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Lethaeus

(131 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ληθαῖος; Lēthaîos). [German version] [1] Tributary of the Peneius Left-hand tributary of the Peneius in north-west Thessalia, flows through Tricca (Paus. 14,139), modern Trikkalinos. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 121. [German version] [2] River in southern Crete River in southern Crete, which flows through Gortyn from north to south (Str. 10,4,11), modern Mitropolianos. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [3] Tributary of the Maiander Right-hand tributary of the Maeander (river god: coins o…

Camirus

(369 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Delian League (Κάμιρος; Kámiros, Lat. Camirus). City on the western coast of  Rhodes near the modern Kalavarda; it was one of the three ancient Rhodian cities, together with  Ialysus and  Lindus (this configuration is already mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,656). According to the evidence of grave finds, C. was already inhabited in Mycenaean times. Its true foundation was by Dorian settlers. Together with Ialysus and …

Hierapytna

(200 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Ἱεράπυτνα; Hierápytna). Town on Crete, modern Ierapetra, at the narrowest point of the island between eastern and central Crete (Str. 10,4,3). In the Hellenistic period a significant political player as attested by several treaties primarily from the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. BC with other Cretan towns (Praesus, Itanus, Gortyn, Lyttus, Lato) [1]. There were links to powers outside Crete (Macedonia, Rhodes, Pergamum: Stv III 502; 551; Syll.3 627). An aggressive territorial policy in eastern Crete, especial…

Zephyrium

(770 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Et al.
(Ζεφύριον/ Zephýrion). Name used especially in the eastern Mediterranean region for foothills and the cities near them that are exposed to the west wind (Zephyrus). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Cape on the north eastern coast of Crete Cape on the north-eastern coast of Crete (Ptol. 3,17,5), probably modern Cape Agios Ioannis at the north-eastern end of the Gulf of Mirabello. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Cape on the south western coast of Cyprus (or Ζεφυρία/ Zephyría). Cape on the south-western coast of Cyprus. According to Ptol. 5…

Itanus

(129 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hellenistic states | Crete | Apollo (Ἴτανος; Ítanos). Port in the extreme north-east of Crete, between two acropoleis, modern Erimupolis. Traces of settlement date as far back as the Minoan period. In the 7th cent. BC, Corobius, a purple fisher from I., allegedly led colonists from  Thera to  Cyrene (Hdt. 4,151). In the Hellenistic period, it served as the Aegean base of the Ptolemies [1]. In 112 BC, rivalries with  Hierapytna were mediated on Roman i…

Amyclae

(415 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Ἀμύκλαι; Amýklai). [German version] [1] Pre-Greek settlement This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Dark Ages | Aegean Koine Pre-Greek settlement on and at the foot of the hills bearing the chapel of Agia Kyriaki, inhabited from the early Helladic to the imperial Roman period (Paus. 3,18,6-19,6; IG V 1, 515), c. 5 km south of  Sparta near the modern Tsausi. In historical times, it was a ὠβή ( ōbḗ) of Sparta with its own ephors and other officials (cf. Syll.3 932). The region seems to have reached its peak in the 7th/6th cent. BC. From the late Mycenaean period, it housed a sa…

Aptara, Aptera

(165 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete | Education / Culture (Ἀπτάρα, Ἀπτέρα; Aptára, Aptéra). Port in the north-west of  Crete on a 230 m high plateau, today Aptara; on coins and in inscriptions Aptara, in literature Aptera (ancient explanation of the name: Steph. Byz. s. v. A.; Paus. 10,5,10). Signs of settlement from the 2nd millennium BC. Frequently involved in interstate politics in early Hellenistic times. In 220 BC under pressure from  Polyrrhenia A. terminated its alliance with  Knossos (Pol. 4,55,4). There is evidence of a   symmachia

Larisa

(2,121 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Et al.
(Λάρισα; Λάρισσα; Lárisa, Lárissa). Name of numerous locations in Greece and Asia Minor, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ. [German version] [1] Acropolis of Argos The 289-m high acropolis of Argos with Mycenaean remains (not precisely identified) [1]. The temple of Zeus Larisaios and Athena Polias under the large Venetian castle has been excavated. References: Str. 8,6,7; Paus. 2,24,1; 3f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λάρισαι πόλεις. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 N. Vassilatos, Larissa. The Acropolis of Argos, 1994. [German version] [2] City in Achaea Phthiotis Important city in Achaea Phthi…

