hill. Already named in the catalogue of ships in the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,682), it was an important Thessalian harbour du…
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