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Claustra Alpium Iuliarum

(89 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] A system of late Roman fortifications in the frontier and trade zone between the towns of Emona, Forum Iulii, Tergeste and Tarsatica at the northeastern entrance of Italy (Illyro-Italian gate), supported in part by the natural barriers of the mountainous Karst landscape. It was mentioned repeatedly by ancient authors from Herodianus to Prosper Tiro and parts have been archaeologically explored. Literary evidence: Amm. Marc. 31,11,3. Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) Bibliography B. Saria, s.v. Nauportus (1), RE 16,2, 2011f. J. Šašel, P. Petru (ed.), Claustra A…

Drilon

(225 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] (modern Drim, Albanian Drini). River formed in Albania near Kukësi from the union of the Beli Drim (Drini i Bardhë, which rises at the foot of the mountain Rusolije in Kosovo) and the Crni Drim (Drini i Zi), which emerges from Lichnidus lacus, modern Lake Ohrid, Macedonia/Albania. Ptol. 2,16,6 is almost correct in observing that the river flows from the Scardus mons (modern Šar planina in Macedonia) and another (unnamed) mountain through the interior of Moesia superior. Str. 7,5,7 describes its course as navigable eastwards to Dardania. The Romans termed it wrongly Dirin…

Formio

(115 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] (modern Rižana, more probably Osapska Reka). A small river east of Aegida (between Capra and Iustinianopolis, modern Koper/Capodistria), 6 miles from Tergeste. The name is perhaps derived from the language of the Veneti. The F. gained significance in 42-41 BC as the border river when Gallia Cisalpina was incorporated into Italy after the battle of Philippi. Between 18 and 12 BC this boundary was relocated to the Arsia (modern Raša). The stream is mentioned in Plin. HN 3,127 ( Formio amnis ... antiquus auctae Italiae terminus, nunc vero Histriae) and Ptol. 3,1,27. Šašel K…

Labeates

(139 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Illyrian people (Liv. 43,19,3; 31,2; 44,31,10; 32,3; 45,26,15: Labeatae; the region in Liv. 44,23,3: Labeatis; Pol. 29,3,5: Λαβεᾶτις) near palus Labeatis/ lacus Labeatum (Liv. 44,31,3/10; modern Albanian Liqeni Shkodres, Serbian Skadarsko jezero); main towns Scodra and Meteon. Their territory was the core of the kingdom of Genthius, the last independent Illyrian king and an ally of Perseus, who was defeated by the Romans in 168 BC. The Romans gave them autonomy and the right to issue coinage (bronze c…

Byllis

(252 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Coloniae | Macedonia, Macedones (Βυλλίς; Byllís). Settlement on the right bank of the Aous in the hills of the Mallakastra near the modern Gradista de Hekal. Founded in the 4th cent. BC, B. was independent from 230 BC until its conquest by Rome. The structure of its governmental institutions was modelled on those of Epirus and Apollonia [1]; it is possible that a polis and a koinon of the Bylliones coexisted. In the vicinity of B. was the town of Clos. B. experienced a late bloom in the 6th cent. AD;…

Aenona

(133 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Prehistoric settlement of the  Liburni on a small island (modern Nin, Croatia); attested in the name A., in copious grave finds, and in the native cult of the epigraphically verified  Venus Anzotica. Important town in the early Roman period ( Illyricum, later province  Dalmatia); probably Augustan   municipium of the tribus Sergia (CIL III 3158), 18 km north-west of  Iader, opposite the island of Cissa (modern Pag) at the foot of Mons Albius (modern Velebit) (Plin. HN 3,140; Ptol. 2,16,3). Sur…

Dassaretia

(203 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Region in southern Illyricum near the western border of Macedonia (Liv. 42,36,9; cf. Plin. HN 3,145; 4,3; Mela 2,55; Str. 7,5,7; 5,12; Steph. Byz. s.v. D.) between the kingdoms of the Illyrians and the Macedonians, from the Lychnidus lacus (today Lake Ohrid; Ptol. 3,13,32; Liv. 43,9,7) to Antipatrea (today Berati, Albania) along the upper (H)apsus (Semani, Albania). Scerdilaedas and Philip V fought in 217 BC for the cities of Antipatrea, Chrysondyon and Gertus (Polyb. 5,108); otherwise, only vici and castella are mentioned. D. was conquered by Philip. In 20…

