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Murād Pas̲h̲a, Ḳuyud̲j̲u

(1,399 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḳod̲j̲a , ( ca. 928-1020/ ca. 1520-1611), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Aḥmed I. A dews̲h̲irme [ q.v.] boy of Croat origin, he received his education in the imperial palace. His career began under patronage of Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a, the beglerbegi of Yemen and Egypt. Between 1560 and 1565 he was the latter’s ketk̲h̲udā . In Egypt, Murād also held the office of amīr al-ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ . which opened the way to public high office. In 983/1576 Murād (Pasha) became beglerbegi of Yemen himself for about four years. Dismissed in 988/1580 because of corruption, he was summoned to the c…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Muḥsin-Zāde

(630 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(1116?-1188/1704?-74), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Son of the Grand Vizier Muḥsin-zāde ʿAbd Allāh Pas̲h̲a (held office in 1150/1737) and born in Istanbul, he entered the Palace service as a Ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊ . In 1150/1737 he became Ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊lar Ketk̲h̲udāsi̊ and in 1151/1738 vizier and Beglerbegi of Marʿas̲h̲. After 10 years of provincial governmental posts he was in 1160/1747 appointed to the reorganised province of Adana with special orders to hunt down the rebellious elements in Anatolia. From 1162/1749 onwards …

Patrona K̲h̲alīl

(807 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ottoman rebel (d. 14 D̲j̲umādā I 1143/25 November 1730). Of Albanian origin, he belonged to the protégés of the Ḳapudān-Pas̲h̲a Muṣṭafā and ʿAbdī Pas̲h̲a ( ca. 1680-5 and later). He was born at K̲h̲urpis̲h̲te (Khroupista, now Argos Orestikon, to the south of Kastoria, Greece). He served as a Lewend [ q.v.] on board the flagship of the Ottoman vice-admiral, the Patrona (for this term, see riyala) whence probably his name. Transferred from naval service, he was able to join the Seventeenth Orta of the Janissary Corps in which he served till the peace set…

Ḳoč Ḥiṣār

(1,087 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, a name of several towns and villages in Asia Minor, derived from Ḳod̲j̲a-Ḥiṣar; compare such names as Ḳoč Ḥiṣāri̊, Ḳoyun Ḥiṣāri̊, Ḳoyul Ḥiṣāri̊, Keči Ḥiṣārī and Ṭoḳlu Ḥiṣāri̊ Confusion is often prevented by the addition of the name of the nearby provincial capital or of another word, e.g. Čanki̊ri̊ Ḳoč-Ḥiṣāri̊, S̲h̲erefli Koč Ḥiṣār. For the same reason, the toponyms of places with this name have been changed in recent times. I. S̲h̲erefli Ḳoč Ḥiṣāri̊ (in modern usage Şerefli Koçhisarı , centre of an ilçe (previously ḳaḍāʾ ) formerly called Esb-kes̲h̲ān, in …

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, ʿIwaḍ

(620 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī ( el-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ ) (1085 or 1086-1156/1675-1743), Ottoman Grand Vizier. He was the son of a descendant of the Ewlād-i Fātiḥān , one Naṣr Allāh, a tīmār holder at Jagodina. Educated for state service (hence ʿiwaḍ ), he served with high-placed officials at Belgrade (1100/1689) and at Ḏj̲udda (1107-8/1696), during which period he made the pilgrimage to Mecca. Having returned to Istanbul just before the Patrona Ḵh̲alīl rebellion of 1730, he acted as Gümrük Emīni , Commissioner of the Istanbul customs house, on behalf of Yegen Meḥmed Efendi…


(1,584 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(Turkish form of the Greek Λῆμνος, in older Ottoman historical works Limoz and Ilimli, in older Greek sources also Λῆμος, Stalimene in mediaeval western sources, Lemnos in modern usage) an island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea, 80 km. west of the entrance of the Dardanelles ( Čanaḳḳalʿe Bog̲h̲azi̊ [ q.v.]) halfway between Mount Athos and Tenedos [ Bozd̲j̲a-Ada [ q.v.]). The island, of ca. 470 km2, has been virtually treeless since long before Ottoman times. Agriculture is of local importance only. Its famous export product since antiquity is a sort of vo…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Yegen

