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Licinius

(11,186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Et al.
Name of probably the most important Roman plebeian family. The similarity to the Etruscan name lecne and the links between the gens and Etruria in historical times (L. [I 7]) suggest an origin in that region [1. 108, n. 3]; the name may, however, also be of Latin origin ( Licinus). The spelling with a double ‘n’ occurs not only in the Greek form Λικίννιος ( Likínnios), but also in Latin inscriptions [1. 108, n. 1]. In the annalistic historical records dealing with the early Republic, members of the family appear among the earliest people's tribunes, reaching their polit…

Ariovistus

(676 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] King of a Germanic people. Plin. HN 2,170 calls him (without explicitly mentioning the name A.) rex Sueborum, Mela 3,45 rex Botorum (= Nep. F 29), Caes. B. Gall. 1,31,10 and Front. Strat. 2,1,16 rex Germanorum and Liv. per. 104 dux. The Roman terms are imprecise (the term Suebi was only a collective designation for Germanic tribes on the right Rhine bank, the Boti are unknown), maybe A. was a ruler of the Triboci, who lived in Alsace and the Palatinate [2. 510: Tribocorum instead of Botorum]. Our knowledge depends almos…

Ateius

(581 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Italic proper name [1. 347, 426], traceable in the public life of Rome since the 1st cent. BC, not very common. [German version] [1] A. Legate of M. Antonius in Gaul, 41/40 BC Legate (?) of M.  Antonius in Gallia in 41/40 BC (MRR 3,26). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A., M. Centurio during the storming of Athens in 86 BC centurio, distinguished himself during the storming of Athens in 86 BC (Plut. Sull. 14,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze. [German version] [3] A. Capito, C. Tribunus plebis 55 BC Fought as tribunus plebis from 55 BC together with…

Caninius

(427 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, attested from the 2nd cent. BC. (Schulze, 144; ThlL, Onom. 137f.). [German version] [1] C. Gallus, L. People's tribune 56 BC People's tribune 56 BC; he sought, without success, the reinstatement of Ptolemy Auletes in Egypt (MRR 2,209). In 56 BC, he was defended by Cicero (Fam. 7,1,4), in 51 BC in Athens frequently in his company, and visited him in Rome in 46 BC. He died in 44 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C. Gallus, L. Consul in 37 BC Son of C. [1], consul of 37 BC with M. Vipsanius  Agrippa (MRR 2,395; PIR 22 C 389). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) …

Antistius

(1,814 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] I. Greek Epigrammatic poet Epigrammatic poet; although it is not possible to be certain, because the name is fairly common, A. is usually equated with the Macedonian C. Antistius Vetus, who in AD 11 was sent into exile because of treason (Tac. Ann. 3,38), or with the praetor A. Sosianus, who suffered the same destiny in AD 62 (Reason: factitatis in Neronem carminibus probrosiis... Tac. Ann. 14,48; 16,14; 21; cf. Hist. 4,44). His four epigrams, which derive from the ‘Garland’ of Philippus are balanced, elegant variations of traditional motives…

Androsthenes

(244 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] See > Olympionikai see  Olympionikai Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Commander of  Philippus V in the second Macedonian War Commander of  Philippus V in the second Macedonian War, held Corinth despite being defeated in Nemea by the Achaeans under  Nicostratus (Liv. 33,14,1; 15). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [3] General of the Thessalian League (middle of the 1st cent. BC) General of the Thessalian League ( praetor Thessaliae); after Caesar's defeat at Dyrrhachium, he joined  Pompeius and attempted to defend …

Menedemus

(1,406 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Μενέδημος; Menédēmos). [German version] [1] Functionary of Alexander the Great, 329 BC sent by Alexander [4] the Great in 329 BC, with a 1500-strong mercenary infantry, Caranus with 800 mounted mercenaries and Andromachus with 60 hetairoi, to relieve the fortress of Maracanda, which was under siege by Spitamenes. Pharnuches, a Lycian (but certainly descended from Persian settlers) interpreter, was provided to them as he was familiar with the inhabitants and their language (Arr. An. 4,3,7). Through the inco…

Thucydides

(2,974 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | S.HO.
(Θουκυδίδης/ Thoukydídēs). [German version] [1] Son-in-law of Cimon [2], 5th cent. BC Son of Melesias, son-in-law of Cimon [2] (Schol. Aristid. 46), Athenian politician from the Alopece deme. Represented the oligarchs from the mid-450s, at least from 449. Plutarch made him the embodiment of the political forces opposing Pericles [1] (Plut. Pericles 6,2 f.; 8,5; 11; 14; Fab. Max. 30,2). T. attacked Athenian building policies, because, being linked with a social welfare and employment programme, they strength…

Pompeius

(8,348 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Plebeian family (connection with the Campanian city of Pompeii is unclear). The family acquired political significance with P. [I 1]; he is the origin of the Rufi branch. With P. [I 8] a related branch attained consulship and with his son Cn. P. [I 3] Magnus supplied the most significant member of the gens. Both lineages continue until the early Imperial period (family trees: [1; 2; 3]). I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Q. Consul 141 BC A homo novus and popular orator (Cic. Brut. 96), he became consul in 141 BC, despite resistance from the nobility a…

Lollius

(1,733 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family. Bearers of the name, recorded from the 3rd cent. BC, not of urban Roman origin, emerged as business people from the 2nd cent. (ILLRP 723b; 747; 1025) and received Roman citizenship perhaps only after the Social War [3]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., L. Proscribed in 82 BC Read his name on one of Sulla's lists of proscribed persons in 82 BC and was thereupon immediately killed on leaving the Forum (Oros. 5,21,4f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L., L. Pompey's legate against the pirates in 67 BC Pompey'…

