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(574 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, abū yaḥyā zakariyyāʾ , chief of the Berber tribe of Nafūsa and last Ibāḍī-Wahbī imām in North Africa. He is probably the same person as R. Basset refers to in error as Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā al-Ird̲j̲ānī, confusing him with his son, Abū Zakariyyāʾ b. Abī Yaḥyā al-Ird̲j̲ānī, who also was chief ( ḥākim ) of the Ḏj̲abal Nafūsa. According to the Ibāḍī document known under the name of Tasmiyat s̲h̲uyūk̲h̲ Ḏj̲abal Nafūsa wa-ḳurāhum (6th/12th century), Abū Zakariyyāʾ (error for Abū Yaḥyā Zakariyyaʾ) of Irkān (Ird̲j̲ān) was elected imām after Abū Ḥātim (that is Abū Ḥātim Yūsuf b. Abī ’l-Ya…


(1,121 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
or miṣrāta , also Mesrāta, important Berber tribe belonging to the branch of the Hawwāra [ q.v.] of the Barānis (Brānès) group. According to Ibn K̲h̲aldūn, to whom most of the information concerning this people is owed, the Misrāta derived their origin from a certain Meld, who was the son of Awrīg̲h̲, son of Barānis and the brother of the Hawwāra. According to Ibn Ḥazm, and also according to the Berber genealogist Sābiḳ b. Sulaymān, both quoted by Ibn K̲h̲aldūn, the Misrāta and other families descended from Meld, inc…

Maḥbūb b. al-Raḥīl al-ʿAbdī

(368 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, Abu Sufyān , Ibāḍī theologian and historian, originally from the Arabic tribe of the Banū ʿAbd al-Ḳays, who lived in the 2nd/8th century and who is cited in the Kitāb Ṭabaḳāt al-mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ of al-Dard̲j̲īnī (d. 670/1227 [ q.v.]) amongst the scholars of the fourth ṭabaḳa or class. His family came originally from ʿIrāḳ (his grandfather al-Malīḥ al-ʿAbdī was one of the close friends of the head of the Ibāḍī community in Baṣra, the famous Abu ʿUbayda Muslim b. Abī Karīma al-Tamīmī [see al-ibāḍiyya ]), and he first lived in ʿUmān. Then he settled in Baṣra, …

Abū Ḥātim Yaʿḳūb b. Labīd (or Labīb or Ḥabīb) al-Malzūzī

(430 words)

Author(s): Motylinski, A. de | Lewicki, T.
al-nad̲j̲īsī , Ibāḍī imām in the Mag̲h̲rib. The orthodox Arab historians represent him as a mere leader of Berber rebels. His role, however, was more defined, as he was given by the Ibāḍīs of Tripolitania the title of imām al-difāʿ (" imām of defence"). According to the chronicle of Abū Zakariyyāʾ al-Ward̲j̲lānī, this revolt took place in Rad̲j̲ab 145/Sept.-Oct. 762, only one year after the death of Abu ’l-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb. According to al-S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲ī, al-Siyar , Cairo 1301, 134, Abū Ḥātim’s, government began in (1)54 A. H. It is, however, possible that this is a mistake for 145. Little is known…

Banū Īfran

(6,375 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(or Ifran , Ifrān , Ufrān Ūfrān etc.). the most important branch of the large Berber tribe of the Zenāta (Zanāta [ q.v.]). According to the writings, now lost, of three Berber genealogists used by Ibn K̲h̲aldūn, namely Sābiḳ b. Sulaymān al-Maṭmāṭī, Hanīʾ b. Masdūr al-Kūmī and Kaḥlān b. Abī Luwā, the Banū Īfran are descended from Īṣlitan (also Yaṣlitan), son of Misrā, son of Zākiyā, son of Wardīran (or of Wars̲h̲īk), son of Adīdat. According to the same tradition, Zākiyā was the brother of Dammar (Demmer), the eponymo…

Abū G̲hānim Bis̲h̲r b. G̲h̲ānim al-K̲h̲urāsānī

(217 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, eminent Ibāḍī lawyer of the end of the 2nd/8th and the beginning of the 3rd/9th century, a native of Ḵh̲urāsān. On his way to the Rustamid imām ʿAbd al-Wahhāb (168-208/784-823) at Tāhart, to offer him his book al-Mudawwana , he stayed with the Ibāḍī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , Abū Ḥafṣ ʿAmrūs b. Fatḥ, of Ḏj̲abal Nafūsa, who rendered a service to Ibāḍī literature by conserving in the Mag̲h̲rib a copy of the work. The Mudawwana of Abū G̲h̲ānim is the oldest Ibāḍī treatise on general jurisprudence, according to the teaching of Abū ʿUbayda Muslim al-Tamīmī (d. under al-Manṣūr, 136-58/754-75; cf. ibāḍiyya …