(531 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Gümrükčü (d. 1158/1745), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Son of a sister of the then influential statesman Defterdār Kel Yūsuf Efendi (hence the surname “Nephew”), he was born in Antalya and began public life as a Mültezim in the region of his origin. He went to Istanbul to take up a career in the secretarial service, becoming a k̲h̲ad̲j̲egān . From 1140/1728 to 1141/1729 he was Commissioner of the Customs of Istanbul ( Gümrük Emīni ). Around 1144/1732 he became Ḳapu-Ketk̲h̲udāsi̊ of the Beglerbegi of Erzurum, Topal ʿOt̲h̲mān Pas̲h̲a, as well. In 1145/1733 he acquired the post of Mewḳūfātči̊

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Sulṭān-Zāde

(597 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḏj̲iwān Ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ , Semīn (1010-56/1602-46), Ottoman Grand Vizier. He was born in Istanbul as the son of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Bey (himself a son of Semīz Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Grand Vizier 887-8/1579-80, by origin an Albanian dews̲h̲irme boy) and of Hümās̲h̲āh ʿĀʾis̲h̲e Ḵh̲ani̊m Sulṭān, a daughter of Čig̲h̲ala-zāde Sinān Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], thus being a grandson of Princess Mihr-i Māh ¶ Sulṭān [ q.v.], hence his surname Sulṭān-zāde (cf. A.D. Alderson, The structure of the Ottoman dynasty, Oxford 1956, Table XXX, no. 2128). Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a was educated in the imperial harem and the Khāṣṣ Od…


(20,279 words)

Author(s): Sanders, P. | Chalmeta, P. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Groot, A.H. de | Burton-Page, J.
(a), official court ceremonies, both processional and non-processional. The whole range of ceremonial, including protocol and etiquette, is called also rusūm other terms found frequently are mawsim [ q.v.] and mawkib . Mawākib [ q.v.] refer specifically to solemn processions, but seem also to have had the more general meaning of audiences (for the ʿAbbāsids, see references in D. Sourdel, Le vizirat ʿabbāside de 749 à 946, Damascus 1960, ii, 684, n. 3; for the Fāṭimids, see e.g. al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ṣubḥ , iii, 494: d̲j̲ulūs [ al-k̲h̲alīfa ] fi ’l-mawākib; ayyām al-mawākib ). 1. Under the …

Sand̲j̲aḳ-i S̲h̲erīf

(1,360 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
Liwāʾ-i Sherīf or ʿAlem-i Nebewī , in Ottoman Turkish usage the sacred standard of the Prophet Muḥammad which is ¶ kept in the palace of Ṭopḳapi̊ at Istanbul (see ṭopḳapi̊ sarayi̊ ) together with the other holy relics of Islam ( Emānāt-i Mübāreke or Muḳaddese ) such as the Holy Mantle (the Burda” ) [see k̲h̲irḳa-yi s̲h̲erīf ], Holy Footstep and Beard of the Prophet (see ḳadam s̲h̲arīf and liḥya-yi s̲h̲arīf ]. According to a tradition recorded by Mouradgea D’Ohsson ( Tableau général de l’Empire Othoman , Paris 1788-1824, ii, 378) and the Ottoman historian Fi̊ndi̊ḳli̊li̊ Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a ( Silāḥda…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Lālā

(1,198 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, S̲h̲āhīnog̲h̲lu , Bosnali̊ (d. 1015/1606, Ottoman Grand Vizier. Born in Jajce as a descendant of the Bosnian S̲h̲āhinog̲h̲ullari̊ family, he was related to Ṣoḳollu Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Taken into Ottoman service as a dews̲h̲irme [ q.v.] boy, he was educated in the so-called Palace School [see enderūn ]. During those years he was probably engaged in giving lessons in fighting to one or more Ottoman princes, hence his surname of Lālā “tutor”. Lālā Meḥmed successively held the court functions of Pes̲h̲kīr ag̲h̲asi̊ , Küčük Mīr Āk̲h̲ūr and Büyük Mīr Āk̲h̲ūr and …