Doclea

(196 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Settlement of the Illyrian Docleates (Ptol. 2,16,12; App. Ill. 16,46; Ptol. 2,16,8; Plin. HN 3,143; princeps civitatis Docleatium, ILJug 1853 [1]) in the interior of Crna Gora (Montenegro), now Duklja, at the junction of the Zeta and Morača in the Podgorica (formerly Titograd) region; was later a Flavian municipium Docleatium in the prov. Dalmatia ( Dalmatae, Dalmatia), confirmed in several inscriptions (collected by Sticotti [2]) as res p(ublica) Docleatium. Ruler cult attested. Excavations have …

Bistua Nova

(199 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia Roman municipium of the province of Dalmatia (Tab. Peut. 6,1) in the territory of the  Daesitiates along the Urpanus (Vrabas), in the mineral (gold, iron) district along the rivers Rama, Vrbas, Bistrica, Lašva near today's Bugojno (probably not Zenica, as Patsch believes, nor Vitez as Wilkes suggests) in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Founded on the site of an important indigenous Iron Age settlement, possibly by the Flavian emperors (a large n…

Andautonia

(114 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia Ancient settlement (no prehistoric finds, the name is possibly pre-Celtic or Venetian) in the territory of the  Varciani, modern Ščitarjevo near Velika Gorica, 12 km south-east of Zagreb. River port, loading and rafting station on the  Savus (on an ancient trade route, cf. the myth of the  Argonauts), on the road from Siscia to Poetovio, later a   municipium Flavium in the province of  Pannonia. A.'s   patronus was the governor L.  Funisulanus Vettonianus (ILS 1005). Remains of the l…

Ad Pirum

(152 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Important statio between Fluvio Frigido and Longaticum (It. Burd. 560,3 f.), on the Augustan military route (cf. Fest. p. 7) which was built across the karst mountains (867 m) in order to shorten travel time from  Aquileia and  Tergeste to  Emona by two days. The native name (disputed) was understood to be ‘under the pear tree’, therefore the modern names of Hrušica, Birnbaumer Wald, Selva del Pero. A. was a posting station (Tab. Peut. 4,5), a statio of   beneficiarii consulares (Inscr. Ital. 10,4,348), and one of the fortifications within the praetentura Italiae et Al…

Burnum

(325 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Legio | Moesi, Moesia Roman legion camp and municipium (now Šupljaja/Šuplja crkva -- camp, and Ivoševci near Kistanje -- municipium in the wider area of Knin, Croatia) on the Titius (Krka), centre of the local Liburnian Burnistae, one of the 14 Liburnian civitates that were administered by the conventus in  Scardona (Plin. HN 3,139; 3,142; Ptol. 2,16,10; Tab. Peut. 5,1), important Roman base during the occupation of  Illyricum, certainly during the wars of the future Augustus in 35-33 BC when the building of a Dalmatian limes

Dalmatae, Dalmatia

(2,447 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Delmatae, Delmatia). [German version] I. General Important people of later Illyricum (degree of Celtization uncertain) in the hinterland of Salona between Tit(i)us (Krka) and Nestus/Hippius (Cetina) on the Glamočko, Livanjsko, Duvanjsko and Imotsko polje. Gave its name to the Roman prov. Dalmatia. Administratively separated from Illyricum at the beginning of the Flavian period. These areas were under the control of the Illyrian kingdom, notorious for its piracy (under the dynasty of the Ardiaeans, Agron and Teuta), which was fought by…

Drinus

(120 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Right-hand tributary of the Savus (Sava), modern Drina (length: 346 km); Ptol. 2,16,7 records that the D. flows west of Taurunum (Zemun) into the Savus. The D. is formed from the union of the Tara and Piva in the border region of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro; it forms the border between Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia. In some sources the name D. was erroneously applied to the river  Drilon, no doubt because both rivers flow close to each other in the extreme north of Albania. A road station ad Drinum (modern Brodac, north of Bijeljina) is mentioned in Tab. Peu…

Epetium

(222 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Like Tragurium a colony of Greeks from Issa on the mainland south of Salona (later province Dalmatia), in a fertile region, well protected by its position on a peninsula, today Stobreč/Croatia (cf. Pol. 32,9; Ptol. 2,16,4; Tab. Peut. 5,3: Epetio, Portus Epetius; Geogr. Rav. 4,16 or 209,5: Epitio). Probably founded in the 3rd cent. BC (the protected harbour was used already in the 4th cent. BC) and most assuredly some amount of time before 158 BC when Issa complained that both settlements were attacked by the  Dalmatae (Pol. 32…