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Tolmides

(118 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Τολμίδης/ Tolmídēs). Son of Tolmaeus, Athenian stratēgós in the years 457-455, 452, 451, 448 and 447 BC [1. 75 ff.]. After the murder of Ephialtes [2], in the 450s T. became the most important democratic politician and exponent of an aggressive naval league policy (Delian League). T.' often assumed political independence from Pericles [1] is an anachronism (cf. Plut. Pericles 16,3). In 456/5, T. commanded a successful naval operation against the Peloponnese (Thuc. 1,108), in 447 he settled Attic klēroûchoi on Euboea, Naxos and probably …

Caecina

(1,087 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
Roman family name of Etruscan origin ( Ceicna, Schulze, 75, 285, 567; ThlL, Onom. 15f.), whose bearers belonged to the city aristocracy of Volaterrae (cf. Cic. Fam. 6,6,9), where the family is attested in several branches and partly through richly adorned graves. (CIE 18-24; 36-42 et al.). The lineage appeared in Rome from the 1st cent. BC, but never lost its links with its homeland (cognomen Tuscus in C. [II 9]); villa of the Roman city prefect of AD 414, Caecina Decius Atinatius Albinus, (PLRE 1, 50)…

Dracontides

(167 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Δρακοντίδης; Drakontídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, commander in the Peloponnesian War Athenian, son of Leogoras from the deme Thorae; in 446/5 BC epistátēs, in 433/2 stratēgós and in that capacity one of the commanders of a relief fleet for Cercyra in the autumn of 433 (cf. Thuc. 1,51,4; on the corruption of the text at that point see [1. 95]). D. was a bitter opponent of Pericles and in 430 aided in his removal (Plut. Pericles 32,3) [2]. Davies 4551. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography 1 S. Hornblower, Commentary 1, 1991 2 F. J. Frost, Pericles and Dracontides, in: JHS 84, …

Acilius

(1,410 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Gentilicium of a plebeian gens, verifiable from the 3rd cent. BC. The most important branches are the Aviolae (imperial era), Balbi and especially the Glabriones, who are documented from the 3rd cent. BC to the end of the 5th cent. AD [1]. In Rome there was a compitum Acilium, on which the first Greek doctor in Rome was settled in 219 (Plin. HN 29,12 [2. 98]), on the Pincio the horti Aciliorum, in the imperial era the most famous gardens of Rome [2. 195 f.; 3. 488 ff.]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] Soldier in Caesar's tenth legion Brave soldier in Ca…

Menippus

(1,763 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Μένιππος; Ménippos). [German version] [1] According to Plutarch sub-commander of Pericles In Plut. Pericles 13,10 (cf. Plut Mor. 812d) mentioned as a friend and sub-commander of Pericles (probably between 443 and 430 BC). Like the latter, he was mocked in the comedies. It is uncertain if M. really was a strategos. Plutarch's term for him ( hypostratēgṓn) is the Greek equivalent of the Latin term legatus (Develin, 103). Aristoph. Av. 1294 mentions a M., whom the scholias identify as a horse dealer. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography PA 10033 Traill, PAA 646185 (vgl. 646190 und 646195). …

Carrinas

(416 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman family name, presumably of Etruscan origin (in Greek also Καρείνας, Καρρείνας; Kareínas, Karreínas), reliably attested from the 1st cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 2,209f.). I. Republican Age [German version] [I 1] C., C. Follower of Marius Follower of Marius, in the Civil War sent to Picenum against  Pompeius in 83 BC (Plut. Pompeius 7); he was praetor in 82 BC , and suffered a number of defeats in northern and central Italy. After the flight of the consul Cn.  Papirius Carbo to Africa, the remaining Marian military leaders united their troops with the Samn…

Aurelius

(2,999 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Widespread plebeian gentilicium (ThlL 2,1482-87), which in ancient etymology is derived from Sabine and was derived via the older form Auselius from sol (sun) (Fest. p. 22; from this the modern derivation from the Sabine * ausel over Etruscan usil ‘Sun god’, cf. [1. 36; 2. 468]). The family attained noble status in the 1st Punic War with Aur. [3] and provides numerous consuls in the 2nd cent. BC from the branches of the Cottae, Orestae and Scauri. This, however, does not completely explain the building stages and assignment of various viae Aureliae in the 2nd cent. [3; 4]. The late R…

Canuleius

(321 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Name of a plebeian gens, attested from the 5th cent. BC (variant Canoleius; Greek Κανουλήϊος; Kanoulḗïos); from the 1st cent. AD, the name becomes rare (ThlL, Onom. 2,148f.). [German version] [1] C., C. Tribunus plebis 445 BC tribunus plebis of 445 BC, who is said to have introduced a plebiscitum Canuleium de conubio, repealing the bar to marriage between patricians and plebeians (Cic. Rep. 2,63; Liv. 4,1,1-6). As it is hard to imagine that a people's tribune of the 5th cent. BC could so decisively intervene in the legislative process, the reliab…

Allienus

(78 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] From 61 to 59 BC legate of Q. Tullius Cicero in Asia (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 1,1,10), in 55 tribunus plebis (MRR 2, 217), in 49 praetor (Cic. Fam. 10,15,3), 48-46 procos. in Sicilia (MRR 2, 275; 288; 296). In this function he supported  Caesar during his African campaign in January 46 with troops (Bell. Afr. 34,4). In 44/43 he was first legate of Trebonius, then of Dolabella (MRR 2, 352). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
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