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Oricus

(147 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture (Ὤρικος/ Ṓ rikos, also Ὠρικός/ Ōrikós, Ὠρικόν/ Ōrikón). Port in Epirus, at the southern curve of the gulf of the same name (today the Gulf of Vlorë in Albania). According to legend, it was founded by Euboeans (Euboea) on their return from Troy. It is mentioned as early as the 6th cent. BC in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 106. It had close ties with Corcyra [1], from the 4th cent. BC on and probably earlier. The city, which lay …

Actium

(808 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (τὸ Ἄκτιον; tò Áktion, Actium). Flat, sandy promontory (medieval: Punta) opposite the modern Preveza at the entrance to the Ambracian Gulf (Str. 10,2,7; [9]), in ancient times belonging to  Anactorium; location of the decisive battle between Octavianus ( Augustus) and  Antonius [9]. It was also the location of the sanctuary of  Apollo Actius, founded by the Corinthian settlers of Anactorium in about 600 BC; its great age is confirmed by archaeological finds (kouroi of the early 6th c…

Alyzeia

(151 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Ἀλύζεια, Ἀλυζία; Alýzeia, Alyzía). City (of Corinthian origins?) on the Acarnanian west coast, near to today's Kandila. Allied with Athens in the  Peloponnesian War (Thuc. 7,31,2). In 375 BC near A., Athenian victory at sea in the battle against the Spartan hegemony (Xen. Hell. 5,4,65 f.); in the Roman imperial period dependent on  Nicopolis (Str. 10,2,2); way station of the   cursus publicus (Geogr. Rav. 5,13: (H)Alissa). Harbour, Heracles sanctuary (Scyl. 34; St…

Molossi

(516 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Μολοσσοί/ Molossoí). One of the main tribes of Epirus, with many small tribes. They originated in northern Pindus. From the 5th cent. BC, the tribes of the M. populated the basin of modern Ioannina, which originally belonged to the Thesproti, with the sanctuary of Dodona (Str. 7,7,8; 11). The borders in the north were the upper part of the Thyamis (modern Kalamas), and in the south-east the Arachthus. In the early 4th cent., part of the northern bank of the Ambracian Gulf also bel…

Medion

(132 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Μεδιών/ Mediṓn; Μεδεών/ Medeṓn, Thuc. 3,106). City in central Acarnania, south of the modern village of Katouna, on the important route from the Gulf of Ambracia to the central plain between Aetolia and Acarnania. In 231 BC, the city was unsuccessfully besieged by the Aetolians (Pol. 2,2f.), in 191 it supported Antiochus III (Liv. 36,11,10-12,12). Mentioned repeatedly in lists of theōrodokoi. (IG IV 12, 95 l. 13; [1. 157 Z. 2]; SEG 36, 331 l. 44-46). Inscriptions: IG IX 12,2, 387f.; SEG 25, 633; [2. …

Curictae

(86 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (also Curica, Tab. Peut.; Κυρικτική, Str. 2,5,20). Island off the Dalmatian coast (now Krk, Croatia) with two towns: Curictae (Κούρικον, Ptol. 2,16,13) near what is today the town of Krk and Fertinates (Φουλφίνιον, Ptol. loc.cit.) near modern Omisalj. Contested by the armies of Pompey and Caesar (Caes. B Civ. 3,10,5), since Augustus part of Illyricum. Claudius awarded the residents the ius Italicum (Plin. HN 3,139, tribus Claudia). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography G. Alföldy, Bevölkerung und Gesellschaft in [...] Dalmatien, 1965 J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1…

Ionios Kolpos

(217 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἰόνιος κόλπος; Iónios kólpos), Adria (ὁ Ἀδρίας, Mare Adriaticum or s uperum), Ionian Sea. In contrast with the modern view, the Ionios Kolpos (IK) was seen by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 91f.) as starting from Istria, by Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 4) from the mouth of the Spines. In the south the name is occasionally transferred to the Sicilian Sea (Mela 2,37; 48; 110). Originally, Adria only referred to the innermost corner of the Adriatic Sea at the mouth of the Po and the settlement area of the Veneti, from the name of whose town  Atria, the name Adria a…

Echinades

(222 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἐχινάδες, Ἐχῖναι; Echinádes, Echînai). Archipelago off the SW coast of Acarnania and the mouth of the Achelous; today, it belongs to the nomos Cephallenia. The islands were largely uninhabited, but they were exploited economically (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,51). Already in antiquity it was observed that the islands became joined to the mainland due to the  Achelous [1] depositing debris into the area (Hdt. 2,10; Thuc. 2,102; Scyl. 34; Str. 1,3,18; 10,2,19 [1; 2]). This phenomenon was a…

Cassiope

(160 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κασσιόπη; Kassiópē, Lat. Cassiope). Port on the north-eastern coast of  Corcyra (Korfu), modern Kassiopi. From Hellenistic times onwards (founded by Pyrrhus?) important staging point for the crossing to Italy, as used by Cicero in 50 BC (Cic. Fam. 16,9,1) and Nero in AD 66 (Suet. Nero 22,3). Zeus Kasios was venerated in C. (Plin. HN 4,52), as evident from coins [2] and inscriptions (ILS 4043; SEG 23, 395; 477) [1]. His temple was later built over with a three-naved basilica in the early Christian period [3; 4]. In late antique itineraries, C. ( Cassiape, Cassiope) is used…

Colentum

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Dalmatian island (today known as Murter, Croatia), which belonged to the conventus of  Salona; Plin. HN 3,140; Ptol. 2,13,3; Geogr. Rav. 408,13. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 487 S. Čače, Colentum insula (Plinio Nat. Hist. 3,140), in: Diadora 10, 1988, 65-72.

