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Diyllus

(163 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δίυλλος; Díyllos) of Athens. Greek historian of the first half of the 3rd cent. BC, son of the atthidographer Phanodemus. Author of Historíai in 27 bks., a universal history in two parts (cf. FGrH 73 T 1 and 2), which continued  Ephorus and covered the period from the 3rd Sacred War (357/6) to the death of Cassander's son Philip. D. was continued in his turn by Psaon of Plataeae (FGrH 78 T 1). According to Plutarch, D., who wrote entirely in the ‘tragic’ manner (Plut. Mor. 345E and F), was ‘not insignificant in historiography’ (Plut. Mor. 862B = T4). …

Atthis

(489 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀτθίς; Atthís). Atthís, plural Atthídes, refers to Athenian local histories; Atthidographers are the authors of these works. The Atthides were antiquarian rather than historically oriented; in an annalistic and chronicle-like representation they provided information about myths, religion, history, culture and literature, as well as the topography of Athens and Attica. In general they treated the entire span of time of their respective authors from the mythic beginnings up to the present. The Atthidographers often functioned as Exegetaí, interpreters of r…

Xenion

(88 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξενίων; Xeníōn). Author of an historical treatise on Crete, Κρητικά ( Krētiká ) or Περὶ Κρήτης ( Perì Krḗtēs ). Pol. 6,45,1, where X. should probably be read instead of Xenophon [2] as the informant on the Cretan constitution, can probably be added to the fragments in FGrH 460 cf. [1]. It would result in X.'s being dated 'before Polybius', i.e. before the end of the 3rd cent. BC. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 K. Ziegler, Ein neues Fragment des Historikers X., in: Hermes 82, 1954, 498 f.

Hereas

(95 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἡρέας; Hēréas). From Megara, author of Megariká, evidently more recent than Dieuchidas. The current view is that the fragments in Plutarch's Theseus and Solon derive ultimately from the Megariká (via Ister and Hermippus!) or another (anti-Athenian) work by H. He is probably identical with the theoros mentioned in IG VII 39 (beginning of 3 BC), but highly unlikely to be Heragoras, another author of Megariká as has been commonly assumed since [1.8]. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Comm. gramm. 1880/1881. Fragments: FGrH 486…

Pasiphilus

(77 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Πασίφιλος; Pasíphilos). General of Agathocles [2], for whom he took Messana in 312/11 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,102,1-3). When Deinocrates [1] and Philonides occupied Galeria at Exiles' Point, P. retook the castle (Diod. Sic. 19,104,1-2). At the end of the African campaign in 306/5 he desserted to Deinocrates [2] (Diod. Sic. 20,77,1-2), and was murdered but a year later in Gela (Diod. Sic. 20,90,2). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography K. Meister, Agathokles, in: CAH 7,1, 1984, 384-405.

Ephorus

(711 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἔφορος; Éphoros) from Cyme in Asia Minor; Greek universal historian, lived c. 400-330. On the basis of his style, in antiquity he was held to be a student of Isocrates. He was a contemporary of Theopompus (FGrH 70 T 3-5; 8; 28), and was said to have refused Alexander's invitation to accompany him on his campaign in 334 BC (T 6). Works: Epichṓrios lógos (‘History of our homeland’): an encomium to Cyme, which E. even made the homeland of Homer (F 1). ‘On inventions’: to be assigned to the realm of ‘sophist polyhistory’ (cf. Ed. Schwartz), it c…

Zoippus

(108 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ζώιππος/ Zṓippos) from Syracuse. Husband of Heraclea, the daughter of Hieron [2] II. On the latter's initiative he, Adranodorus and others were appointed guardians of the young king Hieronymus [3] (Liv. 24,4-5). By turning towards Carthage he brought about a reorientation of Syracuse's former Rome-friendly policy (Pol. 7,2,1). At the report of the death of Hieronymus in 214 BC, while he was on a diplomatic mission to Ptolemaeus [I 7] IV Philopator in Alexandria [1], he never again returned to Syracuse (Liv. 24,26,1). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography G. de Sens…

Six hundred

(238 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] ( tò tōn hexakosíōn synédrion). From the death of Timoleon in 337 BC until Agathocles' [2] coup d'état in 316 the oligarchy of the Six Hundred played a prominent part in the politics of Syracusae. Owing to the disparate sources, the origins, competence, composition and statutory status of the SH are unclear (cf. summary in [1]). Diodorus [18] (19,5,6), for instance, describes the SH sometimes as a regular constitutional body and sometimes as a political faction (Hetairia [2]), which h…