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Melek

(428 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Dāmād (1131-1216/1719-1802), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Selīm III [ q.v.]. He was the son of Bosnali̊ Ḵh̲od̲j̲a Süleymān Pas̲h̲a, Vizier and Ḳapudān-i̊ dervā in 1126/1714 and 1130/1718 till his death in 1133/1721. Born in Istanbul, he followed his father’s footsteps in a naval career, becoming commander ( Deryā begi) in 1736, Tersāne ketk̲h̲üdāsi̊ and Ḳapudān-i̊ deryā himself (1165-8/1752-5). Sultan Muṣṭafā III (1171-87/1757-74) appointed him Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ , and married him to the Princess Zeyneb ʿĀṣi̊ma Sulṭān, a daughter of Aḥmed III (1757) (cf. A.D. Alderson, The str…

Süleymān Pas̲h̲a, Malaṭyali̊

(850 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Dāmād , Silāḥdār , Ḳod̲j̲a , ( ca. 1016-98/1607-87), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Meḥemmed IV [ q.v.]. Born in Malaṭya [ q.v.] of non-Muslim parents, possibly Armenians, he was educated in the dews̲h̲irme [ q.v.] establishment of the Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a palace at Istanbul upon the instigation of his relative, the Ḳapu Ag̲h̲asi̊ [ q.v.] Ismāʿīl Ag̲h̲a, and made his career in the palace service (see enderūn ). From being Dülbend ag̲h̲a , he became Miftāḥ s̲h̲āgirdi in the Seferli odasi̊ and the K̲h̲āṣṣ oda [ q.v.], and in 1050/1640 became Silāḥdār [ q.v.] to the sultan. Six months later…


(8,885 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, modern Turkish Kıbrıs, Greek Kúpros (etymologically derived probably from the word for “copper”), in western languages Cyprus, is the largest island in the Eastern Mediterranean, with a surface area of 9,251 km2. The nearest distance to the mainland is from Cape Kormakiti in the north to Anamur on the southern coast of Turkey, 71 km. The distance to the Syrian coast between Cape Andreas and Raʾs ibn K̲h̲ān north of al-Lād̲h̲ikiyya [ q.v.] is 98 km. The distance to Crete (Arabic Iḳrīṭis̲h̲ [ q.v.] is about 553 km. The island consists of two mountain ranges, Kyrenia-Karpass ris…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Gürd̲j̲ü

(797 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḵh̲ādi̊m (I) (d. 1035/1626), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Of Georgian origin, he served among the white eunuchs of the imperial harem under Sultan Meḥemmed III [ q.v.] (1003-12/1595-1603). He was appointed Ḵh̲āṣṣ-Oda Bas̲h̲i̊ by Sultan Aḥmed I shortly after his accession (2 S̲h̲aʿbān 1012/4 January 1604). Around Rabīʿ II 1013/September 1604, Ḵh̲ādi̊m Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a was given the rank of Third Vizier in the Dīwān , but already on the 27 Rabīʿ II/22 September was appointed beglerbegi of Egypt. He was able to restore order in that province and punished the rebels among the Ottoman regular troops ( ḳ…


(6,428 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de | Reed, H.A. | Rogers, J.M.
, Larende or Karaman in modern Turkish usage, earlier Turkish Ḳaramān or Dārende, a provincial town in Anatolia, is the seat of one of the thirteen districts of Ḳonya [ q.v.]. The district of Karaman is the largest (4,647 km 2) ilçe in Turkey. The town lies outside the earthquake zone at lat. 37° N, long. 33° 10′ E, at an elevation of 1,038 m., on the plateau at the northern end of the pass leading through the Taurus Mts. to the Göksü (ancient Kalykadnos, or Saleph) river valley. The main roa…

Ḳoyul Hiṣār

(116 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(Ḳoyunlu Ḥiṣār), more properly Ḳoyun Ḥiṣār , the name for two Byzantine fortresses: 1. identical with Baphaeon, to the north-east of Izmīd, the site of the first battle won by ʿOt̲h̲mān I against the Byzantines in 1301; 2. a fortress on the Saḳārya river [ q.v.] to the north-east of Bursa near Dinboz, taken by Ork̲h̲ān during a campaign in 1324-5. (A.H. de Groot) Bibliography ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳpas̲h̲azāde, Taʾrīk̲h̲, tr. R. F. Kreutel, Graz, etc. 1959, 43, 63, map I H. İnalcik, The Ottoman empirethe classical age 1300-1600, London 1973, 6, 55 D. E. Pitcher, An historical geography of the Ottoma…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Čerkes