Polichne

(171 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Πολίχνη; Políchnē). [German version] [1] Settlement in the Olympieum in the SW of Syracusae Settlement in the Olympieum, a sanctuary of Zeus on the right bank of the Anapus in the south west of Syracusae, where in 414 BC Gylippus stationed part of his cavalry to hamper the Athenians on the Plemmyrium from foraging in the Syracusan hinterland (Thuc. 7,4,7; Diod. Sic. 13,7,5; cf. [1. 41, 4110]). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 H.-P. Drögemüller, Syrakus (Gymnasium Beiheft 6), 1969. [German version] [2] Town in NW Crete This item can be found on the following maps: Crete Town …

Nareste

(45 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Roman castellum in Dalmatia on the Salona - Narona road (Plin. HN 3,142: N.; Nerate: other MS traditions; Geogr. Rav. 4,16: Netrate; 5,14: Nerente), modern Jesenice east of Split/Croatia. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. Mayer, Die Sprache der alten Illyrier, 1957, 240f.

Antium

(258 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Tribus | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Latini, Latium | Oracles | Regio, regiones Harbour town in southern Latium, modern Anzio. According to first treaty between Rome and Carthage, dated by Polybius back to 508/507 BC [1], this town, rich in tradition (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,32), was at that time under Roman control (Pol. 3,22,11). Soon after, A. came under the influence of the  Volsci, and was thus inv…

Ager Pomptinus

(558 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Region in  Latium between   mons Albanus and the coast of the mare Tyrrhenum. Its name is derived from the town of Pometia (Cic. Rep. 2,44; Liv. 2,16,8; 17,5 f.; 25,6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,50; 6,29), which it has not been possible to localize. Probably towards the end of the 6th cent. BC, the ager Pomptinus (AP) came into the possession of the neighbouring  Volsci. Rome's reaction to this was -- supposedly as early as 492 BC -- the foundation of the colony of  Norba (Liv. 2,34,6; Dion. Hal. …

Rhytium

(92 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ῥύτιον/ Rhýtion). City in southern central Crete (Plin. HN 4,59), today's Rhotasi. Traces of settlements from late Minoan to Venetian periods. First literary mention at Hom. Il. 2,648 (reference to its being well populated). Rhytium was important beyond its borders as a cultic site for Zeus Skylios [1. 141]. Politically, R. was dependant on Gortyn  (Str. 10,4,14). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 H. Verbruggen, Le Zeus crétois, 1981. H. Beister, s. v. Pyrgos, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 580  M. Guarducci, Inscriptiones Creticae 1, 1935, 303 f.  I. F.…

Olympus

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ὄλυμπος/Ólympos). Geography: [1-13]. People: [14-15]. [German version] [1] Home of the ›Olympian‹ gods, highest mountain in Greece (Latin Olympus) (Latin Olympus). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) [German version] I. Geography The highest mountain in Greece, regarded as the home of the 'Olympian' gods (twelve (Olympian) gods). Its altitude, overlooking all of its surroundings, creates a powerful impression, as do its massive size and density and its dramatic ascent, especially at the east and west, which …

Novae

(318 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Locality in Moesia superior This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Legio | Limes | Moesi, Moesia Locality (posting station) in Moesia superior (Tab. Peut. 7,1; It. Ant. 221,4; Νοοῦαι/ Nooûai: Ptol. 3,15,5), 4 km east of modern Svištov (Bulgaria). N. was founded around AD 30; the legio I Italica  was stationed here under Vespasian (garrison on the right bank of the Danube near a river-crossing). A civilian settlement grew up nearby. Extensive archaeological and epigraphical finds (fortress wall with gate …

Marathesium

(78 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μαραθήσιον; Marathḗsion). Town on the west coast of Asia Minor (ruins at the Ambar Tepe [1]); after an exchange with Samos, it belonged to the territory of Ephesus (Scyl. 98; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.; Plin. HN. 5,114). From 478/7 BC it was a member of the Delian League (ATL 1,336f.; 515; 2,80; 3,204; 307). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. Meriç et al (Ed.) IK 17,1, 1981, 111 (with inscriptions 3112-3114), 100 (map). Magie 2, 886.