Ibn ʿAbd al-Munʿim al-Ḥimyarī

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(or rather al-s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-faḳīh al-ʿadl Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Abī ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Abī Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh Ibn ʿAbd al-Munʿim b. ʿAbd al-Nūr al-Ḥimyarī , author of the important Arabic geographical dictionary entitled Kitāb al-Rawḍ al-miʿṭār fi k̲h̲abar al-aḳṭār . Nothing is known of this writer apart from the facts that he came from the Mag̲h̲rib and that he was a jurisconsult ( faḳīh ) and a ḳāḍī’s assessor or notary ( ʿadl ). E. Lévi-Provençal was responsible for the discovery and the publication of a large part of his work ( La péninsule Ibérique au Moyen Age , d’après le Kitāb…

Abu ’l-Muʾt̲h̲ir al-Ṣalt b. K̲h̲amīs al-Bahlawī

(247 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
al-ʿUmānī , Ibāḍī historian and lawyer, native of Bahlāʾ in ʿUmān. His exact dates are not known; but he is counted among the Ibāḍī scholars of the second half of the 3rd/9th century. He left valuable literary materials, especially in the field of history, and also took an active part in the political life of his time, being a zealous partisan of the imām al-Ṣalt b. Mālik, deposed in 273/886-7. Among his works, the following are worthy of note: (1) al-Aḥdāt̲h̲ wa ’l-Ṣifāt , devoted to events in ʿUmān at the time of al-Ṣalt b. Mālik, and to the circumstances of his deposition; (2) al-Bayān wa ’l-Bu…

Abū Manṣūr Ilyās al-Nafūsī

(255 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, governor of Ḏj̲abal Nafūsa and Tripolitania, on behalf of the Rustamid imām of Tāhart, Abu’l-Yakẓān Muḥammad b. Aflaḥ (d. 281/894-5). He came from Tindemīra, a village in the Ḏj̲abal Nafūsa, but the exact dates of his birth and death are unknown. His province comprised the whole of Tripolitania, excepting the town of Tripoli which belonged to the Ag̲h̲labids. He had immediately to engage in conflict with the Berber Ibāḍī tribe of Zawāg̲h̲a, who occupied the coast between Tripoli and …


(1,412 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(djado), the old capital of the eastern region of the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa in Tripolitania, nowadays a large village in the Fassāṭō district situated on three hills of unequal height. The population of about 2,000—towards the end of the 19th century there were 500 houses—mostly consists of Berbers of the Ibāḍī tribe of Nafūsa. The ruins of the old town are nothing but a pile of broken stones and caves with a mosque in the centre. Near the mosque was formerly the business quarter and the market ( sūḳ ), near which one can still see today the site of the Jewish quart…


(2,571 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, zakariyyāʾ b. muḥammad b. maḥmūd Abū Yaḥyā (Hād̲j̲d̲j̲i K̲h̲alīfa, iv, 188-9: Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd al-Kūfī al-Ḳazwīnī), famous Arab cosmographer and geographer. He drew his origin from an Arab family (his ancestor, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Abu ’l-Ḳāsim b. Hibat Allāh al-Ḳazwīnī, was probably descended from Anas b. Malik [ q.v.]), who had been Persianised after settling at Kaẓwīn in Persia. Judging from certain solecisms to be found in al-Ḳazwīnī’s works, Arabic does not seem to have been his mother tongue. He was born at Ḳazwīn, probably towards 600/1203 and seems to have received ther…

Abū Zakariyyāʾ al-Ward̲j̲lānī

(383 words)

Author(s): Motylinski, A. de | Lewicki, T.
, Yaḥyā b. Abī Bakr , historian of the Ibāḍīs of the Mag̲h̲rib. The Ibāḍi chroniclers al-Dard̲j̲īnī (7th/13th century) and al-S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲ī (d. 928/1522) who took the chronicle of Abū Zakariyyāʾ as the basis for their own works, give but scanty details about him and do not indicate the date either of his birth or of his death. From al-Dard̲j̲īnī it is known at least that he was a native of Ward̲j̲lān (Ouargla) and that he studied in the Wādī Rīg̲h̲ (Oued Righ) under the Ibāḍī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Abu ’l-Rabīʿ Sulaymān b. Ik̲h̲laf al-Mazātī (d. 4…


(436 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, an ancient Berber people belonging to the branch of the Butr, and to the family of Ḍarīsa, who most probably lived in Tripolitania. If we are to believe Ibn K̲h̲aldūn (8th/14th century) and his sources, the Berber genealogists, the Malzūza were descendants of Fāṭin, son of Tamzīt, son of Ḍarī (eponym of the Ḍarīsa) and were the sister-tribe of the important Berber tribes of the Maṭg̲h̲ara, the Lamāya, the Ṣadīna, the Kūmiya, the Madyūna, the Mag̲h̲īla, the Maṭmāṭa, the Kas̲h̲āna (or Kas̲h̲āta) and the Dūna. The major…


