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(771 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Patrick
Any definition of the term Beigeordneter (“deputy mayor”) must on the one hand take account of different regional traditions of community constitution (especially mayor and magistrate constitution), and on the other had changes of meaning which the term has experienced in the past two centuries. From a historical perspective it must be noted that discrepancies occur between the Beigeordneter as analytical term and as source term. In the literature in modern administrative studies and also in a portion of the community constitutions in the Federal Repub…
Date: 2019-10-14

Provisions, urban supply of

(1,308 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Patrick
1. Challenges and assumptionsIn the early modern period, practically without exception, grain products (Bread; Porridge) provided the basic source of nourishment for the urban population – especially for the poorer classes – until the second half of the 18th century, when the potato became similarly important. This was a major reason why urban food supplies were fundamentally prone to crises. Crop failure could lead to an explosive rise in grain prices (Agricultural markets; Agricultural prices) an…
Date: 2021-03-15

Guild artifacts

(972 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Patrick
1. Definition and nature The term guild artifacts denotes objects that were in the possession of the guilds and are thought to have been particularly associated with the communal activities of the guild members and to have helped establish the identity of the corporation. Such artifacts include guild seals, banners, and symbols [8], but also objects used in religious ceremonies and the commemoration of the dead – less commonly tools or products of crafts and trades. Frequently the guild artifacts are understood to include the so-called welcome cu…
Date: 2019-10-14


(10,095 words)

Author(s): Carl, Horst | Schmidt, Patrick | Troßbach, Werner | Synek, Eva | Walter, Peter
1. Introduction 1.1. Definition and backgroundEven today the term  office (German  Amt) still covers a broad semantic spectrum that preserves the manifold references and contexts of premodern administrative activity (Government). It extends from the exercise of a specific function through the designation of a territorial administrative district to a local authority or even a building in which lower-ranking administrative bodies are housed. As a result of developments at the beginning of the early modern period, this semantic richness can be documented, for example, in the  Deu…
Date: 2020-10-06