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(178 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
(Θαλάμαι/ Thalámai). [German version] [1] Messenian perioikos community This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea | Oracles Messenian perioikos community (Perioikoi; Paus. 3,1,4; 3,26,3) on the outer Mani (Taygetus) at modern Svina to the east of Koutiphari. Traces of Neolithic and Mycenaean (Late Helladic III A-B) settlement and remains of an incubation oracle of Ino/Pasiphae (Pasiphae) mentioned in Paus. 3,26,1. At the time of Hadrianus the sanctuary (Plut. Kleomenes 7; Plut. Agesilaos …


(407 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (Στύμφαλος/ Stýmphalos, Στύμφηλος/ Stýmphēlos). City in northeastern Arcadia on the northern edge of a karst basin (590 m elevation) with no outlet, the majority of which is occupied by a swampy lake occasionally dried out by infiltration into the soil. Communication routes led to Pheneus in the west, Phlius in the east and Alea [3] and Orchomenus [3] in the south; in the north, the Cyllene [1] mountains formed a b…


(62 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Θραῖστος; Thraîstos). Town in the northern uplands of Elis [1], Acrorea, situated on the road from Arcadia to Elis [2] (Xen. Hell.  7,4,14); the precise location is unknown; captured by Pausanias [2] in 402 BC (Diod. 14,17,8). A judge from T. in Calydon [3] c. 300 BC is mentioned by the inscription IG IX 12 138. Tausend, Sabine


(161 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (Θέλφουσα/ Thélphousa). City in Arcadia (Arcadians) on the left bank of the Ladon [2] at modern T. on the road from Psophis to Heraea (Paus. 8,25,1-11; Hierocles Synekdemos 647,6). Remains survive of the city wall and the agora (colonnade, temple). T. was autonomous in the Archaic and Classical periods, and c. 235 BC a member of the Achaean League (Achaeans; Pol. 2,54,12). Stratus, the fortress in the west of the city, was occupied in the Social War [2] by the …


(66 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Ζοίτειον; Zoíteion). City in Arcadia (Arcades) on the northern edge of the plain of Megale Polis at Tricoloni (Paus. 8,27,3: Zoítion; 8,35,6 f.: Zoitía; Steph. Byz. s. v. Zoíteion) with temples to Artemis and  Demeter, probably at modern Palamari or modern Zoni. Tausend, Sabine Bibliography N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις 4, 1980, 325  A. Petronotes, He Megale Polis tes Arkadias (Ancient Greek Cities 23), 1973, map 4.


(120 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Σφακτηρία; Sphaktēría). Narrow rocky island of the Bay of Pylus [2] on the west coast of Messenia (Str. 8,3,21; Plin. HN 4,55; Ptol. 3,16,23: Σφαγία), in Spartan hands from the 7th cent. BC, modern Sphaktiría. In 425 BC, 292 Spartiatai were surrounded by the Athenians on S. and forced to capitulate (Thuc. 4,8; 16; 26-38; Str. 8,4,2; Peloponnesian War). It was in the Bay of Pylus that a Turkish fleet was destroyed by the Allies in 1827 in the course of the Greek War of Independence (cf. monuments on S. and in the bay). Tausend, Sabine Bibliography J. Wilson, Pylos 425 B. C.,…


(68 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Τημένιον; Tēménion). Coastal town about 6 km to the south of Argos [II 1] with sanctuaries to Temenus, Poseidon, and Aphrodite (Str. 8,6,2; Paus. 2,36,6; 2,38,1 ff.); remains survive (to some extent under water). The long walls of Argos probably ended in T. (cf. Thuc. 5,82,5 f.; 5,83,2 on the year 417 BC). Tausend, Sabine Bibliography A. Folley, The Argolid, 1988, 196  E. Zangger, The Geoarchaeology of the Argolid, 1993, 62 f.


(208 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Σκιλλοῦς/ Skilloûs). Town, settled from as early as the Mycenaean period, in Triphylia to the south of Olympia and possibly to the west of modern Makrisia on the Agios Elias (not at modern Skilluntia, where there are remains probably of the Temple of Athena Skilluntia of Phellon: Str. 8,3,14). Being allied with Pisa (Pisatis) (Paus. 5,6,4; 6,22,4), S. is said to have built the temple of Hera in Olympia (Paus. 5,16,1). After S. had been destroyed by Elis in about 570 BC (Paus. 5,6,…


(183 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
(Θεισόα/ Theisóa). [German version] [1] City in Arcadia City in Arcadia (Arcadians; Paus. 8,27,7: 'near Orchomenus'), at modern Karkalou Mill (1050 m elevation). Remains survive of the acropolis fortifications, the city wall, an Hellenistic sanctuary (IG V 2, 511) and houses. Initially part of Orchomenus [3], in 368 BC T. was incorporated into Megale polis. Made autonomous again by Philopoemen (SEG 14, 455), T. was a member of the Achaean League (cf. Achaeans, Achaea [1]) and minted its own coins. Tausend, Sabine Bibliography S. Dusanic, Notes epigraphiques sur l'histoire ar…