Aristocritus

(47 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀριστόκριτος; Aristókritos, of Miletus?). Dating uncertain but before Parthenius (1st cent. BC). Wrote 1 book Peri Miletou: urban history or periegesis. Identification with the author of the book ‘Against Heracleodorus’ according to Jacoby is ‘entirely doubtful’ (FGrH 493 with commentary). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Cleidemus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Κλείδημος; Kleídēmos, also Cleitodemus, Κλειτόδημος; Kleitódēmos). From Athens, according to Pausanias (10,15,5 = FGrH 323 T 1) the earliest Atthidographer (  Atthis ). C. wrote c. 350 BC an Atthís in at least 4 books, which is also quoted in the Protogonía (‘History of the First-Born People’) and was distinguished by dramatic vividness according to Plutarch (Mor. 345E). It extended from the mythological creation of the world to the  Peloponnesian war: the last event recorded was in 415 BC (F 10). C., himself an exēgētḗs (‘interpreter’) of sacred law, also wrote an Exēg…

Androtion

(230 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀνδροτίων; Androtíōn). From Athens, author of an Athenian local history, student of  Isocrates. As the only one among the  Atthidographers also politically active: he began his career in 387 BC (T 3), occupied a military commanding role in the Social War (T 7) and was in 355/4 a member of a delegation to  Mausolus, which was to clear the way for the Persian war (T 8). As a moderate democrat already in 355/4 and 353/2 fought by  Demosthenes (or. 22 bzw. 24), he was finally banned to Megara in 343/2 (T 14). There arose his Atthis, which in eight books reaches back to the myt…

Polycritus

(54 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Πολύκριτος/ Polýkritos) of Mende, historian from western Greece c. middle of the 4th cent. BC and author of a History of (the Young) Dionysius [2] and a History of Sicily (Sikeliká), whose compass, perspective and extent in time are unknown; only 3 fragments survive (FGrH 559 with commentary). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Phanodemus

(149 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Φανόδημος; Phanódēmos). Atthidographer, father of the historian Diyllus and follower of Lycurgus' [9] restoration policy (FGrH 325 T 2-5). As a member of the Council he was honoured with a gold wreath in 343/2 BC (IG II2 223 = Syll.3 227). Several inscriptions from the years 332/1 to 329/8 (IG VII 4252-4254) testify to his espousing the cult of Amphiaraus of Ephesus. His Atthís, comprising at least 9 books, which appeared in about 330 and of which 27 fragments survive, also reveals a strong interest in issues of cult. The fragment datable as…

Nymphis

(221 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Νύμφις; Nýmphis). N. from Heraclia [7] on the Pontus, son of Xenagoras, historian, b. c. 310 BC, d. after 246. He played an eminent role among the exiles who returned to their home in 281 BC after the end of the tyranny under Clearchus [3] and the death of Lysimachus [2] (FGrH 432 T 3 = Memnon FGrH 434 F 1, c. 7,3). In 250, N. was the leader of the delegation that induced the Galatians to withdraw from Heracleotis (T 4 = Memnon FGrH 434 F 1, c. 16,3). Works: 1) ‘On Heraclia in 13 bks.: Extensive local history of his home town, connected with the ‘great’ history and pr…

Heloris

(139 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἕλωρις; Hélōris). Syracusan, close friend, perhaps even the adoptive father of the older  Dionysius [1] (Diod. Sic. 14,8,5). During an uprising of the Syracusans against the tyrant in 404/3 BC he uttered, according to Diodorus (loc. cit.), the remark that was quoted right through to late antiquity: ‘Tyranny is a beautiful shroud’ ( kalòn entáphiòn estin hē tyrannís). Later banished for unknown reasons, he fought in 394 in Rhegium against Dionysius, laid siege to Messana in vain in 393 and defended Rhegium successfully in 392 against th…

Agatharchides of Cnidus

(340 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀγαθαρχίδης; Agatharchídēs). [German version] A. Life Historian and geographer. Particulars about his life and work in a vita by Photius 213. As a consequence of a self-attestation in Photius 250 in 132/1 BC (or already 145?) an old man. Birth therefore before 200. Active as reader and secretary of Heracleides Lembos in Alexandria. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] B. Works 1. History of Asia ( Asiatiká) in 10 books, reaching up to the era of the Diadochi. From book two (as well as book eight of Artemidorus' description of the earth) comes the depict…

Local chronicles, local history

(563 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] Historical or antiquarian works on particular areas or localities, often dated according to eponymous officials. According to [1], Greek local chronicles and local historiography grew out of official lists and indices (officials, priests, victors in competitions) in which notes on all sorts of events were scattered. From these preliterary town chronicles, local chronicles and histories supposedly developed in the 6th/5th cents. BC, with the Hóroi (Annual Books) of Samos being the earliest; later the Atthís followed. This opinion, whic…

