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Kissing of Feet

(145 words)

Author(s): Bürki, Bruno
[German Version] is a gesture of courtly homage adopted from oriental proskynesis that found its way via imperial (Roman/Byzantine) into papal and episcopal ceremony. In the liturgy, kissing of the feet can accompany footwashing ( pedilavium), in monasteries since the early medieval period. It is also a symbol of penitence. Preserved until most recently at the papal curia, the kissing of feet disappeared in the reforms of the 20th century. The pope sometimes still practices it spontaneously. Mentioned occasionally in the Bible (a…

Allmen, Jean-Jacques von

(183 words)

Author(s): Bürki, Bruno
[German Version] (Aug 29, 1917, Lausanne – Dec 17, 1994, Neuchâtel). Following studies in Lausanne, Basel, and Neuchâtel, Allmen received his doctorate in theology in 1948. He served as a Reformed pastor, professor of practical theology at Neuchâtel, advisor to the Commission on Faith and Order of the World Council of Churches, rector of the …

Liturgical Vessels

(1,197 words)

Author(s): Bürki, Bruno | Elbern, Victor H.
[German Version] I. Western Liturgies – II. Eastern Liturgies – III. Art History I. Western Liturgies Eating and drinking vessels ( vasa sacra) constitute important liturgical objects (Liturgical implements: I) in the light of the Christian meal community. They include the chalice ( calix) or cup and (of less importance) the bread plate or paten ( patena). From apostolic times onwards, Christian fellowship has been primarily a fellowship of the cup (see also Chalice, Witholding of the). The increase of vessels on the altar table (e.g. individual c…


(2,971 words)

Author(s): Bucher, Anton A. | Brown, Robert F. | Rudolph, Enno | Bürki, Bruno
1. Term “Symbol” (Gk. symbolon, Lat. symbolum) is a broad term with various senses and applications. Symbols are like signs in that they represent, or refer to, something that is other, or more, than themselves. The category of symbols is usually said to overlap that of signs. Some interpreters use the two terms almost interchangeably; others treat symbols as special kinds of signs with characteristics of their own. Still others seek to distinguish clearly between the two (Sign 1). Symbols and signs point beyond themselves. The conventional kind of sign usually has a singl…


(6,887 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Sänger, Dieter | Peters, Christian | Brandt, Reinhard | Meßner, Reinhard | Et al.
[English Version] I. Altes TestamentDie v.a. aus prot. Perspektive unternommene Suche nach Vorformen der O. im AT erscheint wenig aussichtsreich, da sich in der HB keine direkten Äquivalente zur christl. O. als öfftl. Beauftragung von Amtsträgern durch die Gemeinde finden. Entsprechende Untersuchungen beschränken sich vorwiegend auf den atl.-jüd. Hintergrund der frühchristl. O. (Lohse). Ntl. Berichte über die Einsetzung in Gemeindeämter (Apg 6,1–6; 13,1–3; 2Tim 1,6f.; s.u. II.) und rabb. Stellen zu…


(8,047 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Sänger, Dieter | Peters, Christian | Brandt, Reinhard | Meßner, Reinhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Church History – IV. Dogmatics – V. Liturgy – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Law and Legal History – VIII. Judaism I. Old Testament The search, mainly from a Protestant perspective, for antecedents of ordination in the Old Testament does not seem very promising, since no direct equivalent to Christian ordination as public commissioning of office-bearers by the community is to be found in the Hebrew Bible. Relevant research is mainly limited to the OT Jewish background of…