(93 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Τεῦθις; Teûthis). City in Arcadia) on the Lusius with sanctuaries to Athena, Artemis and Aphrodite (Paus. 8,28,4-6), at modern Dimitsana. Settled from the Bronze Age, T. originally belonged to Orchomenus [3] (Paus. 8,27,4) and in 368/7 BC was added to Megalopolis and minted, occasionally independently, as a member of the Achaean League (Achaeans, Achaea [1]) its own copper coinage. Tausend, Sabine Bibliography S. Hornblower, When was Megalopolis founded?, in: ABSA 85, 1990, 71-77  R. Hope Simpson, Mycenaean Greece, 1981, 88  H. Chantraine, Der Beginn der j…


(52 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Θριοῦς; Thrioûs). City in Achaea (Achaei [1]; Plin.  HN 4,22) probably to the southwest of Patrae, precise location unknown. Subsequently part of Elis [2]  (Steph. Byz. s. v. Θ.). T. appears c. 120 BC in a votive inscription for Zeus of Olympia (SEG 15, 254, l. 2). Tausend, Sabine


(58 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Σκύλλαιον; Skýllaion). Promontory in the extreme east of Argolis between Hermione and Troezen (Str. 8,5,1; Paus. 2,39,7; Plin. HN 4,17; Ptol. 3,16,11: Σκύλαιον; Mela 2,49,50;  Thuc. 5,53), modern Cape Skyli. 3 km to the west at modern Phurkaria there is a Mycenaean and Hellenistic-Roman settlement. Tausend, Sabine Bibliography N. Pharaklas, Ancient Greek Cities, vol.. 10, 1972, app. 2, 2.


(84 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Τιτάνη; Titánē). Town in the area of Sicyon in the Peloponnese, away from the road to Phleius on the western bank of the Asopus [3] at modern T., with sanctuaries to Athena, Asclepius and Hygieia (Paus. 2,11,3-12,1). Apart from a Hellenistic fortress, remains of an Asklepieion (inscriptions IG IV 436) can be seen at the church of Agios Tryphon. Tausend, Sabine Bibliography A. Griffin, Sikyon, 1982, 25 f.  N. Faraklas, Ancient Greek Cities 8, 1971, Anh. 2, 15  G. Roux, Pausanias en Corinthe, 1958, 158 f.


(93 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Τορθύνειον; Torthýneion). Town in central Arcadia (Plin. HN 4,22; inscr.: [2]), to the southeast or south bordering Orchomenus [3] and Methydrium [1], recently identified with the remains of Hagia Sotira to the north of Kamenitsa; a prehistoric settlement is nearby on Mount Sakovouni (finds from the Neolithic to the Mycenaean period). Tausend, Sabine Bibliography 1 A. Plassart, Inscriptions d'Orchomène d'Arcadie, in: BCH 39, 1915, 58-60 2 S. Dusanic, Notes épigraphiques sur l'histoire arcadienne, in: BCH 102, 1978, 346-358. R. Hope Simpson, Mycenaean Gr…


(559 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Τριφυλία /Triphylía). Territory in the western Peloponnesus, north of the Alpheius [1]; south of the Neda, bounded on the east by the highlands of Arcadia (Arcadians, Arcadia). The fertile hill country, crossed by rivers, with its flat, bayless coast, is divided by the mountain range, today again known as Lapithus, stretching from west to east. The southern part with the Minthe [1] is characterized by extensive sand dunes (cf. 'sandy Pylos' in Hom. Il. 2,77), while there are numer…


(121 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Σπείραιον/ Speíraion). Promontory (Plin. HN 4,18; Ptol. 3,16,12) or bay (Thuc. 8,10,3, emendation) in northeastern Argolis on the border to Corinth, usually identified with modern Akrotiri Spiri or the Bay of Frangolimano; topographical considerations, however, suggest rather Akrotiri Trachili or the Bay of Korfos. Also, remains of a Late Classical watchtower above the bay indicate the border line. It was there that a Peloponnesian fleet was surrounded by the Athenians in 412 BC (Thuc. loc.cit.; Peloponnesian War). The bay played a role in a border dis…


(133 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
(Θόρναξ; Thórnax). [German version] [1] Mountain in the west of Pron Mountain in the west of Pron, the city mountain of Hermion(e) with an archaic period sanctuary to Zeus Kokkygios and a Hellenistic one to Apollo (Paus. 2,36,1 f.). Zeus is supposed to have married Hera as a cuckoo there. Tausend, Sabine Bibliography N. Faraklas, Ancient Greek Cities 19, 1973, app. 2, 3. [German version] [2] Town near Sparta Town near Sparta on the eastern bank of the Eurotas, possibly on the modern Kokkinorachi with finds dating back to the Mycenaean period. There was a sanctu…


