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Scamander

(203 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Σκάμανδρος/ Skámandros, Latin Scamander). River in Troas, modern River Menderes, which rises below the highest peak of the Ida [2]. Together with the Simoeis it forms the Plain of Troy (cf. Hom. Il. 5,77). Below Scepsis and Cebren a road leads along its bank into the interior of Asia Minor. In the Iliad the S. appears as a god; it is named S. only by humans, the gods call it Xanthus (Hom. Il. 20,73). As a son of Zeus (ibid. 14,434) and Idaea it is the father of  Teucer and hence an …

Paesus

(126 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Παισός; Paisós). Town in the Troas (Hom. Il. 2,822; 5,612), probably founded by the Milesians (Str. 13,1,19). P. was linked with the sea via the river of the same name. The position of P. is presumed to be near Fanar, north-east of modern Çardak [1. 99]. The neighbouring cities were Lampsacus and Parium, which like P. were conquered in 497 BC by Daurises, the son-in-law of Darius [1] I (Hdt. 5,117). In the Delian League, P. paid 1,000 drachmas (ATL 3,26, No. 135). At the time of S…

Achilleum

(123 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ἀχίλλειον; Achílleion). Town on the north-western coast of the  Troas near Besik Bay [1. 185 f.; 2. 195], built by  Mytilene in the 6th cent. BC as a base against Athenian-occupied  Sigeum (Hdt. 5,94; Str. 13,1,39); probably one of the Aeolian coastal towns ( Aeolians [1. 180]). In the Hellenistic period, A. was taken by Illium ( Troy), and destroyed following an uprising (Str. 13,1,39). The town took its name from the burial mount of Achilles, visited by, amongst others, Alexander the Great (Arr. Anab. 1,2,12) and Caracalla (Cass. Dio 77,16). Schwertheim, Elmar …

Mygdonia

(367 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μυγδονία; Mygdonía). [German version] [1] Region in northwestern Asia Minor Region in northwestern Asia Minor whose name is derived from the Thracian Mygdones who, like the Doliones and the Mysi (Mysia), migrated to the northwestern part of Asia Minor in the 12th cent. BC. The area in which they settled was bordered at the northwest by the Dascylitis (Δασκυλῖτις, now Kuş Gölü), at the northeast by Apameia [1]; in the southwest their settlements reached to the Mysian Olympus [13] (modern-day Uludağ), in t…

Antander

(287 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Ἄντανδρος; Ántandros). [German version] [1] of Syracuse Brother of Agathocles [2], end of the 4th cent. BC Brother of Agathocles [2]. At the beginning of the African campaign in 310 BC appointed ‘curator of Syracuse’ (Diod. Sic. 20,4,1) by his brother, whose life he later chronicled (Diod. Sic. 21,16,5), although Jacoby considers it a mere obituary. By some scholars, e.g. by Manni, A. is considered the author of the P Oxy. 2399 (FGrH 565 with commentary). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography E. Manni, Note siceliote, I: un frammento di Antandro?, in Kokalos 12, 1966, 163-171 K. Meister…

Gargara, Gargaris

(240 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γάργαρα, Γαργαρίς; Gárgara, Gargarís), town in Aeolis on the 780 m high crest of Koca Kaya, a western extension of the Ida range (Hom. Il. 8,48; 14,292; 14,352 Γάργαρον ἄκρον; Plin. HN 5,122 Gargara mons). Founded by Assus (Str. 13,1,58) and inhabited by Leleges (EM s.v. Γ.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Γ.), G. already existed in the mid-6th cent. BC, as temple finds on the acropolis indicate [1]. G. is mentioned in the Attic tribute lists with an amount of 4,500 drachmes. When the, probably only partial, resettlement to a …