Baloia

(194 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Roman municipium (at the time of Emperor Hadrian?) in the upper Pliva valley, province of Dalmatia; today Šipovo (Bosnia-Herzegovina); its city status is confirmed by CIL III 13982, with the formula [l(ocus)] d(atus) d(ecreto) d(ecurionum). Widely scattered urban habitats. B. was developed in the mining area of Sinjakovo near Majdan, along the important Roman road Salona -- Servitium (Tab. Peut. 5,2: Baloea), not far from the road Salviae - Sarnade -- Leusaba - Servitium (It. Ant. 268). Flourished in t…

Ardiaei

(205 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] A powerful people, said to be Illyrian; attested from the 4th cent. BC; later known as pirates. According to Str. 7,5,5 the A. settled on the  Naro, opposite the island of Pharus, near the Daorsi and the  Pleraei (cf. Ptol. 2,16,8; otherwise Papazoglu, who places the A. in the area of southern Illyria (Montenegro)). Inland (perhaps on the upper Naro, or near Lacus Labeatis) their territory bordered on that of the Autariatae, with whom they disputed the salt springs (Str. 7,5,11; c…

Aquae

(2,365 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
I. Italy [German version] A. Albulae Sulphurous sources of the Lago della Soforata on the right bank of the  Anio, 16 km from Rome; cult site. The springs are cold and have healing properties;  Nero had them canalized into the Domus Aurea. Large Roman   villa near Bagni della Regina. CIL XIV 3908-18. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] A. Angae In Bruttium between Consentia and Vibo Valentia, today Terme Caronte of Lamezia Terme. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] A. Apollinares Thermal springs between Careiae and  Tarquinii (It. Ant. 300); unidentified (…

Illyricum

(1,439 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
(also Hilluricum, Hillyricum, Illuricum). The first Roman province on the eastern Adriatic coast, in 167 BC organized as a Roman territory, formerly part of the Illyrian kingdom. [German version] A. State of research Understanding of the term I. varies. The discussion on the ‘Illyrian question’ reached its climax with Panillyrianism, which saw the Illyrians as the bearers of the Urnfield culture (cf. the publications of H. Krahe, but whose conclusions have since been thoroughly revised). From the beginning to the collapse of th…

Argyruntum

(170 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Town at the foot of the Alpes Delmaticae (modern Velebit) on the northern Dalmatian coast (modern Starigrad Paklenica, Croatia), in the 3rd cent. BC at times occupied by the  Iapodes, but from the 4th cent. BC attributed to the  Liburni (Ps.-Scyl. 21). As a Liburnian   oppidum (Plin. HN 3,140), A.'s population was made up of both immigrants and natives; probably under  Augustus, it became a   municipium of the   tribus Claudia (hardly under Tiberius, even though the town was fortified with walls and towers during his reign [1. 2894]…

Glinditiones

(166 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] One of the Illyrian tribes in the province Dalmatia, subjugated with the greatest difficulty in 35-33 BC together with the Docleatae, Carni, Interphrurini, Naresii and the Taurisci by the future Augustus and forced to pay overdue taxes (App. Ill. 47: Γλιντιδίωνες; Glintidíōnes); thus they had already been subjugated previously. According to Plin. HN 3,143, the G. belonged with 44 decuriae to the conventus of Narona. It is not known where they settled, not even whether they are in some way to be connected with the Ditiones. Different localizations in the valleys of…

Flanona

(219 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia (modern Plomin/Croatia); town on the eastern coast of the peninsula of Histria in Liburnia, province of Dalmatia. An earlier Liburnian fortress above the bay of F. gave the entire bay of Kvarner the name: sinus Flanaticus (Plin. HN 3,139; Artemidorus in Steph. Byz. s.v. Φλάνων). F. probably became a municipium under Augustus (rather than under Tiberius), and tribus Claudia and Sergia (AE 1973, 477) are attested; the Aquilii were one of the foremost families. The residents are called Flanonienses Vani…