Athamania

(176 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀθαμανία; Athamanía). Region in the south-east of Epirus, in the Pindus range (Str. 7,7,8), bordering on Thessaly in the east (later counted as Thessalian: Str. 9,5,11; Steph. Byz. s.v. A.). During the 4th cent. BC, the Ἀθαμᾶνες ( Athamânes) joined the League of Corinth and Second Athenian Confederacy (Diod. Sic. 14,82; Nep. Tim. 2), and in the 3rd cent. BC, it was a member of the Epirote League. Under the rule of kings Theodorus and  Amynander (Pol. 4,16; Str. 9,4,11; [1]), A. became particularly important in the Macedonian Wars [2].   Koinon in the…

Cassope

(280 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Κασσώπη; Kassṓpē). City in south-western Epirus near the modern Kamarina, main city of the Thesprotian tribe of the Cassopaei (Κασσωπαῖοι, Str. 7,7,1; 7,7,5 and inscriptions; Κασσωποί, Scyl. 31); they settled in an area of about 900 km2 -- very fertile in its southern parts -- between the Gulf of Ambracia, the Ionian Sea and the Acheron (map: [6. 116]). Within this tribal territory lay the Elean colonies of Buchetium, Elatria, Pandosia, and Batiae (localization…

Aetolians, Aetolia

(2,622 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Αἰτωλοί, Αἰτωλία; Aitōloí, Aitōlía). [German version] A. Topography Largest region (4500 km2), most important tribe of central Greece. Existing sources only allow a limited definition of area where the Aetolians first settled, and of the phases of their early expansion. Tribes of the Aetolian ethnic group lived between the mountain ranges of Mount Vardousia and Mount Gkiona in the east (modern administrative district of Phocis), Mount Thymphrestus in the north (height 2319m, modern district of Evritania),…

Anactorium

(206 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania | Colonization | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (Ἀνακτόριον; Anaktórion). Corinthian foundation of the 7th cent. BC (Str. 10,2,8; FGrH 90 Nicolaus F 57,7), in co-operation with  Corcyra (Thuc. 1,55,1) [different in 1. 6-48, 132-148] on the south coast of the gulf of Ambracia. Ports in the gulf and the Ionic Sea near the polis sanctuary of  Actium (Scyl. 34). In 479 BC, A. fought alongside the Greeks at  Plataeae (Hdt. 9,28,5; Paus…

Carnus

(66 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Κάρνος; Kárnos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Apollo and Zeus see  Carnea Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [German version] [2] Island on the Acarnanian west coast Island on the Acarnanian west coast of Alyzeia, identified as the modern Calamus. Documentation: Scyl. 34; Plin. HN 4,53; Artem. in Steph. Byz. s.v. C. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography W. M. Murray, The Coastal Sites of Western Akarnania, 1982 Philippson/Kirsten 2, 390-392.

Amaltheum

(45 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀμαλθεῖον; Amaltheîon). An unlocated country estate of T.  Pomponius Atticus in the Roman province of  Epirus, on the coast near Buthrotum (Cic. Leg. 2,3,7; Att. 1,13; 16,15). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes (ed.), L'Illyrie méridionale et l'Epire dans l'antiquité 1, 1987, 245-254.

Strophades

(93 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Στροφάδες; Strophádes). Two small, flat, barren, uninhabited islands belonging to Cyparissia [1] (Str. 8,4,3) located 44 km south of Zacynthos in the open sea, with the original name of Plotae (Mela 2,110; Plin. HN 4,55), Strophadia ever since the Roman Period (Hierocles, Synecdemus 648,10). According to legend, the sons of Boreas turned about there during their pursuit of the Harpies (aition for the place name in Apoll. Rhod. 2,285-297). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 5f.  Philippson/Kirsten, 541-545  L. Ro…

Cestrine

(90 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κεστρίνη; Kestrínē). Region in Epirus opposite Corcyra north of the Thyamis, nowadays in the Albanian-Greek border region. According to Hecataeus (in Thuc. 1,46,4; [3. 446f.]) belonging to the  Chaones, from the 4th cent. BC (?) to the territory of the Thesproti. A coastal settlement by the name of Cestria is mentioned in Plin. HN 4,4; [2. 111f.; 3. 677f.]. C. was famous for its cattle (Hsch. s.v. Κεστρινικοὶ βόες). Inscriptions: [1. 126, 137, 586]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 P. Cabanes, L' Épire, 1976 2 S. I. Dakaris, Thesprotia, 1972 3 N. G. L. …

Limnaea

(133 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Λιμναία; Limnaía). Harbour town on a bay in the south-east of the Gulf of Ambracia near modern Amphilochia, from which a hollow of the valley leads into the Achelous plain (Pol. 5,5,14). In the 5th cent. an unfortified village (Thuc. 2,80,2; 3,106,2), in the 4th cent. the destination of the theorodokoi (IG IV2 1,95 l. 8; SEG 36,331 l. 31-33), member of the Acarnanian League (IG IX 12,2, 588 l. 9). The fortified acropolis was connected to the harbour by ‘long walls’. There are no clues tha…

Arba

(53 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] One of the Liburnian  Mentores Islands (today Rab, Croatia), with a town of the same name.   Municipium from the time of Augustus; belonged to the tribus Sergia (Plin. HN 3,140; Ptol. 2,17,13).  Liburni Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography G. Alföldy, Bevölkerung und Ges. in der röm. Prov. Dalmatien, 1965 J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969.
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