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Murād Pas̲h̲a, Ḳuyud̲j̲u

(1,399 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḳod̲j̲a , ( ca. 928-1020/ ca. 1520-1611), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Aḥmed I. A dews̲h̲irme [ q.v.] boy of Croat origin, he received his education in the imperial palace. His career began under patronage of Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a, the beglerbegi of Yemen and Egypt. Between 1560 and 1565 he was the latter’s ketk̲h̲udā . In Egypt, Murād also held the office of amīr al-ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ . which opened the way to public high office. In 983/1576 Murād (Pasha) became beglerbegi of Yemen himself for about four years. Dismissed in 988/1580 because of corruption, he was summoned to the c…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Muḥsin-Zāde

(630 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(1116?-1188/1704?-74), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Son of the Grand Vizier Muḥsin-zāde ʿAbd Allāh Pas̲h̲a (held office in 1150/1737) and born in Istanbul, he entered the Palace service as a Ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊ . In 1150/1737 he became Ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊lar Ketk̲h̲udāsi̊ and in 1151/1738 vizier and Beglerbegi of Marʿas̲h̲. After 10 years of provincial governmental posts he was in 1160/1747 appointed to the reorganised province of Adana with special orders to hunt down the rebellious elements in Anatolia. From 1162/1749 onwards …

Patrona K̲h̲alīl

(807 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ottoman rebel (d. 14 D̲j̲umādā I 1143/25 November 1730). Of Albanian origin, he belonged to the protégés of the Ḳapudān-Pas̲h̲a Muṣṭafā and ʿAbdī Pas̲h̲a ( ca. 1680-5 and later). He was born at K̲h̲urpis̲h̲te (Khroupista, now Argos Orestikon, to the south of Kastoria, Greece). He served as a Lewend [ q.v.] on board the flagship of the Ottoman vice-admiral, the Patrona (for this term, see riyala) whence probably his name. Transferred from naval service, he was able to join the Seventeenth Orta of the Janissary Corps in which he served till the peace set…

Muṣṭafā K̲h̲ayrī Efendi

(1,058 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ürgüplü (1283-1339/1867-1921), S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ ül-Islām of the Ottoman Empire. A member of an old established local ʿulamāʾ family, he was born at Ürgüp as a son of ʿAbd Allāh ʿAwnī Efendi. Members of the family were the administrator of the waḳf of the town’s principal mosque complex, the ulu d̲j̲āmiʿ founded by Ḳaramānog̲h̲lu Ibrāhīm Bey [see ḳaramānog̲h̲ullari̊ ], K̲h̲ayrī received his early education locally inter alia in Arabic, Persian and Turkish classical literature and calligraphy. His elder brother, an Inspector of Justice in the wilāyet of Sivas [ q.v.], supervised his cont…

Nūr Bānū

(901 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
Wālide Suḷtān ( ca. 932-91/ca. 1525-83), K̲h̲aṣṣekī (principal consort) of the Ottoman sultan Selīm II [ q.v.] and mother of the sultan Murād III [ q.v.]. She was born on Paros [see para ] as Cecilia, illegitimate daughter of Nicolo Venier (d. 1520), the penultimate sovereign ruler of the island and of Violante Baffo. The identity of this “Venetian Sultana” is often confused with that of her successor, the Wālide Sulṭān Ṣāfiye [ q.v.]. Some Turkish historians persist in ascribing a Jewish origin to her. At the time of the conquest of the island in 1537, she was selec…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Tabani̊yassi̊

(300 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(997?-1049/1589?-1639), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Of Albanian origin, he was taken from his home at Tas̲h̲lid̲j̲a as a devs̲h̲irme boy and entered the palace service [see enderūn ]. The protection of the Dār al-Saʿāda Ag̲h̲asi̊ Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī Muṣṭafā Ag̲h̲a provided him with a quick career from Mīr Āk̲h̲ūr to vizier and Beglerbegi of ¶ Egypt before becoming Grand Vizier on 28 S̲h̲awwāl 1041/18 May 1632. He assisted Sultan Murād IV [ q.v.] in suppressing opposition forces in the capital, thus making it possible for the sultan to rule in person. Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a favoured a …

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Gürd̲j̲ü

(487 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(II) (d. 1076/1666), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Having been a slave (but not an eunuch) of Ḳod̲j̲a Sinān Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], he entered the palace service, beginning as an apprentice in the kitchen ( maṭbak̲h̲ emīnliǧi ) department. By Ḏj̲umādā II 1023/July 1614, he reached the rank of a d̲j̲ebed̲j̲i bas̲h̲i̊ . While on campaign with Öküz Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] in the East, he was appointed čawus̲h̲ bas̲h̲i̊ [ q.v.] in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 1026/November 1617. In Rabīʿ I 1029/February 1620 he was made ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ , bas̲h̲i̊ , in which function he participated in Sultan ʿOt̲…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Elmās

(625 words)