Iader

(244 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia (τὰ Διάδωρα; tà Diádōra). Liburnian foundation of the Iron Age, later the most important city of Liburnia in the province of Dalmatia, modern Zadar (Italian Zara) in Croatia (Mela 2,57; Plin. HN 3,140 colonia Iader, cf. 141; 152; It. Ant. 272,1f.; cf. 496,7; 497,2; CIL III 2925). The inhabitants ( Iadertini) fought with Caesar against Pompey (Bell. Alex. 42). I. probably became a Roman colonia ( colonia Iulia; earlier documented as a conventus civium Romanorum) under Caesar. Traces of centuriatio…

Histria, Histri [1]

(726 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Peninsula (4,437 km2) on the northern Adriatic between Tergeste and Tarsatica (Croatia/Slovenia). H. is derived from the Istri/Histri who already settled here in the 11th cent. BC (mentioned for the first time by Hecataeus, FGrH 1 F 91). Their settlements were on hills and on the coast ( gradine or castellieri) and had monumental fortifications; there is evidence of cremations in clay urns. The development of the Histri between the Veneti in the north, the Iapodes in the north-east and the Liburni in the south and south-west ca…

Aequum

(206 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia Town in the province  Dalmatia (modern Čitluk near Sinj), on the road from Salona to Servitium (It. Ant. 269,6; Tab. Peut. 5,3, Geogr. Rav. 4,16).   colonia under emperor  Claudius (CIL III 1323; Ptol. 2,16,11). A. was the only town in Dalmatia to be founded on the basis of a veteran settlement, following the departure of the   legio VII from Tilurium. A. had a   conventus civium Romanorum , whose summus curator was Sex. Iulius Silvanus -- following the foundation of the colony one of its first…

Autariatae

(180 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] An Illyrian people of the hinterland of the Dalmatian coast on the upper reaches of the  Naro between the rivers Bathinus (today Bosna) and  Drinus, with their central base on Mount Romanija (or possibly [1. 87-129] further east, above the lacus Labeatis). The A. are mentioned in literary sources in the 4th cent. BC (based on earlier authors, cf. Ps.-Scyl. 24), and in archaeological terms can probably be assigned to the Iron Age Glasinac culture. According to Str. 7,5,11, this people constituted the largest and stronges…

Daorsi

(450 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] An ‘Illyrian’ civitas with only 17 decuriae in the conventus of Narona (prov. of Dalmatia, today in Bosnia Herzegovina and partly in Croatia), one of the most Hellenized peoples on the coast of Dalmatia. The D. settled on the left bank of the Naro (Neretva) from Bijelo polje as far as Trebinjska Šuma, i.e. in the hinterland between Narona and  Epidaurum, with access to the sea and a central settlement in Gradina near Ošanići in the region of Stolac (Herzegovina), built according to megalithic t…

Iapodes

(322 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Indo-European people attested since the 9th/8th cents. BC, often erroneously classified as Illyrians, settled in Lika, the Karst plains of Gacko, Ličko, Krbavsko (western Croatia), on the Una near Bihać (western Bosnia) and Notranjska (Inner Carniolia/Slovenia). Administratively, they were part of the conventus Scardonitanus of the province of  Illyricum, later Dalmatia. The Zrmanja and Velebit mountains separated them from the  Liburni in the south. These they fought in the 3rd cent. BC with temporary success for access …

Delminium

(304 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: (Delminenses, Delminum). Main town of the Dalmatae: Ptol. 2,16,11; App. Ill. 11; Florus 2,25; CIL III 3202; the name D. is possibly derived from the Albanian word delme, ‘sheep’. Strabo ( Délmion, 7,5,5) describes D. as a large city from which the people derived its name. In 156 BC, D. was besieged by C. Marcius Figulus. In 155 BC it was defeated and destroyed by P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica (cf. Strabo's pedíon mēlóboton; triumph over the Delmatae; ancient sources in [1. 448]). Up to now the ruins of D. were located…

Daesitiates

(385 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] One of the most important peoples in the interior of the prov. Dalmatia ( Dalmatae, Dalmatia), originally possibly in the loose confederation of the  Autariatae. They inhabited the valley of the upper Bathinus (Bosna) of the valley from the upper Urbanus (Vrbas) in the west to Rogatica in the east; their position has been confirmed through the discovery of an inscription (ILJug 1582 [1]) of a Valens Varron(is) f(ilius), princeps Desitiati(um) in Breza (22 km north-west of Sarajevo). The D. were perhaps attacked by the future Augustus in 35 BC (see …