Crete

(1,586 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Κρήτη, Krētē, Latin Creta). [German version] A. Settlement geography C. is the largest Greek island, with an east-west extension of 250 km and a north-south extension of max. 60 km. The narrowest part is the Isthmus of Hierapytna in the east. The island's topography is shaped by its mountains. Three large mountain ranges dominate: in the west the ‘White Mountains’ (  Leúka órē , 2,482 m), in the centre the  Ida Mountains (Piloritis, 2,456 m) and in the east the  Dicte Range (highest elevation 2,147 m) with the Lassithi Plateau (moun…

Lebena

(231 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aegean Koine (Λεβήνα; Lebḗna). City on the southern coast of Crete (Str. 10,4,12; Plin. HN 4,59) near the modern village of Lendas. Older form of the name: Λεβήν/ Lebḗn. There is evidence that it was already settled in the Minoan period. Initially important as the harbour for Gortyn, L. became a religious centre from the 4th cent. BC onwards because of its sanctuary of Asclepius founded at a healing spring (the visible remains of the temple as well as the stoa and nympha…

Elyrus

(152 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Ἔλυρος; Élyros). Extensive urban settlement in south-western Crete (Steph. Byz. s.v. E.) near Rodovani east of Kandans. Archaeological data: some Roman ruins (town walls, theatre, aqueduct). Syia was Elyrus' port (Steph. Byz. s.v.). It is possible that E. belonged to the koinon of the western Cretan Oreioi, who probably entered an alliance with Magas of Cyrene between 280 and 250 BC [1. 1; 2. 468]; from 183 BC, it was part of the alliance of thirty-one Cretan cities with Eumenes…

Ceraea

(77 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Κεραία; Κεραῖαι; Keraía, Keraîai). Town on Crete in the north-west of the island, of undetermined location between Lappa and Polyrrhenia (Steph. Byz. s.v. Βήνη). In the Lyttian War (220 v.Chr.), C. -- together with other Cretan towns -- seceded from Cnossus and Gortyn (Pol. 4,53,6). In 183 BC, it was one of the Cretan towns to enter an alliance with Eumenes II of Pergamum [1. 179]. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 M. Guarducci (ed.), Inscriptiones Creticae IV, 1950.

Leuka (Ore)

(76 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Λευκὰ ὄρη; Leukà órē). The ‘white mountains’ in western Crete, up to 2,482 m high (Str. 10,4,4). Uncultivated and inaccessible with a remarkable stand of cypress trees (Plin. HN 16,142; cf. Theophr. Hist. pl. 4,1,3), in Plin. HN 31,43 also mentioned in connection with the search for sources. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography J. Bowman, Kreta, 1965, 271ff. P. Faure, Noms de montagnes crétoises, in: L'Association G. Budé. Lettres d'humanités 24, 1965, 426-446.

Forest

(294 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Linguistically, a forest in Latin (Serv. Aen. 1,310) is differentiated according to the degree of human cultivation ( silva, nemus,   saltus ) and the associated religious sphere ( lucus,  ‘Grove’). On one hand, forests caused fear and discomfort (Cic. Nat. D. 2,6; Plin. HN 12,3), on the other hand they were valued as places of (even productive) rest and recuperation (Plin. Ep. 1,6,2; 9,10,2; Tac. Dial. 9,6; 12,1). Forests received an extremely negative connotation among Romans in the context of the military …

Halex

(55 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἅληξ; Hálēx). River in southern Bruttium, modern Alice. According to Timaeus (FGrH 566 F 43b) and Strabo (6,1,9) the border river between Rhegium and Locri (Paus. 6,6,4, however, says Caecinus). In the Peloponnesian War (426 BC) scene of an Athenian expedition against Locri (Thuc. 3,99). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 955.

Lisus, Lissus

(156 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Λισος; Lisos in inscriptions, Λισ(σ)ός; Lis(s)ós in literature; cf. Λίσσα; Líssa, Scyl. 47; Ptol. 3,15,3; Tab. Peut. 8,5). City on the south-western coast of Crete, to the west of modern Sougia, in a position protected by mountains and only open to the sea. From the late 4th cent. BC, L. with Elyrus, Hyrtacina and Tarrha formed the koinón of the oreíoi (‘mountain dwellers’). The city was occupied from the Classical to the Byzantine periods. Of supraregional importance was the Asclepium with the me…