Teucri

(105 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Τεῦκροι; Teûkroi). Tribe in the Troas (Hdt. 5,13; 5,122; 7,20; 7,43; Str. 1,3,21; 13,1,48; 13,1,64), possibly the Thraces, who had migrated back to Thrace even before the 'Trojan War'. A few remained in Gergis in the Troas (Hdt. 5,122; 7,43), hence the identification of the T. and the Gergithae. Identified as early as Aesch. Ag. 112 with the Troes, the T. were mentioned from the 5th cent. BC onwards only in mythological, not in historical contexts, and continued living in the legend around Teucrus [1]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Ruge, s. v. T., RE 5…

Alexandria

(1,725 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin) | Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀλεξάνδρεια; Alexándreia). Name of numerous cities founded by Alexander the Great, including nine in eastern Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. [German version] [1] in Egypt This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt | Caesar | Christianity | Wine | Zenobia | | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | India, trade with | Legio | Legio | Limes | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Rome | Rome | Athletes | Education / Culture | Egypt Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) [German version] A. Topography City on the Egyptian Mediterranean coast foun…

Pitane

(208 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Pergamum | Aegean Koine (Πιτάνη/ Pitánē). Town with two ports in Mysian Aeolis (Hdt. 1,149; Str. 13,1,2; 51; 67; Aeolians [2]) situated in modern Çandarlı. P. was regarded as a legendary foundation of the Amazons (Diod. Sic. 3,55,6) and already existed in the Late Geometric Period according to finds in the necropolis (excavations by E. Akurgal between 1959 and 1965, still unpublished; description in [1]). There have not yet been any officia…

Astyra

(229 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Ἄστυρα; Ástyra). [German version] [1] Greek polis on the south-western coast of the Troad Greek polis on the south-western coast of the Troad (Scyl. 98), a member of the  Delian League. After that, the importance of the settlement declined (Str. 13,1,65). However, A. is still mentioned in the customs tables of Ephesus [2. 63]. The sanctuary of  Artemis Astyra in A. was subordinate to the nearby Antandrus (Str. ibid.; Xen. Hell. 4,1,41). An exact localization of A. has not yet been achieved [1. 267]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973 2 H. Engelmann…

Larisa

(2,121 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Et al.
(Λάρισα; Λάρισσα; Lárisa, Lárissa). Name of numerous locations in Greece and Asia Minor, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ. [German version] [1] Acropolis of Argos The 289-m high acropolis of Argos with Mycenaean remains (not precisely identified) [1]. The temple of Zeus Larisaios and Athena Polias under the large Venetian castle has been excavated. References: Str. 8,6,7; Paus. 2,24,1; 3f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λάρισαι πόλεις. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 N. Vassilatos, Larissa. The Acropolis of Argos, 1994. [German version] [2] City in Achaea Phthiotis Important city in Achaea Phthi…

Thebe

(258 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Θήβη/ Thḗbē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Iason [2], 4th cent. BC Daughter of Iason [2] of Pherae; her name refers to Jason's former political soliciting of Boeotian support [1. 286] or her mother's origin in Thebes [2. 50]. In opposition to the tyrannical policies of her cousin and husband Alexander [15] of Pherae, in 364 BC T. encourages Pelopidas to intervene in Thessaly (Plut. Pelopidas 28 f.) and in 359 is supposed to have incited her brothers Tisiphonus and Lycophron [3] to assassinate Alexander…

Mysia

(1,154 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Μυσία/ Mýsía). [German version] A. Geography and ethnography Region in the northwest of Asia Minor, named after the Thracian tribe of the Mysi, which had probably migrated there by the 12th cent. BC. Their precise origin is unknown, but like the Phryges they may have migrated from the area of the lower Danube. If we may equate the Thracian Mysi with the later Moesi, then the site of their original settlement can be located south of the Danube in the area of northern Thrace (only in Hdt. 1,171,6 do we read that the C…

