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Murlo/Poggio Civitate

(309 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria From 1966 on, American excavations have been uncovering a large Etruscan building complex on the Poggio Civitate hill near Vescovado di Murlo, 18 km south-east of Siena. Two different construction phases have been identified. The first building, dating from around 650 BC, was destroyed by fire in the last quarter of the 7th cent. The later, almost square-shaped structure, about 60 m in length, consists of four wings,…

San Giovenale

(213 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] Swedish excavations, 1956-1967, uncovered large sections of an Etruscan settlement on a high plateau at the confluence of two water courses in the northeastern foothills of the Tolfa Mountains. The floor plans of houses from three settlement phases are important for the study of the architecture of archaic Etruscan houses (cf. House [II C]): a late Bronze Age hut settlement with timber-framed buildings smaller than the long houses in Luni sul Mignone was located under the courtyar…

Rossano di Vaglio

(170 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] The Lucanian sanctuary of the Oscan goddess Mefitis Utiana in the mountains above Vaglio Basilicata has been systematically excavated since 1969. Several buildings of sandstone and limestone blocks, belonging to two phases, are grouped around a 27 × 21 m paved courtyard. The centre is formed by an elongated altar along the southern side. A large votive pit with Oscan/Lucanian inscriptions (in the Greek alphabet), chariot wheels, marble statues, terracottas, thymiateria, bronze fibulae and coins shows that the cult there was continually alive from t…

Marsiliana d'Albegna

(166 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria Of the Etruscan settlement (possibly Caletra in antiquity) on the confluence of Albegna and Elsa in the Maremma/south Etruria only the necropoleis are known, and they provide evidence for a significant agrarian centre in the late 8th to 6th cents. BC. Earliest phase: pozzetto graves dating from the late Villanovan period for cremations and fossa graves for inhumations. Later fossa graves were placed within a stone circle made of …

Castel d'Asso

(184 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] Medieval fortress west of Viterbo on the site of the Roman Castellum Axia (Cic. Caecin. 7,20), situated on a tuff plateau that falls away steeply to water courses to the west, north and south. The tuff spur is protected from the hinterland by three ditches. In archaic times, the settlement stretched as far as the eastern ditch, but in the Hellenistic period it was situated only on the western part of the spur. On the steep slopes on the north opposite the medieval castle there is …

Luni sul Mignone

(226 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria Place of settlement in early history in the northern foothills of the Tolfa mountains c. 80 km northwest of Rome. On a 560 by 150 metre tuff plateau with steeply dropping edges bounded in the north and south by valleys. Swedish excavations (1960-1963) were able to reveal three phases of settlement. The Bronze Age settlement (14th-11th cents. BC) belongs to the Apennine culture. In three adjacent long houses, fragments of Mycenaean ceramics wer…

Norchia

(230 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria The Etruscan settlement lay on a high plateau at the confluence of two watercourses south-west of Viterbo. A late Bronze Age settlement (2nd half of 2nd millenium BC) was followed initially by a hiatus lasting into the 6th cent. BC. N. experienced a cultural peak in the late Etruscan period, when the Tarquinii expanded into the interior of Etruria in the mid-4th cent. The plateau was 10.5 ha in size; it was fortified…

Suana/Sovana

(183 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria The now almost entirely abandoned episcopal city of S. near Pitigliano, to the west of Lake Bolsena, was called Suana in the Roman period. Like the Etruscan settlement which belongs to Volci/Vulci territory, it lies on a steep-sided tuff outcrop at the confluence of two water courses. Excavations by the University of Pisa and surveys by the Tuscan Monument Authority have mainly studied the necropoleis. Two periods of prosperity h…

Acquarossa

(206 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria Etruscan settlement to the south of the later Roman colony  Ferentium. A. is situated on a high altitude plateau of 32 hectares with steep drops along its edges to water courses at lower levels. The easy access from the south was secured with defensive moats. Swedish excavations since 1966 discovered that A. was flourishing from the late 7th cent. until its violent destruction in c. 500 BC. At the edge of the settled area, smaller, two- to three-roomed rectangular houses were located in an ar…

Heba (Magliano)

(157 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria The Roman colony H., established in the 3rd or 2nd cent. BC, lay on a hill south-east of Magliano. The equation with the H. mentioned by Ptol. 3,1,43 and Plin. HN 3,52 is confirmed on the basis of an inscription on a  cippus. A previous Etruscan settlement is assumed only because of necropoleis which are documented from the late 7th cent. BC and were esp. wealthy in the 6th cent. A lead plate of the 5th-4th cents. BC found in the ar…

Poggio Buco

(180 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] The Etruscan settlement of PB near Pitigliano (Prov. Grasseto, Italy) is most often identified with the Statonia (Etruscan Statne) mentioned in Str. 5,2,9 [1; 2]. The latter, however, is also located in the Monti Cimini west of Viterbo [4]. Of the ancient settlement on the rock plateau Le Sparne only minimal remains of the surrounding wall and a temple area remain. The necropolis, excavated since 1897, has rock chamber graves dating to the 7th and 6th cent. BC as well as to the 3rd and 1st. The site was not settled continuously. The finds (ceramics and terracotta, i.a.) of th…