Miletus

(3,516 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | von Graeve, Volkmar (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μίλητος; Mílētos). [German version] [1] Mythical founder of the city of Miletus Mythical founder of the city of M. [2]; from Crete; son of Apollo and Areia, daughter of Cleochus whose tomb was in the sanctuary of Didyma [1. 165f.] (Apollod. 3,5f.), or of Apollo and Deione (Ov. Met. 9,443ff.) or of Apollo and Acacallis, daughter of Minos (Antoninus Liberalis 30). Minos fell in love with M., but M. fleed to Caria, establishds M. there [2] and married Eidothea; the children of their union are Byblis and Caunus [1]. According to Ephorus FGrH 70 F 127 M. was founded by Sarpedon. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bi…

Augusta

(3,972 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Gaggero, Gianfranco (Genoa) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Walser, Gerold (Basle) | Et al.
(Αὐγούστα, Αὐγοῦστα; Augoústa, Augoûsta). [German version] [0] Title First to receive the name A. (‘the Sublime’) was  Livia [2], by the terms of the will of her husband  Augustus (Tac. Ann. 1,8,1; Vell. Pat. 2,75,3; Suet. Aug. 101,2), who at the same time adopted her into the Julian family (thus: Iulia Augusta). Hellenistic influence is disputed (in favour [1], against [2. 140-145]); the name Σεβαστή/ Sebastḗ with the same literal meaning was bestowed on the wives of Roman emperors in the Greek-speaking world independently of any conferring of the name of A…

Dicte

(106 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Δίκτη; Díktē). Mountain in Crete, not identifiable with certainty. In particular Str. 10,4,12 indicates that in antiquity, D. was not in the Lassithi Hills as today, but rather designated the Modi ridge (539 m) on the eastern tip of Crete and that this was the birthplace of Zeus (cf. Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,61; Diod. Sic. 5,70,6; Ath. 9,375f.). At the Minoan town of Palaikastro there was a sanctuary of Zeus Diktaios. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography P. Faure, Nouvelles recherches de spéléologie et de topographie crétoises, in: BCH 84, 1960, 189-220 E. Meyer,…

Mutila

(40 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town of the Histri, probably modern Medulin (Croatia) in southern Histria. Like Faveria, it was conquered by the Romans in 177 BC (Liv. 41,11,8). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography V.Vedaldi Iasbez, La Venetia Orientale e l'Histria, 1994, 354f.

Mytilene

(1,215 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Μυτιλήνη; Mytilḗnē). [German version] A. Geography City in the southeast of the island of Lesbos, of great political, economic and cultural signficance throughout antiquity. M. owed its prominent position not least to its favourable topographical situation. The earliest settlement, founded by Aeolians in about 1200 BC, was on the modern Kastro Hill and was separated by an a…

Samos

(1,590 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Ionic | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Phoenicians, Poeni | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (ἡ Σάμος/ hē Sámos, Lat. also Samus). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] I. Geography Island in the southeastern Aegean Sea, only c. 2 km from the mainland of Asia Minor (at Mycale); connected in prehistoric times; total area 476 km2. The island is crossed by a chain of mountains (Ampelus according to …

Paros

(1,288 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Πάρος; Páros). Island in the Cyclades (195 km2, 22 km long, 16 km wide), west of Naxos [1], south-west of it is the island Antiparos. [German version] I. Geography and early settlement history The landscape is shaped by Mt.Marpessa [2] (modern Prophitis Ilias) - heavily forested in Antiquity, today largely bare - with a height of up to 771 m. The foothills of the mountain stretch to the fertile coasts. Already settled in the Neolithic, P. developed into a significant site of the Cycladic culture. Important find spots are Na…

Halisarna

(137 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Ἁλίσαρνα; Halísarna). [German version] [1] Small city in the border region of the regions Mysia and Troas Small city, dynastic seat in the border region of the regions of Mysia and the Troad. In Xenophon (Hell. 3,1,6; An. 7,8,17) H. is mentioned in connection with the Spartan-Persian war 400-396 BC. The dynast Procles named there is the descendant of the Spartan king Damaratus, who was exiled there at the beginning of the 5th cent. BC and received H. along with Pergamum and Teuthrania from Darius I as a gift (Paus. 3,7,8). The exact location and further history are unknown. Schwertheim, El…

Cosilinum

(128 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] Statio on the via Popilia (Tab. Peut. 7,1), after which Sala Consilina is named, in the liber regionum of 120 praefectura Consiline in provincia Lucaniae. Inhabited market site (Cassiod. Var. 8,33) near an old spring (Marcellianum). In the 5th cent. AD an episcopal seat. The old fortification mentioned in Pliny (Plin. HN 3,95) may possibly be associated with Padula in the Tanagro valley (thus already in [3]), where a fortified embankment was found on a hill and prehistoric graves in the valley (archaic g…

