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Papyri, Literary

(5,168 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Harder, Annette
Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Papyrus was the most important writing material in Antiquity [13]; it was also used for administrative and personal purposes (the so-called documentary papyri) and for the transcription of literary texts by Greeks who had settled in Egypt following the conquests of Alexander the Great. From ca. 300 BC to ca. 700 AD Greek texts were written on papyri in Egypt, and these papyri were preserved, re-used (for other texts or for use as wrap…

Europe/Europa

(1,029 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Εὐρώπη; Eurṓpē). [German version] [1] Geographic concept Originally reserved for the female mythological figure ( E. [2]; cf. Hes. Theog. 357, 359), as a geographical term E. initially referred to central Greece (cf. Hom. H. ad Apollinem 251, 291) and the Thracian-Macedonian north (cf. Hdt. 6,43; 7,8), as opposed to the Peloponnese in the south, the Ionian Islands in the west and the Aegean islands, and separated from the Asiatic land-mass by the Aegean Sea, the Hellespont, Propontis, the Bosporus and Pontus Euxinus. As awareness grew during the ‘great colonisation’ that the…

Dirce

(224 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Δίρκη; Dírkē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Ismenus Daughter of Ismenus (Callim. H. 4,75ff.), wife of king  Lycus. Both are hostile to Lycus' niece  Antiope [2]; after Antiope had failed in her attempt to escape, D. and Lycus handed her over to her twin sons  Amphion and Zethus, whom she had abandoned at birth, to have her dragged to death by a bull. However, the sons recognize their mother just in time and then proceed to make D. suffer that very pu…

Antigone

(839 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἀντιγόνη; Antigónē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Thessalian  Phere Daughter of Thessalian  Phere and mother of the Argonaut Asterion (Hyg. Fab. 14,1). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Daughter of king Eurytion of Phthia Daughter of king Eurytion of Phthia, wife of  Peleus, by whom she has a daughter Polydora (Pherec. FGrH 3 F 61a). Peleus accidentally kills Eurytion and therefore flees to Acastus at Iolcus, who exculpates him. Acastus' wife Astydameia tries in vain to win him for herself and then in reve…

Helene

(1,204 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ἑλένη, Helena). [English version] [1] schöne Gattin des Menelaos Göttin, die an verschiedenen Kultplätzen in und um Sparta verehrt wurde, vor allem im Menelaion in Therapne (Hdt. 6,61; Paus. 3,15,3; Hesych. s.v. Ἑλένεια, [1]). Auf Rhodos hatte sie einen Kult als H. Dendritis (Paus. 3,19,10), in Kenchreai und auf Chios ist sie als Quellgottheit belegt (Paus. 2,2,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἑλένη). Für ihren Namen gibt es keine vollständig gesicherte Etym. [2. 63-80]. Zu den Zeugnissen über ihren Kult in histor. …

Glauce

(354 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Γλαύκη; Glaúkē). [German version] [1] Nereide Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,39; Hes. Theog. 244; Hyg. Praef. 8), whose name describes the glossy blue as well as comparable colour shades of the sea (Hom. Il. 16,34; Hes. Theog. 440) and whose masculine counterpart is  Glaucus. G. is also represented as a nymph at various locations (Paus. 8,47,2f.; Tzetz. Theogony 100-102). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Spring nymph, bride of Jason Spring nymph i…