Ghiaccio Forte

(102 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[English version] Die auf einem oben flachen, zu den Rändern steil abfallenden Hügel gelegene etr. Siedlung 14 km südöstl. von Scansano gehörte in der Ant. wohl zum Einflußgebiet von Vulci. Im 6. Jh. v.Chr. gab es hier ein ländliches Heiligtum. Eine Siedlung ist erst für das späte 4. und frühe 3. Jh. v.Chr. nachweisbar. Die von einer umlaufenden Mauer aus großen Blöcken mit Bruchsteinfüllung befestigte Siedlung wurde um 280 v.Chr. gewaltsam zerstört. Amerikanische Grabungen legten 1972/1973 Hausre…

Castel d'Asso

(150 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[English version] Mittelalterliche Burg westl. von Viterbo am Ort des röm. Castellum Axia (Cic. Caecin. 7,20), auf einem Tuffplateau gelegen, das nach Westen, Norden und Süden steil zu Wasserläufen abfällt. Der Tuffsporn ist durch drei Gräben gegen das Hinterland geschützt. Die Siedlung reichte in archa. Zeit bis zum östl. Graben, lag in hell. Zeit aber nur noch auf dem westl. Teil des Sporns. An den Steilhängen nördl. gegenüber der ma. Burg befindet sich eine Felsgräbernekropole des 4.-2.Jh. v.Ch…

Acquarossa

(162 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Etrusci, Etruria Etr. Siedlung südl. der späteren röm. Kolonie Ferentium. A. liegt auf einem 32 ha großen Hochplateau mit steil zu tiefer gelegenen Wasserläufen abfallenden Rändern. Bequemer Zugang von Süden war durch Verteidigungsgräben gesichert. Schwedische Grabungen seit 1966 erbrachten eine Blüte von A. vom späten 7. Jh. bis zur gewaltsamen Zerstörung ca. 500 v. Chr. Am Rand der Siedlungsfläche standen kleinere, zwei bis dreiräumige Re…

Narce

(180 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[English version] Die faliskische Siedlung N. lag auf drei steilabfallenden Tuffplateaus 9 km südl. von Cività Castellana. Die drei Plateaus (Narce, Monte li Santi und Pizzo Piede) bildeten sukzessive die Siedlungszentren. Spätarcha. Tempel konnten auf dem Pizzo Piede und westl. des Monte li Santi nachgewiesen werden; zu einem Heiligtum gehörte auch eine große Stufenanlage und ein Felsthron südl. des Monte li Santi. Die reichen Nekropolen belegen die Bed. des Platzes vom 14. Jh. v.Chr. (Apenninkul…

Rossano di Vaglio

(150 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[English version] Das lukanische Heiligtum der oskischen Göttin Mefitis Utiana in den Bergen oberhalb von Vaglio Basilicata wird seit 1969 systematisch ausgegraben. Mehrere Gebäude aus Sand- und Kalksteinquadern, die zwei Phasen angehören, gruppieren sich um einen 27 × 21 m großen gepflasterten Hof. Das Zentrum bildet der langgestreckte Altar entlang der Südseite. Eine große Votivgrube mit oskisch-lukanischen Inschr. (in griech. Alphabet), Wagenrädern, Marmorstatuen, Terrakotten, Thymiateria, Bron…

Poggio Buco

(171 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[English version] Die etr. Siedlung von P.B. bei Pitigliano (Prov. Grasseto, It.) wird meist mit dem bei Strab. 5,2,9 erwähnten Statonia (etr. Statne) gleichgesetzt [1; 2], das aber auch in den Monti Cimini westl. von Viterbo lokalisiert wird [4]. Von der ant. Siedlung auf dem Felsplateau Le Sparne sind nur geringe Reste der Ummauerung und eines Tempelbezirks erhalten. Die seit 1897 ausgegrabene Nekropole besitzt Felskammergräber, die ins 7. und 6. Jh.v.Chr. sowie in die Zeit vom 3. bis 1. Jh. zu …

Sur(r)ina

(132 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] The small Etruscan settlement of S. was on the Colle di San Lorenzo in Viterbo near the papal palace and the cathedral which is separated by a passage from an adjacent hill which was also built over by mediaeval Viterbo. Parts of the encircling wall and the sewerage system are still visible. Of the Roman municipium of Surrina Nova, on a hill between Viterbo and Lake Bullicame, there are only limited remains. Finds from the surrounding area, e.g. from Acquarossa, Blera, Ferentis, Ferentium, Manturanum, Musarna [2], Norchia and San Giov…

Saturnia

(221 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Regio, regiones A small town, nowadays insignificant, on the River Albegna in the hinterland of Volci/Vulci. According to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,20 and Plin. HN 3,52, S. was called Aurinia in the Etruscan Period; with the institution of a Roman military prefecture after 280 BC its name was changed to S. In the 6th cent. BC, after the decline of Marsiliana d'Albegna (perhaps Caletra), the agrarian se…

Pietrabbondante

(266 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] A Samnite federal sanctuary which may possibly be equated with Bovianum Vetus lay near the village of P. (in the province of Isernia). Numerous dedications of weapons dating from the late 5th cent. BC up to the Samnite Wars in the early 3rd suggest that a god, no longer identifiable, here received a tithe of the booty of war. Shortly after the mid 3rd cent., an Ionic temple replaced the first square, walled enclosure from the 4th cent; the temple was violently destroyed at the end…
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