(2,128 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(in Leo Africanus: Luntuna or Lumtuna), a great Berber tribe belonging to the branch of the Ṣanhād̲j̲a who led a nomadic life, and like other tribes of this branch forming part of the Mulat̲h̲t̲h̲amūn or “wearers of the veil” [see lit̲h̲ām ]. The Lamtūna nomadised over the western Sahara, where between the 2nd/8th and 5th/11th centuries they played a considerable political role. According to al-Bakrī (459/1067), the region covered by them stretched from the lands of Islam (i.e. the Mag̲h̲rib) to those of the blacks. This is what this ge…


(15,273 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, one of the main branches of the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs [ q.v.], representatives of which are today found in ʿUmān, East Africa, Tripolitania (D̲j̲abal Nafūsa and Zuag̲h̲a) and southern Algeria (Wargla and Mzab). The sect takes it name from that of one of those said to have founded it, ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibāḍ al-Murrī al-Tamīmī. The form usually employed is Abāḍiyya; this is true not only of North Africa ( e.g., in the D̲j̲abal Natūsa, cf. A. de C. Motylinski, Le Djebel Nefousa , Paris 1898-9, 41 and passim ), where it is attested in the 9th/15th century by the Ibāḍī writer al-Barrādī ( Kitāb Ḏj̲awāhir al-mun…


(382 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(also al-D̲j̲enāwunī ), Abū ʿUbayda ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd , governor of the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa for the Ibādite imāms of Tāhart. He was a native of the village of Īd̲j̲nāwun (also D̲j̲enāwen, in Berber Ignaun) situated below the town of D̲j̲ādū in the present district of Fassāṭo. He already enjoyed great prestige there about 196/811 during the stay of the imām ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Rustam in the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa. On the death of Abu ’l-Ḥasan Ayyūb he was elected governor of the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa by the people of the country and aft…

Ibn al-Naẓar

(125 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. Sulaymān al-ʿUmānī , Ibāḍī scholar of ʿUmān who lived in the 6th/12th century (he was killed by K̲h̲ardala b. Samāʿa). He was the author of the Kitāb al-Daʿāʾim , a collection of poems on fiḳh of which two editions have been published (one of them in Cairo in 1351). Among his other works there should be mentioned an important Kitāb Silk al-d̲j̲umān fī siyar ahl ʿUmān (T. Lewicki) Bibliography A. de C. Motylinski, Bibliographie du Mzab, in Bulletin de Correspondance Africaine, iii (1885), 19, no. 21 ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḥumayd al-Sālimī, al-Lumʿa al-murḍiyya, printed in a collec…


(2,599 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, name of a large Berber people mentioned as early as the middle of the 3rd/9th century in the geographical work of Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih as being among the thirty most important Berber tribes of this period. According to the majority of Berber genealogists cited by Ibn K̲h̲aldūn (including Sābiḳ al-Maṭmāṭī), the Maṭmāṭa, who were brothers of the Maṭg̲h̲ara, Ṣadīna, Malzūza, Madyūna and Lamāya, belonged to the great Berber family of the Butr; they constituted, with the above-mentioned tribes, th…

Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar b. Ḏj̲amīʿ

(230 words)

Author(s): Motylinski, A. de | Lewicki, T.
, Ibāḍī scholar, probably a native of the Ḏj̲abal Nafūsa, mentioned in al-S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲īʾs K. al-Siyar (Cairo 1301, 561-2), in a short note that gives no chronological information, but from which it may be deduced that he lived at the end of the 8th/14th or the beginning of the 9th/15th century. He translated into Arabic the old ʿAḳīda of the Ibāḍīs of the Mag̲h̲rib, originally composed in Berber. This translation was in use, at the time of al-S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲ī (d. 928/1521-2)) in the island of Ḏj̲arba and in the other Ibāḍī communit…


(582 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(also al-D̲j̲īṭālī , var. al-Ḏj̲iṭālī ), Abū Ṭāhir Ismāʿīl b. Mūsā , celebrated Ibāḍite scholar who was a native of Īd̲j̲ayṭāl (also Īd̲j̲īṭāl or D̲j̲iṭāl), an ancient village of the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa still there today and now called Id̲j̲eyṭal or D̲j̲eyṭal. The date of his birth is unknown. However, we know that he was a pupil of the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ ʿĪsā b. Mūsā al-Ṭarmīsī, who lived in the second half of the 7th/13th century. For some time he taught at Mazg̲h̲ūra (today Mezg̲h̲ūra or Timezg̲h̲ūra) in the eastern p…
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