Epidaurum

(229 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Commerce | Moesi, Moesia (Plin. HN 3,143f. Epidaurum; Ptol. 2,16,5 Epidaurus). Important urban settlement with two harbours on a peninsula in the province of Dalmatia, today Cavtat in Croatia (< civitas; Italian Ragusa vecchia). Originally probably a Hellenistic settlement (there is no clear archaeological evidence), it was romanized in the course of the 1st cent. BC, served as praesidium in the conflict with Pompey Caesar, and was unsuccessfully besieged by Pompey (Bell. Alex. 44,5). Roman colonia (probably…

Castra

(2,134 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon) | Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) | Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
A. Military camp [German version] [I 1] General The Roman soldiers always made sure that they were protected by fortifications. This also applied when they only stopped for a night on campaigns. In the evening of their arrival the field camp had to be set up and destroyed again on the morning of departure. The plural castra was the name given to any kind of military camp, the singular castrum certainly existed but was not used in mil. vocabulary. Castellum is the diminutive form of castra (Veg. Mil. 3,8) and also had a civilian meaning. The origin of the Roman camps is uncertain; because …

Andetrium

(144 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Fortress in the province of  Dalmatia, in the hinterland of   Salona, modern Brečeva near Gornji Muć.  Bato, chief of the  Daesitiates, withdrew to A. with parts of his army during the Pannonian uprising of AD 6-9 (Cass. Dio 56,12-14). It was a   mansio on the road from Salona to Servitium, also, because of its strategically advantageous location between Burnum and Tilurium, a garrison for auxiliary troops:   Cohors VIII voluntariorum (1st cent. AD), III Alpinorum (2nd cent. AD), I Belgarum (3rd cent. AD; cf. Plin. HN 3,142; Str. 7,5,5; Ptol. 2,16,11; Tab. Peu…

Lychidnus

(219 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Λυχνιδός, Λυχνίς; Lychnidós, Lychnís). Capital city of the Illyrian Dassaretae ( Dassaretia) on the via Egnatia (Str. 7,7,4; It. Ant. 318), modern Ohrid in Macedonia on Lake Ohrid. Subjugated by Philip II (Diod. Sic. 16,8,1). It minted its own bronze coins under Philip V (obverse: Macedonian shield; reverse: bow of a ship and ΛΥΧΝΙΔ(Ι)ΩΝ). In 197 BC, L. with its territory fell to the Illyrian king Pleuratus (Pol. 5,108; 18,47,12; Liv. 27,32,9; 33,34,11). From 146 BC, L. belonged to the Roman province of Ma…

Bassiana(e)

(175 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] [1] City in Pannonia superior This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Pannonia City in Pannonia superior (It. Ant. 262,10), 18 miles from Savaria on the road to Arrabona and  Brigetio, near Sárvár on the middle section of the river Raab.   Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) [German version] [2] Roman city of  Pannonia inferior Roman city of  Pannonia inferior, near today's Petrovci and Putinci in eastern Srem on the road from Sirmium to Taurunum, in the region of the Scordisci and the pre-Celtic Amantini (CIL III 3224; Ptol.…

Magnum Municipium

(107 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Town (Tab. Peut. 5,2; Geogr. Rav. 4,16; CIL XIII 6538) that developed partly from a Dalmatian settlement near Balina Glavica (near Drnis̆, Bosnia-Herzegovina, probably identical with Sinotium/Synodium: Str. 7,5,5; App. Ill. 78) and partly from a vicus close to the auxiliary camp near Umljanivići. Beneficiarii succeeded the auxiliary unit (cf. CIL III 9790; 14957ff.). Probably, MM was already a municipium under emperor M. Aurelius (cf. CIL III 9798). Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) Bibliography M. Zaninović, Ilirsko pleme Delmati II [The Illyrian Tribe of…

Liburni, Liburnia

(544 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] People in northern Dalmatia between the Istrian Arsia (modern Raša) and the Titius (modern Krka; Plin HN 3,139) including the islands off the coast and the town of Promona claimed by the Dalmatae on the other bank of the Titius (App Ill. 34; cf. Ps.-Scymn. 21). The mountain ranges of Učka, Gorski Kotar and Velebit in the eastern hinterland separate L. from the Iapodes. In the 3rd cent. BC, the latter gained access to the Adriatic at the Bay of Kvran at the expense of the L. The …