Damocles

(90 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δαμοκλῆς; Damoklês). Courtier and sycophant of the tyrant  Dionysius [1] I (according to Timaeus FGrH 566 F 32 of Dionysius II). The anecdote of the ‘sword of Damocles’ became famous through Cicero (Tusc. 5,61f.): as D. considered the powerful and rich tyrant to be the happiest person in the world, the latter had a sumptuous meal prepared for him but above his head had a sword suspended on a horse hair in order to demonstrate to him the true ‘happiness’ of a tyrant. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Mnesiptolemus

(93 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Μνησιπτόλεμος/ Mnēsiptólemos). Son of Calliarchus from Cyme, a city in Asia Minor (IG XI 697), Greek historian at the court of king Antiochus [5] III of Seleucia (222-187 BC). In his Historía, now completely lost, he was ‘probably more concerned with the deeds of Antiochus the Great than with the entire history of the Syrian kings’ [1]. Because of the many trivial details about the court in his writings, he was ridiculed in comedy (cf. Ath. 10,40 p. 432bc = T 2). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 FGrH 164 with commentary.

Terias

(48 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Τηρίας; Tērías). River on the eastern coast of Sicilia with Leontini on its upper reaches (Scyl. 13; Diod.  Sic. 14,14,3;  cf. Thuc. 6,50,3; 6,94,2; Plin. HN 3,89), modern San Leonardo di Lentini. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 125.

Sicanus

(74 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Σικανός; Sikanós). From Syracuse, son of Execestus; in the autumn of 415 BC he, Hermocrates [1] and Heracleides [2] were elected plenipotentiary strategoi (Thuc. 6,73). Sent in 413 to conquer Acragas, he returned without achieving anything (Thuc. 7,36; 7,50,1). His attempt to set fire to the ships salvaged by the Athenians from a lost sea battle (at the beginning of September 413) failed (Thuc. 7,70-74). Peloponnesian War Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Gellias

(62 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Γελλίας; Gellías). Wealthy Acragantian, whose unique hospitality and generosity were extolled by Diodorus (13,83) when portraying the prosperity of Acragas in the 5th cent. BC (Diod. Sic. 13,81,4-84,7 = Timaeus FGrH 566 F 26a). Cf. also Ath. I 4 and Val. Max. 4,8 ext. 2. G. died when Acragas was destroyed by the Carthaginians in 406/5. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Agroetas

(52 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀγροίτας; Agroítas). Greek historian of the Hellenistic era (from Cyrene?). Author of Libyka in at least three books. The few preserved fragments display a rationalistic reshaping of mythology. A. apparently influenced the mythological handbook cited by Diod. Sic. 4,26,2-4 and used at 3,52 ff. (FGrH 762). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Deinias

(83 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δεινίας; Deinías). From Argos, lived in the 3rd cent. BC; he was the author of Argoliká in at least nine books. They ranged in scope from extensive treatment of the mythical period to the battle of Cleonae ( c. 235), at which  Aratus [2] defeated the tyrant Aristippus of Argos (FGrH 306 F 5). His identity with the D. who murdered the tyrant Abantidas of Sicyon in 251/50 (T 1), is not established. FGrH 306 (with comm.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Nereis

(102 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Νηρηίς/ Nērēís). Daughter of the Molossian king Pyrrhus II. In 233/2 BC, for dynastic reasons, Hiero [2] II married her to his son Gelo [2]; she bore three sons, including Hieronymus [3], and one daughter. The name of the queen is inscribed in the theatre of Syracuse (Syll.3 429). N. also had statues of her family erected at Delphi and Olympia (Syll.3 453; Pol. 7,4,5; Liv. 24,6,8; Paus. 6,12,3). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 J. Seibert, Historische Beiträge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1967, 110f. 2 G. de Sensi Sestito, Gerone I…

Pherecydes

(735 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Φερεκύδης; Pherekýdēs). [German version] [1] P. of Syrus Mythographer and cosmologist, 6th cent. BC Greek mythographer and cosmologist, 6th cent. BC; according to an older tradition, he was a contemporary of Alyattes ( c. 605-560 BC; Pherecydes 7 A 2 DK; Acusilaus 9 A 1 DK), whilst according to another tradition, the acme of his career as a writer was in the 59th Olympiad (544-541 BC, so he would have been a contemporary of Cyrus [2]; Diog. Laert. 1,118 and 121; cf. Pherecydes 7 A 1 DK). According to Diog. Laert. 1,116, his book was still extant in the 3rd cent. AD; its title was probably Heptámych…

