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Ag̲h̲a Ḥusayn Pas̲h̲a

(927 words)

Author(s): Reed, H.A.
, Ottoman vizier ¶ noted for his leadership in the suppression of the Janissaries in 1826, was born at Edirne in 1190/1776-7. His father, Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Muṣṭafā, believed to be from Rusčuk [ q.v.], moved to Bender [ q.v.], where Ḥusayn enlisted in the 9th Janissary bölük [ q.v.] and reached Istanbul in 1203/1788-9. He had begun his career as a porter, then took part in the campaign against Russia in 1807-12. Ḥusayn became an usta (sergeant) and associated with (Silāḥdār) ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a, who recommended Ḥusayn to Maḥmūd II between 1811 and 1817 when ʿAlī was the sultan’s swordbearer (Ḏj̲ewdet. Taʾr…


(345 words)

Author(s): Reed, H.A.
(burgaz, near Zossopolis, ancient Appolonia) 42° 30′ N., 27° 28′ E., after Varna Bulgaria’s major port and fifth largest town. Burgas is the centre of a district, a resort with a recently modernised harbour, textile, fishing and salt industries situated on Burgas gulf with a population of 43,684 in 1376/1956 (district 72,795). The name derives from Greek Pyrgos . Murād I took Burgas district circa 778-9/1367-8 (B. de la Brocquière, 168-70 cited in Jorga, GOR, i, 207; I. H. Uzunçarşili, Osmanli Tarihi , i, 61, 69; I. H. Daniṣmend, . . . Kronoloji , i, 47-8). Burgas …


(461 words)

Author(s): Reed, H.A.
(Boli, near anc. Bithynium, later Claudiopolis) 40° 15′ N 31° 30′ E. The capital of a forested NW Anatolian wilāyet , elevation 710 m., area 11,140 sq. km., lying between the Saḳārya river bend and the Black Sea. In 1955 the population was 11,884 (town) and 318,612 (province). Bolu lies in a plain on the Bolu Suyu and is subject to severe earthquakes, notably that of May 26, 1957. It is on the highway 263 km. from Istanbul and 208 from Ankara. It boasts 32 mosques, a bath dated 791/ 1388-9, a …


(6,428 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de | Reed, H.A. | Rogers, J.M.
, Larende or Karaman in modern Turkish usage, earlier Turkish Ḳaramān or Dārende, a provincial town in Anatolia, is the seat of one of the thirteen districts of Ḳonya [ q.v.]. The district of Karaman is the largest (4,647 km 2) ilçe in Turkey. The town lies outside the earthquake zone at lat. 37° N, long. 33° 10′ E, at an elevation of 1,038 m., on the plateau at the northern end of the pass leading through the Taurus Mts. to the Göksü (ancient Kalykadnos, or Saleph) river valley. The main roa…


(581 words)

Author(s): Reed, H.A.
(Çatalca, ancient Metra). 1. 41° 08′ N, 28° 25′ E. Thracian capital of the most rural of the 17 ḳaḍāʾ s in the wilāyet of Istanbul, 56 km. by asphalt road and 71.41 km. by rail (the station lies 2.3 km. NE of town) WNW of Istanbul. Çatalca borders the Kara su (ancient Athyras) stream at an altitude of 255 feet near the centre of a range of hills forming the backbone of the fortified "Çatalca Lines" extending from the Black Sea at Karaburun to the Marmara at Büyükçekmece. Çatalca was taken from th…


(451 words)

Author(s): Reed, H.A.
, the name of a Turkoman leader, founder of the Anatolian dynasty of the Ḳarāmānids or Ḳarāmān-og̲h̲ullari̊ [ q.v.]; hence the name of the Ottoman province into which the territories of this principality were subsequently formed, with Ḳonya as its administrative centre, see below. Ḳarāmān was also the later Ottoman name for the town of Laranda [ q.v.]. The term Ḳarāmānli̊ / Ḳarāmānlü was applied to the turcophone Greek Orthodox Christians of the Ḳarāmān region, and Ḳarāmānli̊d̲j̲a (Grk. Karamanlidhika ) to their dialect of Turkish and their literature…


(369 words)

Author(s): Reed, H.A.
( bolvadi̇n , sometimes Karamuk, anc. Polybotum) 38° 44′ N, 31° 03′ E. A municipality and ḳaḍāʾ in the wilāyet of Afyūn Ḳarā Ḥiṣār [ q.v.], with its own and Isḥāḳli nāḥiye (its former nāḥiye of Çay, with 20 villages, became a ḳaḍāʾ on April 1, 1958/1377), consisting of 26 villages. The population in 1375/1955 was 12,604 (town), 61,280 (district); elevation 900 m., area 2,420 sq. km. Bolvadin lies 45 km. E of Afyūn, 8 N of Çay railway station, N of the Sazli and Eber lakes and a fertile plain watered by the Aḳar Çay, on the old Bag̲h̲dād…