(385 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(d. 1034/1625), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Educated in the palace school or Enderūn [ q.v.], he reached the rank of silāḥdār and left the palace with the appointment of Beglerbegi of Damascus. In 1621 he is mentioned as the fifth Ḳubbe Wezīri̊ (Nāʿīmā, Taʾrīk̲h̲ , Istanbul 1280, ii, 208). Upon the execution of the Grand Vizier Kemānkes̲h̲ ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] (14 Ḏj̲umādā II 1033/3 April 1624), Murād IV [ q.v.] forced him to accept the appointment of himself as successor. Čerkes Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a thus became commander-in-chief of the army sent to suppress the revolt of Abāzā Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [see abāzā…

Murād III

(2,378 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, twelfth Ottoman Sultan (ruled 982-1003/1574-95). He was born on 5 D̲j̲umāda I 953/4 July 1546 in the princely summer camp at Bozdaǧ Yayla near Manisa [ q.v.] where his father, the later Sultan Selīm II [ q.v.], resided as sand̲j̲aḳ-begi . His mother was the Venetian-born k̲h̲āṣṣekī Nūr Bānū [ q.v.]. His ceremonial circumcision took place at Manisa in April 1557. At the time, prince Selīm was appointed sand̲j̲aḳ-begi of Ḳaramān [ q.v.] in 1558 and Sultan Süleymān I [ q.v.] made his grandson sand̲j̲aḳ-begi of Aḳs̲h̲ehir. In 1561 Murād stayed with his grandfather in Istanbul, and…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Rūm

(722 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
or Rūmī (d. 883/1478), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Being of ḳul status, his origins, whether Greek or Albanian, are obscure. Sultan Meḥemmed II [ q.v.] admitted him into his intimate circle after the unsuccessful Albanian campaign of 870/1466 during which Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a became Second Vizier. In 1468/872 he joined the campaign against Ḳaramān [see ḳaramān-og̲h̲ullari̊ ], during which he manifested his rivalry with the Grand Vizier Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Instead of him, Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a was charged with the deportation of selected members of the populations of the cities of Ḳaramān, Ḳonya [ q.v…

Ṣari̊ Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(801 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Baḳḳāl-zāde , Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī , S̲h̲ehrī , Defterdār (?-1129/1717), Ottoman statesman, born in Istanbul (hence: S̲h̲ehrī), a son of a Muslim Turkish grocer. He styled himself El-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Meḥmed ed-Defterī in the preface to his chronicle. He made his career in the financial department of the Porte [see māliyye ]. In 1081/1671 he was employed in the office of the rūznāmd̲j̲e-yi ewwel ḳalemi [ q.v.]. He won the patronage of the defterdār Ḳi̊li̊č ʿAlī Efendi, bas̲h̲defterdār (in function 1102/1691-2) and was promoted to mektūbd̲j̲u (= mektūbī ), head of the secretariat of the principal deft…

Red̲j̲eb Pas̲h̲a

(459 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
Topal (d. 1041/1632), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Murād IV [ q.v.]. Of Bosnian origin, he began his career in the bostand̲j̲i̊ corps and attained the high office of Bostand̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ [ q.v.] in the reign of Aḥmed I [ q.v.]. Although slightly invalid (a sufferer from gout, hence topal ), he continued his career: a vizier since 1031/1622, he was appointed commander-in-chief in the Black Sea. With his squadron he defeated a Cossack fleet of 600 s̲h̲ayḳas . Red̲j̲eb Pas̲h̲a was Ḳapudān-pas̲h̲a 1032-5/1623-26. Commanding the fleet in Rad̲j̲ab-Ramaḍ…

Ḳoylu Ḥiṣār

(371 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
( Ḳoyunlu Ḥiṣār ), modern Koyulhisar, centre of an ilçe of the province ( il) of Sivas in the valley of the Kelkit River along the old route from Niksar to S̲h̲ābīn Ḳaraḥiṣār and Erzurum in the so-called “left wing” ( sol ḳol ) of Anatolia within the framework of the Ottoman road and postal system. The site has changed a few times because of earthquakes (most recently in 1939). Before ca. 1850 the township probably lay on the site of the actual Yukari Kale. The town and fortress were lost by the Byzantines after the battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt). After direct Sald̲j̲ūḳid rule,…