(267 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Θουρία/ Thouría). Perioikoi city in Messana [2] in the Pamisus [1] plain on a small hill plateau (Str. 8,4,5; Paus. 4,31,1 f.; Ptol. 3,16,22) to the east of modern Antheia and Aithaia. From the Classical Period, parts of the city wall as well as temple and house foundations have survived. The hill, settled as early as the Early Helladic Period, flourished in the Mycenaean Period ( tholos and chamber graves). After an interruption in the LH III C, it was inhabited on it…


(56 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Θυαμία; Thyamía). Fortress of Sicyon on its border with Phleius across the modern Stimanga, in 367 BC lost by Sicyon to Phleius, regained in the subsequent peace treaty (Xen. Hell. 7,2,1; 7,4,1). Tausend, Sabine Bibliography A. Griffin, Sikyon, 1982, 27; 73 f.  N. Faraklas, Ancient Greek Cities 8, 1971, app. 2, 4; 17  Pritchett 2, 107.


(92 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Τυπανέαι/ Typanéai). City and fortress in Triphylia (Pol. 4,77,9-79,4; Str. 8,3,15; Ptol. 3,16,18: Τυμπανέαι/ Tympanéai) on a rock ridge of Mount Lapithus to the south of modern Platiana: an elongated site (Hellenistic walls, theatre), its western part forming the fortress. T. controlled a pass on the road from Megalopolis to Olympia. In the winter of 218/7 BC T. was occupied by the Aetoli and conquered by Philippus [7] V. Tausend, Sabine Bibliography N. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις …


(525 words)

Author(s): Lienau | Tausend, Sabine
(Ταίναρον; Taínaron). [German version] [1] Promontory, southernmost point of the Peloponnesus (Ταίναρον/ Taínaron, Ταίναρος/ Taínaros; Lat. Taenarum, Taenaros). Promontory on the southern tip of a peninsula formed by the Taygetus, the southernmost point of the Peloponnesus, modern Tenaron or Matapan. It is a marble mountain of 5 km length (311 m height), without any bays on the rugged west side and with two bays dividing the east side (Ormos Asomaton in the south, Ormos Vathi in the north). It is connected to th…


(331 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Ζάραξ/ Zárax). [German version] [1] City on the eastern coast of the Parnon This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea City of Laconian períoikoi on a bay (modern Limin Ierakas, Kastri or Ieraka) on the eastern coast of the Parnon, modern Ierax. Remains of ancient city walls on the northern side of the entrance to the harbour. Z. had an extremely advantageous maritime location (natural harbour) but lacked both good connections with the Laconian inland plain and drinking wa…


(697 words)

Author(s): Brizzi, Giovanni (Bologna) | Tausend, Sabine
[German version] Boii (Boi). Celtic tribe that settled in northern Italy from the time of the great migration at the end of the 4th cent. BC. The B. probably originated from Central Europe (cf. the name Bohemia; Vell. Pat. 2,109; Str. 7,1,3). In their migration they crossed over territories that had been settled by related, Celtic-speaking, Transpadanian tribes since the 6th cent. (Golasecca culture). They themselves settled in what is today central east Emilia and in Romagna (as far as the Utens, where the ager Senonum began: Liv. 5,35,3), after they had driven out the Umbri an…


(329 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Tausend, Sabine | Fell, Martin (Münster)
(Θεράπναι/ Therápnai). [German version] [1] City in Crete City in Crete, probably in the central north (presumably between Eleutherna and Cydonia; [cf. 1. 198]), reckoned one of the island's more important towns (Mela 2,113; Plin. HN 4,59). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 P. Faure, La Crète aux cents villes, in: Κρητικὰ Χρονικά 13, 1959, 171-217. [German version] [2] Place in Laconia This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta Cult site in Laconia (Laconica) on the left bank of the Eurotas, c. 2 km to the southeast of Sparta on a foothill of the Parnon…


(627 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Tausend, Sabine | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
(Τρίπολις/ Trípolis; literally, 'triple city'). [German version] [1] Perrhaebic T. The three cities of Azorus, Doliche and Pythium [2] in the small valley south of the Titarus and west of the Olympus [1] were referred to as the 'Perrhaebic T.' The locations of the cities are attested archaeologically, some in inscriptions as well. Up to the 3rd cent. BC, the T. belonged to the Macedonian Elimiotis, then to the alliance of the Perrhaebi and therefore to Thessalia. Literary documentation of T. exists only for the 3rd Macedonian War in 171 BC (Liv. 42,53,6; 42,67,7). Kramolisch, Herwig (Epp…
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