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Jesuati

(159 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (later: Clerici apostolici S. Hieronymi), was a community founded around 1355 by Giovanni Colombini (died 1367) and his first associate, Francesco Vincenti. Initially, only laypersons lived together in poverty and penitence, with no fixed rule; they saw their vocation in praising God and in active love for their neighbor. The name derives from the exclamation in prayer, “O Gesù!” In 1367, the Jesuati obtained papal approbation and thereafter established monasteries in central and nort…

Elizabeth of Schönau

(202 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (c. 1129 – Jun 18, 1164), of noble descent, entered the double monastery at Schönau (Nassau; OSB) as a twelve-year-old. Five years later, she took her vows there. Elizabeth became magistra of the congregation of nuns in 1157. Plagued by illnesses and anxieties, Elizabeth received many “revelatory visions” (Ruh) in ecstatic episodes beginning in 1152; the visions followed the liturgical year. Her brother, Ekbert (monk at Schönau beginning i…

Matthew of Paris

(183 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Matthaeus Parisiensis; c. 1200 – June 1259, St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England). In 1217, he entered the Benedictine Abbey of St. Albans, had contacts with the court of Henry III, and in 1248/1249 reformed the Norwegian monastery of Holm (OSB) on papal commission. As a chronicler, he continued the world chronicle of Roger of Wendover (died 1236) in his main work entitled Chronica maiora. He wrote several works on English history, including Historia Anglorum, and on the history of his own monastery, Gesta Abbatum. He authored lives of saints, including of Steph…

Thomas Becket, Saint

(320 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1120 [?], London – Dec 29, 1170, Canterbury). After studying in Paris, Thomas, the son of a merchant, was accepted into the household of Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury, who named him archdeacon of Canterbury in 1154. In 1155 Henry II appointed him as his chancellor. Thomas was ambitious and lived lavishly but was considered highly talented and incorruptible. As Henry’s confidant, he carried out the king’s policies even against the interests of the church. That changed …

Pecock, Reginald

(208 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Peacock; Pavo; c. 1393, Wales – 1460/1461, Thorney Abbey, Cambridgeshire). After studying theology at Oxford (since 1409), Pecock served as a parish priest and later as a bishop (St. Asaph 1444, Chichester 1450). Despite several works against the ¶ Lollards, in 1457 he was charged with heresy; he was forced to recant, and several of his works were burned. After resigning his bishopric in 1459, he lived under house arrest in Thorney and was forbidden to write. Attacking the biblicism of the Lollards,…

Cambridge University

(762 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] The founding of Cambridge University probably goes back to members of Oxford University who left Oxford in reaction to the closing of schools in 1209 that resulted from disputes between the city and the university. Although instruction resumed in Oxford in 1214, a few scholars remained in Cambridge. Proximity to the episcopal see of Ely favored the establishment of a permanent institution, and Cambridge and Oxford remained the only English univer…

Latimer, Hugh

(177 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1485, Thurcaston, Leicestershire – Oct 16, 1555, Oxford). The son of a free peasant, Latimer studied theology from 1506 onward at Clare College, Cambridge (B.A. 1510, M.A. 1514). Having initially defended the old faith as a preacher and university lecturer, he joined the Reformation around 1524 under the influence of T. Bilney. Highly esteemed at the court of Henry VIII for a time (appointment as bishop of Worcester in 1535), he fell out of favor from ¶ 1539 during the turmoil surrounding Anne Boleyn; he delivered his most famous sermons under Edward VI. …

Netter, Thomas

(166 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Waldensis; c. 1372, Saffron Walden,Essex –Nov 2, 1430, Rouen), Carmelite monk. Ordained to the priesthood in 1396, he studied and taught theology in Oxford. He was court preacher to Henry IV and confessor to his successors. As a convinced conciliarist he took part in the reforming Councils of Basel (Basel, Council of) and Pisa (Pisa, Council of); he attended the Council of Constance (Constance, Council of) as his king’s representative and (from 1414) provincial of his order. He f…

Lollards

(399 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Wyclif[f]ites), adherents of the teachings of J. Wycliffe, were persecuted as heretics in England by both the church and the state until 1559. Spread beyond Oxford, initially by Wycliffe himself and later by his students, Wycliffite ideas were evident from 1382 in London, Leicester, Bristol, and elsewhere. This led to a tightening of the heresy laws (esp. stricter controlling of teachers of theology and priests who preached out-¶ side their parishes; a penalty for possessing the English Bible and religious literature in the vernacular) and to ini…

Dorothea of Montau

(204 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1347, Montau/Matowy near Danzig/Gdánsk – Jun 25, 1394, Marienwerder/Kwidzyn). Driven quite early by the desire for discipleship to Christ, this farmer's daughter nevertheless married in 1363. She subsequently led a life of intensive penitence and devotion shaped by love of poverty and the Eucharist, devotion to the passion and Mary, and bridal mysticism. She rec…