Amnisus

(174 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Aegean Koine (Ἀμνισός; Amnisós). Harbour settlement, belonging to  Knosos during the Minoan period (Epineion: Str. 10,4,7), situated on the northern coast of  Crete, 8 km east of  Heracleum on the river A. (modern Karteros); remains of the Minoan town structure (i. a. ‘Villa of the Lilies’); its name is listed on the place name register of Amenophis III [1. 67 ff.] and in the clay tablet archives of Cnossus; it was f…

Alba Longa

(155 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in  Latium on the   mons Albanus near modern Castel Gandolfo. According to legendary documents making every effort to ensure the connection of Rome with Troy, founded by  Aeneas' [1] son  Ascanius (in the Roman version also Iulus, Verg. Aen. 1,267, or Iullus, Cato HRR fr. 9). An early position of supremacy in Latium is probable. Most likely already in the 7th cent. BC, Alba Longa (AL) was incorporated by Etruscan-dominated Rome. Tradition has ascribed this to King Tullus Hostilius (Liv. 1,29; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,31,3-6). The population was relocated to Rome, the mon…

Nesti

(36 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νέστοι/ Néstoi). Tribe, probably Thracian or Illyrian, of the north-eastern Adriatic, with territory between the Nestus and the Naro (Ps.-Scyl. 23f.; Apoll. Rhod. 4,1215: Νεσταῖοι/ Nestaîoi). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography J.J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 7.

Lappa

(167 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete | Macedonia, Macedones | Pompeius (Λάππα; Láppa). Town in western Crete (Str. 10,4,3) near the modern village of Argyropolis. Involved in the internal Cretan conflicts of the Lyttian War in 220 BC (Pol. 4,53-55). L. concluded an alliance with Gortyn around 200 BC, acknowledging the supremacy of its eastern neighbour [1. no. 31, p. 265-267]. In 183 BC, L. was one of the 30 Cretan towns to unite in a coalition with Eumenes II [2. 179]. In 67 BC, L. was destroyed by the Romans. Under Augustus, L. received the privileged status of a ci…

Mare Tyrrhenum

(151 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] The Tyrrhenian Sea, the western part of the Mediterranean Sea ( Mare Nostrum), bordered by the Italian west coast, the Sicilian north coast and by Corsica and Sardinia. The name goes back to the Greek name of the Etruscans (Τυρσανοί/ Tyrsanoí; Τυρσηνικὸν πέλαγος/ Tyrsēnikòn pélagòs in Thuc. 4,24). The Romans spoke of the Tuscum mare (Varro, Rust. 3,9,17; Cic. Orat. 3,19,69; Liv. 5,33,8) or, in contrast to the mare superum (Adriatic), of the mare inferum (Cic. Att. 9,5,1). Before Roman rule was established in the Punic Wars, the Mare Tyrrhenum was freque…

Oaxus

(203 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὄαξος/ Óaxos, Ἄξος/ Áxos). Mountain town in northern central Crete bordering on the region of Tylissus, c. 30 km to the south of Heraklion and called Axos in later sources (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄ.). O. was situated on the northern foothills of the Ida mountain range, on a steep acropolis with few archaeological remains (walls). Already inhabited in late Minoan times, O. had developed since the 8/7 cents. BC into a significant town whose building fabric is preserved today only in a rudimentary form. …

Knossos

(691 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Writing | Christianity | Coloniae | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Crete | Apollo | Linear B | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources (Κνωσός; Knōsós; in later practice the spelling is Κνωσσός/ Knōssós; Latin usually Gnosos or Gnosus). City in central Crete, about 5 km south-east of Heraklion on the western bank of the river Caeratus; settlement already too…

Rhithymna

(106 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Ῥίθυμνα/ Rhíthymna). City on the northwest coast of Crete (Plin. HN 4,59), modern Rethymnon, settled already in the Minoan period (temple and necropolis in the south of the city). Its temporary renaming as Arsinoe (after the wife of Ptolemaeus [7] IV) in the 3rd century BC indicates Ptolemaic influence. No remains from the Classical and Hellenistic periods survive, but one building from the late Roman period does. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography M. Guarducci, Inscriptiones Creticae 2, 268-277  I. F. San…

Aecae

(81 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Town in  Apulia on the via Traiana (Tab. Peut. 6,3), modern Troia. In the Second Punic War, it was at times allied with Hannibal, 214 BC recaptured by Rome (Liv. 24,20,5). In the later imperial period colonia Augusta Apula Aecae. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 844 L. Vendola, Su alcune iscrizioni latine di Aecae (Troia), in: Annali della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia di Bari 27/28, 1984/85, 23-39.