Ḳod̲j̲a Eli

(577 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, modern Turkish Kocaeli: a region between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, covering a part of ancient Bithynia with its centre Izmīd [ q.v.] (ancient Nicomedia), and the name of a sand̲j̲aḳ of the Ottoman empire. Nowadays it is the name of a province ( il) of Turkey (population 385,408 in 1970), with Izmit as its capital. In 1954 the eastern part of the province Kocaeli was separated to form the Sakarya (Saḳārya) province with its capital Adapazari. Since this administrative reform, Kocaeli has comprised the ilces (formerly ḳaḍāʾs ) of (Izmit-) Merkez, Gebze…


(463 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(transliterated also sālyāne ), a technical term in Ottoman administrative usage derived from the Persian sāl (year) meaning "yearly", "yearly allowance" or "stipend". The term is applied especially to the yearly income allotted to some categories of provincial rulers and governors (16th-19th centuries). These were the members of the Girāy [ q.v.] dynasty, some governors of maritime districts and other sand̲j̲aḳ-beg̲i s and beglerbegi s whose income did not derive from k̲h̲āṣṣ [ q.v.] domains ¶ but consisted of a yearly allowance fixed at the time of their appointment.…

K̲h̲alīl Pas̲h̲a Ḳayṣariyyeli

(2,821 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ottoman Grand Vizier and admiral, born probably ca. 1570, in the village of Zeytun (now Süleymanh) in the province of Maraş on the way to Ḳayseri, near Furnuz, at that time an Armenian village with a rich population (iron mines nearby, Andreasyan, 1964). It suffered heavily from destructions done by Ḏj̲elālī rebels. As a young boy, K̲h̲alīl was recruited by the Devs̲h̲irme [ q.v.], (Uzunçarşih, Kapikulu , i, 27, n. 4) and received the full education of the palace-school as an ič og̲h̲lān . His career may have been promoted by the fact that he had an elde…

Sulaymān Pas̲h̲a

(428 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, al-Faransawī (Sèves or Sève Pas̲h̲a, 1788-1860), one of the French officers serving in Muḥammad ʿAlī’s Pas̲h̲a’s [ q.v.] army. Joseph Anthelme Sève was the son of a Lyons draper. When fifteen years old, he enlisted as a gunner in the French army, and later served in the Hussars. He fought in Napoleon’s Prussian campaign (1806-7) and was promoted to the rank of adjutant, and during the “Hundred Days” (1814), he served on the staff of Marshal Grouchy. Dismissed by the royal government, he went to Egypt in 1815, and was eventually attached to the staff of Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Sève became an…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Balṭad̲j̲i̊

(1,644 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ṭeberdār (1071-1124/1660-1 to 1712), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Aḥmed III [ q.v.]. Born in Osmancık (Merzifon), as the son of Turkish Muslim parents, he was able to enter the outside service of the Sultan’s palace thanks to patronage ( intisāb ). He began his career in a secretarial function. By favour and through the patronage of Ḥabes̲h̲ī ʿAlī Ag̲h̲a and other bīrūn ag̲h̲a s, he entered the service of the Wālide Sulṭān Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲e Tark̲h̲ān, attaining the rank of k̲h̲alīfe in 1099/1687. The prince Aḥmed (the later Aḥmed III) appointed Meḥmed…

K̲h̲alīl Pas̲h̲a Ḥād̲jd̲j̲ī Arnawud

(886 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Groot, A.H. de
, Grand Vizier under the Ottoman Sulṭān Aḥmad III. He was an Albanian from Elbaṣān born ca. 1655. At the time his elder brother Sinān Āg̲h̲ā was Bostand̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊ [ q.v.], he entered the Bostand̲j̲i̊ corps. After the latter’s death ca. 1105/1649, he became attached to Ḳalayli̊ḳoz Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a and served under him in Bag̲h̲dād, where his protector was beglerbegi . On his return to Istanbul, K̲h̲alīl became K̲h̲āṣṣaki [ q.v.] and in 1123/1711, Bostand̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊. On 16 Muḥarram 1128/11 January 1716, having been appointed beglerbegi of Erzurum, he was sent by the Grand Vizi…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Ḳaramānī