Atrans

(95 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Road or postal and toll station, important pass (563 m, today Trojane/Slovenia) through the hills which separate  Emona from  Celeia, on the border between Italy and Noricum (It. Ant. 129,3; It. Hierosolymitanum 560,9; Tab. Peut. 4,2). Name of a pre-Celtic position of beneficiarii consulares. Findings from the Roman era: fragments of two gilt statues of horses, inscriptions, small findings, imperial era buildings (restored mansio, sanctuary?); documented in an inscription dating from the reign of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljublja…

Carni

(210 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Celtic tribe (cf. triumph of M. Aemilius Scaurus de Galleis Karneis: CIL I 12,49), who may have arrived at the Adriatic coast towards the end of the 3rd cent. BC. C. are first mentioned in 181 BC as inhabiting the region later known as  Aquileia: Liv. 39,22,6f.; 40,34,2; 45,6; 54,2ff. According to Str. 4,6,9, they occupied the hinterland of Aquileia, together with some Norici ( Noricum) and the  Veneti (5,1,9); their relationship with these is not quite clear as, according to Str. 7,5,3, th…

Bargala

(147 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Probably Thracian city (cf. the name), today Dolus Kozjak (Štip region, Macedonia), on the road Oescus - Serdica - Stobi. Peak in late Roman times; probably assumed the status of the old Paeonian centre Astibus. Bargalaenses are mentioned in a Lat. inscription from AD 371/2 (construction of the city gate by order of Antonius Alypius, governor of Dacia Mediterranea). At the end of the 4th cent., the inhabitants moved to the safer area of Goren Kozjak, which was 2 km away and situat…

Domavia

(233 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia Municipium in the late 2nd cent. AD, possibly under Septimius Severus (CIL III 12732); after AD 230 colonia m( etalli?) D( omaviani) (CIL III 12728f.) in the prov. Dalmatia, now Gradina close to Sas (near Srebrenica, Bosnia-Herzegovina); from no later than Marcus Aurelius a centre of administration of both the Pannonian and the Dalmatian mines ( procurator metallorum Pannon[ icorum] et Delmat[ icorum], CIL III 12721), that were developed in the area around Srebrenica; the mining district was called Argentaria

Flanona

(201 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia (h. Plomin/Kroatien); Ort an der östl. Küste der Halbinsel Histria in Liburnia, Prov. Dalmatia. Eine frühere liburnische Festung über der Bucht von F. gab der gesamten Bucht von Kvarner den Namen: sinus Flanaticus (Plin. nat. 3,139; Artemidoros bei Steph. Byz. s.v. Φλάνων). F. wurde wohl unter Augustus (eher als unter Tiberius) municipium, bezeugt sind tribus Claudia und Sergia (AE 1973, 477); eine der führenden Familien waren die Aquilii. Die Einwohner heißen bei Plinius Flanonienses Vani…

Burnum

(300 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Legio | Moesi, Moesia | Straßen Röm. Legionslager und municipium (h. Šupljaja/Šuplja crkva - Lager, und Ivoševci nahe Kistanje - municipium im breiteren Gebiet von Knin, Kroatien) am Titius (Krka), Zentrum der einheimischen liburnischen Burnistae, eine der 14 liburnischen civitates, die durch den conventus in Scardona verwaltet wurden (Plin. nat . 3,139; 3,142; Ptol. 2,16,10; Tab. Peut. 5,1), bed. röm. Stützpunkt im Verlauf der Besetzung von Illyricum, sicherlich während der Kriege des n…

Andautonia

(94 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Pannonia Ant. Siedlung (prähistor. Funde fehlen, Ortsname evtl. vorkeltisch oder venetisch) im Gebiet der Varciani, h. Ščitarjevo bei Velika Gorica, 12 km südöstl. von Zagreb. Hafen, Belade- und Floßstation am Savus (an ant. Handelsroute, vgl. die Sage der Argonautai) an der Straße Siscia-Poetovio, municipium Flavium in der Prov. Pannonia. Patronus von A. war der Statthalter L. Funisulanus Vettonianus (ILS 1005). Reste der spätröm. Stadtmauer und Bäder wurden ausgegraben und konserviert. Šašel Kos, Marjeta …

