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Bochart, Samuel

(146 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (May 30, 1599, Rouen – May 16, 1667, Caen) studied philosophy in Sedan and theology in Saumur as well as in Leiden, where he devoted himself to Arabic. From 1625 he was a pastor in Caen. His dispute with the Jesuit François Véron (Sep 22 – Oct 3, 1628) and the publication of the proceedings made him well known, and the release of his Geographia sacra even more so. An invitation to the court of Christina of Sweden in 1652 gave him the opportunity to evaluate the Arabic manuscripts of the royal library for his Hierozoicon. In 1661 he got into contr…

Duplessis-Mornay, Philippe

(292 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Philippe de Mornay, Seigneur du Plessis-Marly, Baron de La Forêt-sur-Sèvre; Nov 5, 1549, Buhy-en-Vexin – Nov 11, 1623, La Forêt-sur-Sèvre). After his studies – with P. Ramus and others – Duplessis-Mornay traveled through western Europe (1568–1572), on the basis of which he published a report in which he set out France's need for an anti-H…

Amyraut, Moïse

(212 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Sep 1596, Bourgueil, Touraine – Jan 8, 1664, Saumur) studied law at Poitiers and theology at Saumur (1618–1621). In 1626, after a brief stay in London and an initial pastorate at St. Aignan, he became pastor and in 1633 professor at Saumur. His doctrine of hypothetical universalism ( Traité de la prédestination) provoked violent controversy. It is based on the principle that God wills the salvation of all, insofar as they have faith. God's will, however, is frustrated by hum…

Jacquelot (Jaquelot), Isaac

(207 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dec 16, 1647, Vassy – Oct 20, 1708, Berlin). Jacquelot succeeded his father as Protestant minister in Vassy; after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 (France: III, 1; Huguenots), he took refuge in Heidelberg. In 1686 he became pastor of the French congregation in The Hague. His Avis sur le tableau du socinianisme (1690) brought him into conflict with P. Jurieu, so that he withdrew to Basel. In 1702 he was called to Berlin by Frederick I; he served as court chaplain there until his death. In his writings, he argued with suc…

Huet (Huetius), Pierre Daniel

(233 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Feb 8, 1620, Caen – Jan 26, 1721, Paris). Huet was the early orphaned son of a Calvinist who converted to Catholicism. After attending the Jesuit College he studied law in Caen. He shared an interest in Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, and geography with S. Bochart, whom he accompanied to the Swedish court in 1652. In 1668, he published a manuscript by Origen on the Gospel of Matthew, which he had discovered there. But he had already returned to Paris by 1653. In 1662, he founded an academ…

Daillé, Jean

(167 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dallaeus; Jan 1, 1594, Châtellerault – Apr 15, 1670, Paris), Reformed theologian. After studying philosophy in Châtellerault and Poitiers, Daillé turned to theology in 1612 in Saumur. As the tutor of the grandchildren of P. Duplessis-Mornay in Saumur, he became friends with the professors of the academy and traveled with his students through Western …

Cavalier, Jean

(150 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Nov 28, 1681, Ribaute-les-Tavernes – May 17, 1740, Chelsea). First a shepherd, then a baker's apprentice, Cavalier fled to Geneva in 1701 for faith reasons. Already in the following year, he stepped forward as a “prophet” and military leader of the Camisards who were secretly gathering in the Cévennes for armed resistance. While the counter-measures of the marshal of Montrevel proved ineffective, his successor Villars succeeded in subduing Cava…

Rivet, André

(184 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Andreas Rivetus; Jun 22, 1572, St. Maixent – Jan 1, 1651, Breda). After studying at the Reformed Academy in Orthez under L. Daneau and others, and in 1595 in La Rochelle, Rivet became chaplain to the de la Trémouille ducal house and minister in Thouars. In 1620 he accepted a call to Leiden University. In 1632 he was appointed by Frederik Hendrik of Orange to be the tutor of his son, the future King William II. His related activity as councillor and court preacher ended when he be…

Bartholomew's Day, Massacre of

(276 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Aug 24, 1572) refers to the massacre of the Huguenots in the night before Bartholomew's Day during the wedding festivities of the Protestant Henri de Navarre with the Catholic Marguerite de Valois (Parisian Blood Wedding). It was triggered by the attempted assassination of the leader of the Huguenots and admiral, G. de Coligny. The bloody terror in Paris …

Port-Royal Abbey

(345 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] Port-Royal Abbey, south of Versailles near Chevreuse, was founded in 1204 as an abbey for Cistercian nuns (Cistercians). Under the leadership of J.-M. Arnauld, elected abbess in 1602 (Mère Angélique), a reform of the abbey dedicated to inward sanctification and serious piety began in 1608. The reform soon led her mother and her five sisters to join the abbey. One of her sisters was the later Mère Agnès, elected abbess in 1636. In 1625 the abbey moved to Paris on account of the unh…

Gallicanism

(1,091 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] I. Definition – II. Historical Development I. Definition The term “Gallicanism” was created in the late 19th century for the state church system characteristic of France, a system that was rooted in the Middle Ages and remained in effect up to the French Revolution. Gallicanism's focus on national church politics goes back to the liberties of the Gallican church that were partly based on theological considerations but mainly on state church law. The aim was to limit the pope's power in the France of the ancien régime. Institutions advocating Gallicanism were the …

Pufendorf, Samuel

(350 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Baron; Jan 8, 1632, Dorfchemnitz – Oct 26, 1694, Berlin). After attending the Fürstenschule in Grimma (1645–1650), Pufendorf studied in Leipzig and Jena from 1650 to 1658. He then took a position in Copenhagen as private tutor in the household of the Swedish ambassador Peter Julius Coyet. During months of Danish imprisonment in 1658, he wrote his Elementorum jurisprudentiae universalis libri duo, dedicated to the elector Palatine Charles Louis, which was published in 1660. This work earned him a call to Heidelberg as the first German profe…
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