Glauke

(332 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Γλαύκη). [English version] [1] Nereide Nereide (Hom. Il. 18,39; Hes. theog. 244; Hyg. praef. 8), deren Name die blauglänzende sowie vergleichbare Farbschattierungen des Meeres bezeichnet (Hom. Il. 16,34; Hes. theog. 440) und zu der Glaukos die männliche Entsprechung ist. G. wird an verschiedenen Orten auch als eine Nymphe dargestellt (Paus. 8,47,2f.; Tzetz. Theogonie 100-102). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [English version] [2] Quellnymphe, Braut des Iason Quellnymphe in Korinth, von einigen Autoren mit der Tochter des dortigen Königs Kreon gleichgesetzt, die sonst Kreusa heißt. Nachdem sie als Braut Iasons von dessen verlassener Gemahlin Medea vergiftete Geschenke erhalten hat, die Feuerqualen auslösen, soll sie sich in die Quelle gestürzt haben (Paus. 2,3,6) und zugrunde gegangen sein (Diod. 4,54; Hyg. fab. 25; Apollod. 1,145; Lukian. 45,80; Athen. 13,560d). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [English version] [3] Amazone, Gattin des Theseus Amazone, die, von Theseus geraubt und zu seiner Gemahlin gemacht, die Mutter des Hippolytos wird (Hyg. fab. 163; Apollod. epit. 5,2). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography Lit.: C. Lochin, s.v. G. (1), LIMC 4.1, 270 G. Weicker, s.v. G. (1), (3)-(7), (9), RE 7, 1394-1396. Abb.: A. Kauffmann-Samaras, s.v. Amazones Nr. 7, 16, LIMC 1.2, 441f. C. Lochin, s.v. G. (1), LIMC 4.2, 159f. [English version] [4] G. aus Chios Kitharodin Kitharodin von zweifelhaftem Ruf, z.Z. des Ptolemaios Philadelphos (dessen Geliebte sie gewesen sein soll), erwähnt von Hedylos (bei Athen. 4, 176d) und Theokrit (4,31). Ihr wurde eine widernatürliche Neigung zu Tieren nachgesagt (Plut. mor. 972f., Ail. var. 9,39; Plin. nat. 1…

Laodike

(1,953 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Λαοδίκη). I. Mythologie [English version] [I 1] Tochter von Priamos und Hekabe Tochter des Priamos und der Hekabe; als ihre Gatten werden Helikaon (Hom. Il. 3,122-124; 6,252), durch den ihr eine Versklavung nach der Eroberung Troias erspart bleibt (Paus. 10,26,3), oder Akamas (Parthenios 16 MythGr), Demophon [2] (Plut. Theseus 34,2), Telephos (Hyg. fab. 101) angegeben. Nach Apollodor (epit. 5,25) wird sie nach der Eroberung Troias von einer Erdspalte verschluckt (vgl. auch Lykophr. 316f.; Tryphiodoros 660f.).…

Helena

(1,535 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ἑλένη; Helénē, Lat. Helena). [German version] [1] Beautiful wife of Menelaus ('Helen of Troy') Goddess who was worshipped at various cult sites in and around Sparta, especially in the Menelaion in  Therapne (Hdt. 6,61; Paus. 3,15,3; Hsch. s.v. Ἑλένεια, [1]). In  Rhodes she had a cult as H. Dendritis (Paus. 3,19,10), in  Cenchreae and  Chios she is attested as a deity of springs (Paus. 2,2,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἑλένη). There is no completely reliable etymology for her name [2. 63-80]. For evidence of her cult i…

Laodice

(2,285 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Λαοδίκη; Laodíkē). I. Mythology [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Priamus and Hecuba Daughter of Priamus and Hecabe; her husbands are given as Helicaon (Hom. Il. 3,122-124; 6,252), through whom she was spared enslavement after the fall of Troy (Paus. 10,26,3), or Acamas (Parthenius 16 MythGr), Demophon [2] (Plut. Thes. 34,2) or Telephus (Hyg. Fab. 101). According to Apollodorus (Epit. 5,25), after the fall of Troy she was swallowed up by a cleft in the earth (cf. also Lycoph. 316f.; Tryphiodorus 660f.).…

Arsinoë

(1,686 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀρσινόη). I. Mythos [English version] [I 1] Tochter des Leukippos Tochter des Leukippos, Schwester der von den Dioskuren geraubten Leukippiden, von Apollon Mutter des messenischen Asklepios (Hes. fr. 50; Apollod. 3,117f.; Paus. 2,26,7; 4,3,2). In Sparta hatte A. ein Heiligtum (Paus. 3,12,8), auf der Agora von Messene war eine Quelle A. (Paus. 4,31,6), im messenischen Asklepieion u.a. ein Gemälde der A. (Paus. 4,31,11f.). Das Verhältnis der messenischen zur thessal.-epidaurischen Asklepios-Tradition ist …

Arsinoe

(1,871 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀρσινόη; Arsinóē). I. Myth [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Leukippos Daughter of Leucippus, sister of the Leucippids, who were abducted by the Dioscuri, she was the mother by Apollo of the Messenian Asclepius (Hes. fr. 50; Apollod. 3,117f.; Paus. 2,26,7; 4,3,2). In Sparta A. had a shrine (Paus. 3,12,8); on the agora of Messene there was an A. spring (Paus. 4,31,6), in the Messenian Asclepieum there was, amongst other things, a painting …
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