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Oldenburg

(1,568 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[German Version] I. Territory – II. History – III. Statistics I. Territory The territory of Oldenburg was absorbed in 1946 into the Land of Lower Saxony, but within the structures of the Protestant and Catholic churches, it retains more or less the boundaries of the duchy of Oldenburg determined by the Congress of Vienna (Vienna, Congress of), comprising the administrative districts of Friesland, Wesermarsch, Ammerland, Oldenburg, Cloppenburg, and Vechta, and the independent cities of Wilhelmshaven, Oldenburg, and Delmenhorst. II. History 1. Middle Ages. At the behest of Charlemagne, the An…

Hammarskjöld, Dag

(160 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[German Version] (Jul 29, 1905, Jönköping, Sweden – Sep 17, 1961, near Ndola, Zambia), first held high government offices in Sweden. In 1953, he was appointed secretary-general of the UN. His negotiation skills enabled him to mediate in numerous conflicts. When he attempted to arbitrate in the Congo crisis, he died in an unex…

Sutel, Johann

(177 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[German Version] (1504, Altmorschen, near Melsungen – Aug 26, 1575, Northeim). After receiving a master’s degree at Erfurt, he became rector of the Latin school in Melsungen, for which ordination was not required. In 1530 the city council of Göttingen appointed him pastor of Sankt Nikolai and commissioned him to introduce the Reformation into the city; in 1535 he beca…

Communio

(2,855 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf | Thompson, J. Michael | Aymans, Winfried
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Liturgy – III. Music – IV. Canon Law I. Dogmatics In the Vulgate, the Latin term communio, along with the more frequent translations communicatio and societas, renders the New Testament word κοινωνία ( koinōnía). It gained ecclesiological content primarily through the Apostles' Creed, which adopted Augustine's description of the church as the communio sanctorum including not only the elect, but also the angels. The communio evidenced in the NT as participation in the benefits of salvation in worship became the startin…

Church

(19,399 words)

Author(s): Wenz, Gunther | Davis, Derek | Grünschloß, Andreas | Grappe, Christian | Schäfer, Rolf | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Religious Studies – III. Early Christianity – IV. Early Church to the Reformation – V. Modern Era – VI. Orthodox Churches – VII. Asia, Africa, Latin America – VIII. Systematic Theology – IX. Ethics – X. Practical Theology – XI. Ecumenical Discussion – XII. Law I. Concept 1. Theology The loan-word, church, which in common parlance can mean both the Christian worship service and the building dedicated to its performance as well as the constituted social configuration of Christian faith in the sense of an institution and its representative organs, apparently stems from an adjectival derivative of the Greek substantive κύριος/ kýrios. While, in accordance with this etymology, the church concept indicates affiliation to the Lord as …

Marriage

(10,960 words)

Author(s): Nehring, Andreas | Otto, Eckart | Deming, Willoughby Howard | Schäfer, Rolf | Nave-Herz, Rosemarie | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Sociology – VI. Systematic Theology – VII. Law – VIII. Practical Theology – IX. Judaism – X. Islam I. Religious Studies The term marriage denotes a relationship entered into between two or more persons of different sex, ritually formalized, intended to be permanent, and recognized by society. In all cultures, definitions of economic and sexual rights and the conveyance of …