(1,300 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ , (d. 886/1481), Ottoman Grand Vizier and historian. A descendant of Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī [ q.v.], he grew up in Ḳonya where he received his education as an ʿālim from Muṣannifak al-Ṣiddīḳī who introduced him into the patronage of Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a served as a clerk in the dīwān of that Grand Vizier and later became müderris in the medrese founded by the same at Istanbul, being at the same time a general adviser to his patron. Thanks to the latter, he became nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ [ q.v.] in 869/1464, which high office he kept for about 12 years. From 4 Ḏ…

Siyāwus̲h̲ Pas̲h̲a

(889 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, J. | Groot, A.H. de
, the name of two Ottoman Grand Viziers. 1. Kaniz̲h̲eli (i.e. from Kaniz̲h̲e, modern Nagykanizsa in Hungary), of Hungarian or Croatian descent, b. at an unknown date, d. 1010/1602. He was educated in the Istanbul palace and steadily followed a career through the posts of mīrāk̲h̲ur , siliḥdār , Janissary ag̲h̲a and beglerbegi of Rumelia. Having attained the rank of vizier in 988/1580, he was married to Fāṭima Sulṭān, a sister of sultan Murād III [ q.v.], by whom he had two sons and a daughter. Three times he attained the highest state office as Grand Vizier, which he oc…

Muṣṭafā K̲h̲ayrī Efendi

(1,058 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ürgüplü (1283-1339/1867-1921), S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ ül-Islām of the Ottoman Empire. A member of an old established local ʿulamāʾ family, he was born at Ürgüp as a son of ʿAbd Allāh ʿAwnī Efendi. Members of the family were the administrator of the waḳf of the town’s principal mosque complex, the ulu d̲j̲āmiʿ founded by Ḳaramānog̲h̲lu Ibrāhīm Bey [see ḳaramānog̲h̲ullari̊ ], K̲h̲ayrī received his early education locally inter alia in Arabic, Persian and Turkish classical literature and calligraphy. His elder brother, an Inspector of Justice in the wilāyet of Sivas [ q.v.], supervised his cont…

Nūr Bānū

(901 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
Wālide Suḷtān ( ca. 932-91/ca. 1525-83), K̲h̲aṣṣekī (principal consort) of the Ottoman sultan Selīm II [ q.v.] and mother of the sultan Murād III [ q.v.]. She was born on Paros [see para ] as Cecilia, illegitimate daughter of Nicolo Venier (d. 1520), the penultimate sovereign ruler of the island and of Violante Baffo. The identity of this “Venetian Sultana” is often confused with that of her successor, the Wālide Sulṭān Ṣāfiye [ q.v.]. Some Turkish historians persist in ascribing a Jewish origin to her. At the time of the conquest of the island in 1537, she was selec…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Tabani̊yassi̊

(300 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(997?-1049/1589?-1639), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Of Albanian origin, he was taken from his home at Tas̲h̲lid̲j̲a as a devs̲h̲irme boy and entered the palace service [see enderūn ]. The protection of the Dār al-Saʿāda Ag̲h̲asi̊ Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī Muṣṭafā Ag̲h̲a provided him with a quick career from Mīr Āk̲h̲ūr to vizier and Beglerbegi of ¶ Egypt before becoming Grand Vizier on 28 S̲h̲awwāl 1041/18 May 1632. He assisted Sultan Murād IV [ q.v.] in suppressing opposition forces in the capital, thus making it possible for the sultan to rule in person. Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a favoured a …

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Gürd̲j̲ü

(487 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(II) (d. 1076/1666), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Having been a slave (but not an eunuch) of Ḳod̲j̲a Sinān Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], he entered the palace service, beginning as an apprentice in the kitchen ( maṭbak̲h̲ emīnliǧi ) department. By Ḏj̲umādā II 1023/July 1614, he reached the rank of a d̲j̲ebed̲j̲i bas̲h̲i̊ . While on campaign with Öküz Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] in the East, he was appointed čawus̲h̲ bas̲h̲i̊ [ q.v.] in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 1026/November 1617. In Rabīʿ I 1029/February 1620 he was made ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ , bas̲h̲i̊ , in which function he participated in Sultan ʿOt̲…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Elmās