Parker

(242 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] Parker, Matthew (6.8.1504 Norwich – 17.5.1575 Lambeth). Der Sohn eines wohlhabenden Webers studierte am Corpus Christi College in Cambridge (1522–1528), dem er zeitlebens verbunden blieb (1544 Master; Stiftung seiner Sammlung ma. Hsn.). In Cambridge wurde P. auch für den Protestantismus gewonnen (Th. Bilney, H. Latimer). 1535 machte Anne Boleyn, Mutter Elisabeths I., den mittlerweile renommierten Prediger zu ihrem Kaplan. Gleichzeitig verfolgte P. seine akademische Karriere (1544 …

Thomas Becket

(287 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] (21.12.1120 [?] London – 29.12.1170 Canterbury). Der Sohn eines Kaufmannes wurde nach dem Studium in Paris 1143 in den Haushalt des Erzbf. Theobald von Canterbury aufgenommen, der ihn 1154 zum Archidiakon von Canterbury weihte; 1155 machte Heinrich II. ihn zu seinem Kanzler. Th. war ehrgeizig und pflegte einen aufwendigen Lebensstil, galt aber als hochbegabt und unbestechlich. Als Vertrauter des Königs setzte er dessen Politik auch gegen die Interessen der Kirche durch. Das änder…

Warham

(164 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] Warham, William (um 1456 Church Oakley, Hampshire – 22.8.1532 Hackington bei Canterbury). Nach dem Studium in Oxford (New College; Fellow 1475; LL.D. 1488) machte W. erfolgreich Karriere als Jurist in der staatl. und kirchl. Verwaltung und als Diplomat: Principal der School for Civil Law, Oxford (1490); Master of the Rolls (1494); Erzdiakon von Huntingdon (1496); Bf. von London (1502); Lordkanzler (1504). Als Erzbf. von Canterbury (seit 1503) krönte er Heinrich VIII. und Katharina…

Ridley

(260 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] Ridley, Nicholas (um 1502, Willimoteswick [?], Northumberland – 16.10.1555 Oxford), studierte seit 1518 in Cambridge (Pembroke Hall; B.A. 1521, M.A. 1526); 1524 machte ihn sein College zum Fellow. In diese Zeit fällt auch die Priesterweihe in Ely. Nach einer weiteren Studienzeit in Paris und Löwen setzte R. seine akademische Karriere in Cambridge fort (B.D. 1537, D.D. und Wahl zum Master von Pembroke Hall 1540); er verließ die Stadt jedoch bereits 1537, denn Th. Cranmer, den R. sp…

Pole

(296 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] Pole, Reginald (3.3.1500 Stourton Castle, Staffordshire – 17.11.1558 Lambeth, heute Stadtbezirk von London), Abkömmling des Hochadels und mit Heinrich VIII. von England verwandt, wurde in seiner Ausbildung an den Universitäten Oxford und Padua vom König gefördert. Er trat in Verbindung mit engl. und ital. Humanisten (Th. Morus, P. Bembo) und korrespondierte mit Erasmus von Rotterdam. Auf Druck der Familie nach England zurückgekehrt, setzte er seine Studien in der Kartause Sheen fo…

Pecock

(203 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] (Peacock; Pavo), Reginald (um 1393 Wales – 1460/61 Thorney Abbey, Cambridgeshire). Nach dem Studium der Theol. in Oxford (seit 1409) war P. als Pfarrer, später als Bischof (1444 St. Asaph, 1450 Chichester) tätig. Trotz verschiedener Schriften gegen die Lollarden geriet P. 1457 in Häresieverdacht; er mußte widerrufen, mehrere seiner Werke wurden verbrannt. Nach dem Amtsverzicht 1459 lebte P., mit Schreibverbot belegt, unter Hausarrest in Thorney. Gegen den Biblizismus der Lollarden …

Westminster

(469 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] I. Roman Catholic Archbishopric Following the Reformation in England, Roman Catholics labored under numerous constitutional and social disadvantages. Emancipation finally took place in 1829, despite considerable lingering anti-Catholic sentiment. Since the 1680s, four bishops, serving as vicars apostolic (Vicar apostolic), supervised Catholic interests in England; in 1840 four more were added. Various factors, most especially Irish immigration, the rise of the Oxford Movement, and the…

Westminster

(449 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] I. Römisch-katholisches Erzbistum Nach der Reformation in England hatte die röm.-kath. Minderheit unter zahlreichen verfassungsmäßigen und sozialen Benachteiligungen zu leiden. Auch nach der Gleichstellung der Katholiken 1829 blieben antikath. Vorurteile zurück. Seit den 80er Jahren des 17.Jh. nahmen vier Bischöfe, die als Apostolische Vikare dienten, kath. Interessen in England wahr; 1840 kamen vier weitere hinzu. Diverse Faktoren, zumal der Zustrom irischer Einwanderer, das Aufko…

Women

(11,554 words)

Author(s): Heller, Birgit | Bird, Phyllis A. | Wischmeyer, Oda | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise | Albrecht, Ruth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Traditionally research on religion has rarely dealt with women. Exceptions include Moriz Winternitz ( Die Frau in den indischen Religionen, 1915–1916) and F. Heiler ( Die Frau in den Religionen der Menschheit, 1977). In the 1970s, gender studies introduced a broad paradigm shift, which also affected religious studies. The principle that has guided this change from the traditional approach is that homo religiosus is not coincident with vir religiosus but equally has to include femina religiosa. The various questions can be assigned to th…
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