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(1,082 words)

Author(s): Petzoldt, Martin
[German Version] The term cantata now refers especially to the polyphonic church music with multiple movements as specified by J.S. Bach and whose text is based on ¶ the proprium of the Sundays and festival days of the church year. In contrast to the sonata (a “sounding” instrumental piece), the cantata is a choral piece that developed in the 17th century largely in Italy as secular music. Textually, non-strophic, so-called madrigal poetry is used for arias and recitatives. In Germany, ca…


(1,560 words)

Author(s): Petzoldt, Martin
[German Version] 1. Johann Michael (Aug 9, 1648, Arnstadt – May 17, 1694, Gehren). Son of the Arnstadt organist Heinrich Bach, brother of the grandfather and father-in-law of 2. Through his marriage with one of the five daughters of the Arnstadt town clerk Johann Wedemann, he founded a family clan of musicians and councilmen in the towns of Thurìngia, which was not without …

Calvisius, Seth

(223 words)

Author(s): Petzoldt, Martin
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1556, Gorsleben, Thüringen – Nov 24, 1615, Leipzig) attended school in Frankenhausen (1569) and Magdeburg (1572), where he may have been a student of Gallus Dressler. He attended the Universities of Helmstedt (1579) and Leipzig (1580). In 1581, he became cantor at the University Church in Leipzig; in 1582, cantor and Hebrew teacher in the Princes' School in Pforta; in 1594, Thomas cantor in Leipzig. The significance of this office is due…

Becker, Cornelius

(191 words)

Author(s): Petzoldt, Martin
[German Version] (Oct 24, 1561, Leipzig – May 25, 1604, Leipzig) studied in Leipzig, in 1588 collega tertius at the Thomas school; in the same year he was archdeacon at Rochlitz, in 1592 at St. Nicholas in Leipzig. In 1594, Becker was minister in Leipzig. His licentiate in 1597 and his doctorate in 1599 led to a professorship of theology. In 1601, he was suspe…

Alberti, Valentin

(89 words)

Author(s): Petzoldt, Martin
[German Version] (Dec 15, 1635, Lähn, Silesia– Sep 15, 1697, Leipzig), professor of theology at Leipzig, took a mediating position in the controversy concerning A.H. Francke in 1689. His stance led to a revival of devotion without institutional changes in the church. He defended the biblical foundations of natural law against representatives of the Enlightenment such as H. Grotius, S. Pufendorf, and C. Thomasius. Martin Petzoldt Bibliography M. Petzoldt, “Konfessionalisierung als Identitätssuche,” in: H. Baier, ed., Konfessionalisierung vom 16.–19. Jahrhundert: Kirche u…

Ammon, Christoph Friedrich von

(190 words)

Author(s): Petzoldt, Martin
[German Version] (Jan 16, 1786, Bayreuth – May 21, 1850, Dresden). Ammon became professor of philosophy at Erlangen in 1789, and professor of theology in 1790. He moved to Göttingen in 1794 and returned to Erlangen in 1804 (where he also held ecclesiastical office). He served as chief court preacher in Dresden from 1813 to 1849. Apart from his general characte…


(501 words)

Author(s): Klek, Konrad | Link, Christoph | Petzoldt, Martin
[German Version] 1. Julius (May 10, 1857, Lengerich, Westphalia – Jun 7, 1930, Münster), together with F. Spitta, a leader of the “Older Liturgical Movement.” After studying theology at Bonn, Halle, and Göttingen, he succeeded Spitta as assistant preacher in Bonn. He received his license to teach in 1884 and was appointed pastor in Seelscheid. In 1891 he was appointed professor in the seminary at Friedberg and in 1893 professor of practical theology at Straßburg (Strasbourg). In 1914 he became the f…

Liturgical Cantata

(409 words)

Author(s): Petzoldt, Martin
[German Version] The effort to use religious cantatas in worship starts from the importance of music in worship that gained significance especially through Luther's reform of worship (Worship: I, 6.b): ¶ worship as a sacrifice of praise and a sin-offering. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the development in the Protestant territories and cities of Germany led to a rich musical environment that promoted especially the musica figuralis for the proprium. In fact, worship services were conducted as liturgical cantatas, without being understood as …