(625 words)

Author(s): Groot, A. H. de
(1071-1109/1662-97), Ottoman Grand Vizier. He was born in Hoşalay (formerly Mesed, to the east of Kerempe Burnu) (Kastamonu), the son of a shipmaster. As a young man (reputedly beautiful, hence his surname Elmas “Diamond”), he was taken ¶ into the service of the state by a chief inspector of the Sultan’s treasury ( Bas̲h̲ Bāḳī Ḳulu ), Divrigili Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a, who was appointed governor of Tripoli in Syria in 1089/1677-8. From the service of the treasury, Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a Elmās was soon promoted to the palace service, to the Ḵh̲āṣṣ Oda [ q.v.] from where he made quick career as Riḳābdār , Si̊lāḥdā…

Mesiḥ Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(326 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḵh̲ādim ( ca. 901-98/ ca. 1495-1589), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Murād III [ q.v.]. Ḵh̲ādim Mesīḥ made his career as one of the white ag̲h̲as in the Sultan’s private household ( Enderun [ q.v.]) at the time when their influence was still predominant in the palace. At the accession of Murād III (982/1574), he held the office of chief butler ( Ki̊lārd̲j̲i̊bas̲h̲i̊ ) He left the palace service to become Beglerbegi of Egypt. He governed that province for five years. His successful administration brought him the appointment as Third Vizier …

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Öküz

(1,078 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Dāmād , Ḳara , 964?-1029/1557?-1620) Ottoman Grand Vizier. Born in Istanbul the son of a Muslim blacksmith, he entered the palace service in spite of the fact of his being of Muslim Turkish origin. After about 40 years service as a silāḥdār , he left the Palace with the rank of a Vizier and became Beglerbegi of Egypt (Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1015/April 1607). Arriving there the same year in May (Muḥarram 1016), he became busy with administrative reform. He abolished the illegally-imposed levies of ṭulba , kulfa and kus̲h̲ūfiyya , which formed an excessively heavy…


(904 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Sayyid Aḥmad (1290-1351/1873-1933), Third Grand Master of the Sanūsiyya [ q.v.] order of dervishes. His full name was al-Sayyid Muḥammad al-Maḥdī Aḥmad b. al-Sayyid Muḥammad al-S̲h̲arīf b. al-Sayyid Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Sanūsī al-K̲h̲aṭṭābī al-Hasanī al-Idrīsī. He was born at D̲j̲ag̲h̲būb. a grandson of the founder of the order, and received a classical education in Islamic learning from his father, uncle, etc., according to the high standards of Sanūsī tradition. He succeeded to the leadership at Ḳūrū (Borku, in Chad),…

Murād IV

(1,900 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, seventeenth Ottoman sultan (1021-49/1612-40, reigned 1032-49/1623-40). Born in Istanbul in a palace on the Bosphorus on 28 D̲j̲umādā I 1021/27 July 1612, son of the reigning sultan Aḥmed I [ q.v.] and his principal consort, k̲h̲aṣṣekī , Kösem [ q.v.] Māhpeyker, a woman of Greek origin (Anastasia, 1585-1651). He grew up in the palace together with his brother İbrāhīm, confined in the ḳafes apartments, since he was five years old. The princes Süleymān, Ḳāsi̊m and İbrāhīm were his full brothers, and he had two full sisters ʿAʾis̲h̲e Sul…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Tiryāḳī

(1,048 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī (? 1091-1164/?1680-1751), Ottoman Grand Vizier. The son of an Odabas̲h̲i̊ (Janissary Officer) born in Istanbul, he was himself enrolled in the Janissary Corps, and made a career as a “civil servant”, reaching the post of Corps Secretary ( Ag̲h̲a Ḳapi̊si̊ Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊si̊ or Yeničeri Efendisi ) in 1149/1736. He was removed from that position because of his misappropriations of pay money while serving with the corps on campaign. In fact, he was denounced by the “Corps Merchant”, Dāwūd. Thanks to the protection of the Ketk̲h̲üdā [ q.v.] of the Grand Vizier, he was appoint…
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