Aquae

(2,214 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florenz) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
I. Italien [English version] A. Albulae schwefelhaltige Quellen des Lago della Soforata rechtsseits des Anio, 16 km von Rom entfernt; Kultort. Die Quellen sind kalt und heilend, Nero ließ sie in die Domus Aurea leiten. Große röm. villa bei Bagni della Regina. CIL XIV 3908-18. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florenz) [English version] A. Angae In Bruttium zw. Consentia und Vibo Valentia, h. Terme Caronte von Lamezia Terme. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florenz) [English version] A. Apollinares Thermen zw. Careiae und Tarquinii (It. Ant. 300), nicht identifiziert (evtl. Bagni di Stigliano oder…

Daesitiates

(348 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[English version] Eines der bedeutensten Völker im Inneren der prov. Dalmatia (Dalmatae, Dalmatia), urspr. evtl. im losen Verband der Autariatae. Sie bewohnten das Tal des oberen Bathinus (Bosna) vom Tal des oberen Urbanus (Vrbas) im Westen bis Rogatica im Osten; ihre Position wurde durch den Fund einer Inschr. (ILJug 1582 [1] eines Valens Varron(is) f(ilius), princeps Desitiati(um) in Breza (22 km nordwestl. von Sarajevo) bestätigt. Die D. wurden vielleicht vom nachmaligen Augustus 35 v.Chr. angegriffen (s. Schweighäusers Emendation zu App. Ill. 17, wo die Hss. Daísioí te kaí …

Labeates

(128 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[English version] Illyr. Volk (Liv. 43,19,3; 31,2; 44,31,10; 32,3; 45,26,15: Labeatae; die Landschaft bei Liv. 44,23,3: Labeatis; Pol. 29,3,5: Λαβεᾶτις) am palus Labeatis/ lacus Labeatum (Liv. 44,31,3/10; h. albanisch Liqeni Shkodres, serbisch Skadarsko jezero); Hauptorte Scodra, Meteon. Ihr Gebiet war der Kern des Königreichs des Genthios, des letzten unabhängigen illyr. Königs und Verbündeten des Perseus, der 168 v.Chr. von den Römern geschlagen wurde. Diese gaben den L. Autonomie und Prägerecht (Br.-Mz., Rv.: illyr.…

Autariatae

(141 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[English version] Ein illyr. Volk im Hinterland der dalmatischen Küste am Oberlauf des Naro zw. den Flüssen Bathinus (h. Bosna) und Drinus, mit Zentrum auf dem Berg Romanija (anders [1. 87-129]: weiter im Osten, oberhalb des lacus Labeatis). Die A. erscheinen lit. im 4.Jh. v.Chr. (basierend auf früheren Autoren, vgl. Ps.-Skyl. 24), arch. wohl der eisenzeitlichen Glasinac-Kultur zuzuordnen. Nach Strab. 7,5,11 das größte und stärkste illyr. Volk, Nachbarn der Ardiaei, mit denen sie um einige bed. Salzquellen stritten (App. Ill. 3), …

Glinditiones

(153 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[English version] Einer der illyr. Stämme in der Prov. Dalmatia, 35-33 v.Chr. zusammen mit den Docleatae, Carni, Interphrurini, Naresii und den Taurisci durch den nachmaligen Augustus mit größter Mühe unterworfen und gezwungen, überfällige Steuern zu zahlen (App. Ill. 47: Γλιντιδίωνες); sie waren also schon früher unterworfen worden. Nach Plin. nat. 3,143 gehörten die G. mit 44 decuriae zum conventus von Narona. Wo sie siedelten, ist nicht bekannt, auch nicht, ob sie mit den Ditiones in Verbindung zu bringen sind. Verschiedene Lokalisierungen in den Tälern der Flüsse…

Lychnidos

(180 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Makedonia, Makedones (Λυχνιδός, Λυχνίς). Hauptort der illyrischen Dassaretae (Dassaretia) an der Via Egnatia (Strab. 7,7,4; Itin. Anton. 318), h. Ohrid in Makedonien am Ohrid-See. Von Philippos II. unterworfen (Diod. 16,8,1). Der Ort besaß eigene Br.-Mz.-Prägung unter Philippos V. (Av.: maked. Schild; Rev.: Schiffsbug und ΛΥΧΝΙΔ(Ι)ΩΝ). 197 v.Chr. fiel L. mit Territorium an den illyr. König Pleuratos (Pol. 5,108; 18,47,12; Liv. 27,32,9; 33,34,11). Seit 146 v.Chr. gehörte L. zur röm. Prov. Macedonia (CIL IX…
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