Tityrus

(53 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τίτυρος; Títyros). Extended headland in the northwest of Crete on the Rodopou peninsula, about 16 km long and 6 km wide, with a sanctuary to Dictynna in the extreme north (Str. 10,4,12). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography M. Guarducci (ed.), Inscriptiones Creticae vol. 2, 1939, 129 f.  D. Gondicas, Recherches sur la Crète occidentale, 1988, 286.

Natural catastrophes

(1,050 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] For the whole of antiquity there are numerous reports of natural catastrophes (NC). Especially in the eastern Mediterranean, but also in Italy, tectonic conditions resulted in an extraordinary susceptibility for frequently disastrous seismic activity (earthquakes and resulting tsunami, volcanic eruptions). The ancient perception was that phenomena such as storms, epidemics, rains of stones, comets (Cic. Nat. deor. 2,14) and solar and lunar eclipses (e.g. Plut. Nicias 23; Eclipses) were also in the category of NC. Earthquakes (cf. map) …

Rhodos

(1,647 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Byzantium | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Colonization | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Pompeius | Rome | Rome | Athletes | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Ῥόδος; Rhódos). [German version] I. Geography Island in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the southwestern coast of Asia Minor, now part of the Dodecanese archipelago, with an area of 1400 km2. A good part of the ancient history of the island was shaped by its geographical situ…

Meteon

(76 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μετεών; Meteṓn). Town of the Illyrian Labeates in the territory of Labeatis (Pol. 29,3; Liv. 44,23,3; 32,3), near modern Podgorica (Montenegro). M. achieved political significance in 168 BC as the meeting place of Pantauchus, an emissary of the Macedonian king Perseus, and the Illyrian prince Genthius (Pol. loc.cit.; Liv. loc.cit.). Towers of the 3rd-cent. BC town walls are preserved; no systematic excavations. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 26f., 166.

Cos

(1,257 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Natural catastrophes | Pompeius | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Κῶς; Kôs, Lat. Cos). [German version] I. Geography and settlement Island in the eastern Aegean, off the south-west coast of Asia Minor, the second largest of the Doric islands (298 km2). A fertile plain in the north contrasts with a barren, sparsely populated mountainous area in the south (highest elevation the Oromedon, 850 m; in the south-west the Latra, 425 m). In the Neolithic period (finds in a cav…

Phalasarna

(307 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (τὰ Φαλάσαρνα; tà Phalásarna). Port city in the NW of Crete (Str. 10,4,2; Plin. HN 4,59) with topographically striking, steep acropolis, present-day Koutri. Historical reports start with an alliance treaty concluded with the neighbouring polis Polyrrhenia as a result of mediation by Sparta at the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC [1. no. 1, pp. 179-181]. At the behest of the Romans, P. regained its previously lost autonomy from Cydonia (Pol. 22,1…

Parentium

(291 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Venetic | | Coloniae A city on the western coast of Histria, the modern Poreč. Illyrian settlement is attested as early as the late Bronze Age. In the wake of the Roman occupation in the 2nd cent. BC, a castrum was built on the coastal road. P. later became one of the oppida Histriae civium Romanorum (Plin. HN 3,129). Raised by the future Augustus to the status of a municipium, P. became colonia Iulia Parentium, tribus Lemonia under Tiberius (AD 14-37). P. developed into an important trading centre, and also had fertil…

Desert

(215 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (ἡ ἔρημος/ érēmos, ἡ ἐρημία/ erēmía, τὰ ἔρημα/ érēma; Lat. deserta, regio deserta). In geographical terms the arid desert zones were part of the marginal areas of the Ancient World (North Africa, the Middle East with Syria, Palestine, Arabia). Politically and to a greater extent economically they, had close relationships to the Graeco-Roman cultural sphere. A large part of the east-west trade devolved over long-distance routes across the Arabian deserts. Desert towns such as Ḥatra [1], Palmyr…
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