Lyrnessus

(116 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Λυρνεσσός; Lyrnessós). Settlement in the Mysian-Trojan border region not localized exactly. Attempts to locate it are based especially on Homer (Il. 2,690f.; 19,60; 20,92; 20,191; Str. 13,1,7; 61) and Pliny (HN 5,122), in whose time L. was destroyed. Older localizations: near Antandrus [1. 217-221], near Havran [2. 301], recently on the Ala Dağ [3. 70f.]. According to Hom. Il. 2,689ff. and 19,60, L. was destroyed by Achilles, who also killed king Mynes and abducted Briseis. Now in detail [3. 66-71]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 W. Leaf, Troy, 1912 2 H. …

Perperene

(183 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Περπερήνη/ Perperḗnē). City in Aeolian Mysia, probably on the road from Adramyttion to Pergamum near modern Aşağıbey (localization of [1] confirmed by [2]; plan in [2. vol. 1, 297]). Coin minting attests to the existence of P. from the 4th cent. BC (cf. [2. vol. 2, 308-325]). Thucydides did not, as Steph. Byz. (s.v. Παρπάρων/ Parpárōn) would have it, die in P. but probably in Hellanicus [1] around 400 BC (Suda s.v. Π.). At the time of Pliny the Elder (1st cent. AD), P. appears to have belonged to the conventus of Pergamum (HN 5,122,3; 5,126,9). The coins attest to a…

Marpessus

(108 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Μάρπεσσος/ Márpessos; Marmessos, Marmi(y)ssos). Town in the Troad, regarded as the home of the Hellespontine Sibyl (Paus. 10,12,3). Its location is derived from Paus. ibid. (‘240 stadia from Alexandria [2] Troas ’) and Lactant. Div. inst. 1,6 ( circa oppidum Gergithum). After Leaf [1. 106] calculated this to be in the area of Ballı Dağı, a definite location seems now to have been established by Cook [2. 281-283] at Dam Kale near Zerdalli, approx. 8 km north of Gergis. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923 2 J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1…

Rhyndacus

(106 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥύνδακος/ Rhýndakos). River in the Troad, not regarded as a single body today (Koca Çay, Kocasu Çayı, Orhaneli Çayı). It rises in Mysia Abbaïtis and flows through Phrygia (Phryges). It formed the frontier between Mysia and Bithynia, forms lacus Apolloniatis (Uluabat Gölü), exiting the lake at the northwest and flowing into the Propontis south of the island of Besbikos (modern Imralı Adası). During the Roman Period, it formed the boundary between the provinces of Asia [2] and Bithynia. In 73 BC, Licinius [I 26] Lucullu…

Aegae

(587 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] [1] Residence and burial place of the Macedonian Argead kings This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Dark Ages | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Education / Culture (Aegeae, Αἰγαί, Αἰγέαι [ Aigaí, Aigéai]). Residence and burial place of the Macedonian Argead kings near present-day Vergina. Starting point for the Macedonian conquering of Pieria and  Bottiaea and main seat of the king until  Pella was expanded for this purpose in the 4th cent. BC. From then onwards the site…

Pedasus

(231 words)

Author(s): Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Πήδασος; Pḗdasos). [German version] [1] Trojan Trojan, son of the nymph Abarbaree and of Laomedon's illegitimate son Bucolion; together with his brother Aesepus, he is killed by Euryalus [1] (Hom. Il. 6,20ff.). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) [German version] [2] Horse of Achilleus [1] Horse of Achilles [1], captured during the conquest of Thebes (at the foot of the Placus in the Troad); while being led into battle by Patroclus as an ancillary horse alongside Achilles' divine horses, it is killed by Sarpedon (Hom. Il. 16,152ff. and 467ff.). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) Bibliograph…

Simoeis

(58 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Σιμόεις; Simóeis). Tributary of the Scamander in the Troad, modern River Dümrek. The plain formed by this river was where the battles for Troy took place (cf. Hom. Il. 4,475). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 158-164, 173-177  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, s. v. S.  J. V. Luce, Die Landschaften Homers, 1999, s. v. S.
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