Author(s): Groot, A. H. de
(1071-1109/1662-97), Ottoman Grand Vizier. He was born in Hoşalay (formerly Mesed, to the east of Kerempe Burnu) (Kastamonu), the son of a shipmaster. As a young man (reputedly beautiful, hence his surname Elmas “Diamond”), he was taken ¶ into the service of the state by a chief inspector of the Sultan’s treasury ( Bas̲h̲ Bāḳī Ḳulu ), Divrigili Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a, who was appointed governor of Tripoli in Syria in 1089/1677-8. From the service of the treasury, Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a Elmās was soon promoted to the palace service, to the Ḵh̲āṣṣ Oda [ q.v.] from where he made quick career as Riḳābdār , Si̊lāḥdā…

Mesiḥ Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(326 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḵh̲ādim ( ca. 901-98/ ca. 1495-1589), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Murād III [ q.v.]. Ḵh̲ādim Mesīḥ made his career as one of the white ag̲h̲as in the Sultan’s private household ( Enderun [ q.v.]) at the time when their influence was still predominant in the palace. At the accession of Murād III (982/1574), he held the office of chief butler ( Ki̊lārd̲j̲i̊bas̲h̲i̊ ) He left the palace service to become Beglerbegi of Egypt. He governed that province for five years. His successful administration brought him the appointment as Third Vizier …

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Öküz

(1,078 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Dāmād , Ḳara , 964?-1029/1557?-1620) Ottoman Grand Vizier. Born in Istanbul the son of a Muslim blacksmith, he entered the palace service in spite of the fact of his being of Muslim Turkish origin. After about 40 years service as a silāḥdār , he left the Palace with the rank of a Vizier and became Beglerbegi of Egypt (Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1015/April 1607). Arriving there the same year in May (Muḥarram 1016), he became busy with administrative reform. He abolished the illegally-imposed levies of ṭulba , kulfa and kus̲h̲ūfiyya , which formed an excessively heavy…

Ḳoč Ḥiṣār

(1,087 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, a name of several towns and villages in Asia Minor, derived from Ḳod̲j̲a-Ḥiṣar; compare such names as Ḳoč Ḥiṣāri̊, Ḳoyun Ḥiṣāri̊, Ḳoyul Ḥiṣāri̊, Keči Ḥiṣārī and Ṭoḳlu Ḥiṣāri̊ Confusion is often prevented by the addition of the name of the nearby provincial capital or of another word, e.g. Čanki̊ri̊ Ḳoč-Ḥiṣāri̊, S̲h̲erefli Koč Ḥiṣār. For the same reason, the toponyms of places with this name have been changed in recent times. I. S̲h̲erefli Ḳoč Ḥiṣāri̊ (in modern usage Şerefli Koçhisarı , centre of an ilçe (previously ḳaḍāʾ ) formerly called Esb-kes̲h̲ān, in …

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, ʿIwaḍ

(620 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī ( el-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ ) (1085 or 1086-1156/1675-1743), Ottoman Grand Vizier. He was the son of a descendant of the Ewlād-i Fātiḥān , one Naṣr Allāh, a tīmār holder at Jagodina. Educated for state service (hence ʿiwaḍ ), he served with high-placed officials at Belgrade (1100/1689) and at Ḏj̲udda (1107-8/1696), during which period he made the pilgrimage to Mecca. Having returned to Istanbul just before the Patrona Ḵh̲alīl rebellion of 1730, he acted as Gümrük Emīni , Commissioner of the Istanbul customs house, on behalf of Yegen Meḥmed Efendi…


(1,584 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(Turkish form of the Greek Λῆμνος, in older Ottoman historical works Limoz and Ilimli, in older Greek sources also Λῆμος, Stalimene in mediaeval western sources, Lemnos in modern usage) an island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea, 80 km. west of the entrance of the Dardanelles ( Čanaḳḳalʿe Bog̲h̲azi̊ [ q.v.]) halfway between Mount Athos and Tenedos [ Bozd̲j̲a-Ada [ q.v.]). The island, of ca. 470 km2, has been virtually treeless since long before Ottoman times. Agriculture is of local importance only. Its famous export product since antiquity is a sort of vo…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Yegen

(531 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Gümrükčü (d. 1158/1745), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Son of a sister of the then influential statesman Defterdār Kel Yūsuf Efendi (hence the surname “Nephew”), he was born in Antalya and began public life as a Mültezim in the region of his origin. He went to Istanbul to take up a career in the secretarial service, becoming a k̲h̲ad̲j̲egān . From 1140/1728 to 1141/1729 he was Commissioner of the Customs of Istanbul ( Gümrük Emīni ). Around 1144/1732 he became Ḳapu-Ketk̲h̲udāsi̊ of the Beglerbegi of Erzurum, Topal ʿOt̲h̲mān Pas̲h̲a, as well. In 1145/1733 he acquired the post of Mewḳūfātči̊

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Sulṭān-Zāde

(597 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḏj̲iwān Ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ , Semīn (1010-56/1602-46), Ottoman Grand Vizier. He was born in Istanbul as the son of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Bey (himself a son of Semīz Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Grand Vizier 887-8/1579-80, by origin an Albanian dews̲h̲irme boy) and of Hümās̲h̲āh ʿĀʾis̲h̲e Ḵh̲ani̊m Sulṭān, a daughter of Čig̲h̲ala-zāde Sinān Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], thus being a grandson of Princess Mihr-i Māh ¶ Sulṭān [ q.v.], hence his surname Sulṭān-zāde (cf. A.D. Alderson, The structure of the Ottoman dynasty, Oxford 1956, Table XXX, no. 2128). Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a was educated in the imperial harem and the Khāṣṣ Od…


(20,279 words)

Author(s): Sanders, P. | Chalmeta, P. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Groot, A.H. de | Burton-Page, J.
(a), official court ceremonies, both processional and non-processional. The whole range of ceremonial, including protocol and etiquette, is called also rusūm other terms found frequently are mawsim [ q.v.] and mawkib . Mawākib [ q.v.] refer specifically to solemn processions, but seem also to have had the more general meaning of audiences (for the ʿAbbāsids, see references in D. Sourdel, Le vizirat ʿabbāside de 749 à 946, Damascus 1960, ii, 684, n. 3; for the Fāṭimids, see e.g. al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ṣubḥ , iii, 494: d̲j̲ulūs [ al-k̲h̲alīfa ] fi ’l-mawākib; ayyām al-mawākib ). 1. Under the …

Sand̲j̲aḳ-i S̲h̲erīf

(1,360 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
Liwāʾ-i Sherīf or ʿAlem-i Nebewī , in Ottoman Turkish usage the sacred standard of the Prophet Muḥammad which is ¶ kept in the palace of Ṭopḳapi̊ at Istanbul (see ṭopḳapi̊ sarayi̊ ) together with the other holy relics of Islam ( Emānāt-i Mübāreke or Muḳaddese ) such as the Holy Mantle (the Burda” ) [see k̲h̲irḳa-yi s̲h̲erīf ], Holy Footstep and Beard of the Prophet (see ḳadam s̲h̲arīf and liḥya-yi s̲h̲arīf ]. According to a tradition recorded by Mouradgea D’Ohsson ( Tableau général de l’Empire Othoman , Paris 1788-1824, ii, 378) and the Ottoman historian Fi̊ndi̊ḳli̊li̊ Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a ( Silāḥda…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Lālā

(1,198 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, S̲h̲āhīnog̲h̲lu , Bosnali̊ (d. 1015/1606, Ottoman Grand Vizier. Born in Jajce as a descendant of the Bosnian S̲h̲āhinog̲h̲ullari̊ family, he was related to Ṣoḳollu Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Taken into Ottoman service as a dews̲h̲irme [ q.v.] boy, he was educated in the so-called Palace School [see enderūn ]. During those years he was probably engaged in giving lessons in fighting to one or more Ottoman princes, hence his surname of Lālā “tutor”. Lālā Meḥmed successively held the court functions of Pes̲h̲kīr ag̲h̲asi̊ , Küčük Mīr Āk̲h̲ūr and Büyük Mīr Āk̲h̲ūr and …

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Melek

(428 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Dāmād (1131-1216/1719-1802), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Selīm III [ q.v.]. He was the son of Bosnali̊ Ḵh̲od̲j̲a Süleymān Pas̲h̲a, Vizier and Ḳapudān-i̊ dervā in 1126/1714 and 1130/1718 till his death in 1133/1721. Born in Istanbul, he followed his father’s footsteps in a naval career, becoming commander ( Deryā begi) in 1736, Tersāne ketk̲h̲üdāsi̊ and Ḳapudān-i̊ deryā himself (1165-8/1752-5). Sultan Muṣṭafā III (1171-87/1757-74) appointed him Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ , and married him to the Princess Zeyneb ʿĀṣi̊ma Sulṭān, a daughter of Aḥmed III (1757) (cf. A.D. Alderson, The str…

Süleymān Pas̲h̲a, Malaṭyali̊

(850 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Dāmād , Silāḥdār , Ḳod̲j̲a , ( ca. 1016-98/1607-87), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Meḥemmed IV [ q.v.]. Born in Malaṭya [ q.v.] of non-Muslim parents, possibly Armenians, he was educated in the dews̲h̲irme [ q.v.] establishment of the Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a palace at Istanbul upon the instigation of his relative, the Ḳapu Ag̲h̲asi̊ [ q.v.] Ismāʿīl Ag̲h̲a, and made his career in the palace service (see enderūn ). From being Dülbend ag̲h̲a , he became Miftāḥ s̲h̲āgirdi in the Seferli odasi̊ and the K̲h̲āṣṣ oda [ q.v.], and in 1050/1640 became Silāḥdār [ q.v.] to the sultan. Six months later…
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