Deinomenes

(391 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Δεινομένης; Deinoménēs). [German version] [1] Founder of a dynasty from Gela D. from Gela, founder of the Deinomenid dynasty; father of the tyrants Gelon, Hieron, Polyzalus and Thrasybulus (cf. Simonides, fr. 141 Bergk = PLG 3,1166; Pind. Pyth. 1,79; 2,18; Hdt. 7,145; Timaeus FGrH 566 F 97; Diod. Sic. 11,67,2; Paus. 6,12,1ff.; 8,42,8). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] Son of Hieron the tyrant, 5th cent. BC Son of Hieron by his first marriage with the daughter of the Syracusan Nicocles (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 97); as a boy he was installed under the gua…

Archagathus

(345 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἀρχάγαθος; Archágathos). [German version] [1] Son of Agathocles [2] (end of the 4th cent. BC) Before his return to Sicily in 308/7 BC  Agathocles [2] gave the command of the African troops to his eldest son A. despite his poor military ability. Since the latter fragmented the invasion army, the Carthaginians soon achieved significant successes and encircled A. in Tunes (Diod. Sic. 20,57-61). Even Agathocles could not reverse the situation in Africa after his return and fled to Sicily while abandoning the army. Therefore, embittered soldiers killed A. (Diod. Sic. 20,68). Meister, Klau…

Thermae

(4,525 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[1] Baths [German version] I. Etymology and definition Thermae (fem. pl.) is a Latinization and substantivization of the Greek adjective θερμός/ thermós, 'warm'. The word was used in its Latinized form to describe a bathing establishment, and subsequently passed back into the Greek language in this sense. As in Classical Antiquity, modern scholarship has no precise definition of 'thermal baths' (TB), although it has for the smaller baths ( balnea). TB are normally defined as large, public bathing establishments with a multitude of additional functions. Apart from…

Hermaeus

(162 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἑρμαῖος; Hermaîos). [German version] [1] H. Soter Indo-Greek king, 1st cent. BC (Middle Indian Heramaya). The last of the Indo-Greek kings in Paropamisadai (modern south-east Afghanistan) in the 1st cent. BC, perhaps a son of Amyntas [8]. Like so many of the Indo-Greek kings, he is only known through his coins, a large amount of which were issued postumously by Indo-Scythians from Bactria, who had removed him (according to [1] after 30, according to [2] around 50, according to [3] around 70 BC). He was married to  Calliope. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 W. W. Tarn, The Gr…

Polyzelus

(180 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύζηλος/ Polýzēlos). [German version] [1] Comic poet, c. 400 BC Comic poet of the late 5th and early 4th cent. BC; won four victories at the Lenaea [1. test. 2]. 13 frr. and five titles survive. Four of them are mythological (Ἀφροδίτης γοναί/ Aphrodítēs gonaí, 'The Birth of Aphrodite'; Δημοτυνδάρεως/ Dēmotyndáreōs, Διονύσου γοναί/ Dionýsou gonaí, 'The Birth of Dionysus'; Μουσῶν γοναί/ Mousôn gonaí, 'The Birth of the Muses'); he evidently favoured comedic presentations of the births of gods, a special variety of mythological play in vogue at the turn of …

Agesias

(150 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Ἀγησίας; Agēsías). [German version] [1] Seer and captain in the service of Hieron I of Syracuse (5th cent. BC) Son of Sostratus, stemming from one of the branches of the Jamides, who had migrated from Stymphalus (in Arcadia) to Syracuse and functioned in Olympia as priests of Zeus. Active as a seer and captain in the service of  Hieron I of Syracuse, A. was killed by the people after Hieron's death in 467 BC (schol. Pind. Ol. 6,165). Pindar's sixth ode celebrates A.'s victory with the mule team, which probably occurred during the Olympic games in 468. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2…

Scythes

(206 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Σκύθης). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles Third son of Heracles [1] (or Zeus: Diod. 2,43,3) and Echidna, brother of Agathyrsus and Gelonus [1]. Is the only son able to accomplish the task, set by his father, of drawing his bow and putting on his belt, and so becomes the king of Hylaea and the eponym of the Scythae (Hdt. 4,8-10; Steph. Byz. s. v. Σκύθαι; IG 1293 A 95 f.; cf. Sen. Herc. f. 533; Sen. Herc. Oetaeus 157). Antoni, Silke (Kiel) Bibliography 1 A. Nercessian, s. v. S. (1), LIMC 7.1, 794. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Cos, c. 500 BC Tyrant of  Cos c. 500 BC; in 494/3 he handed his…

Demon

(247 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δήμων; Dḗmōn). [German version] [1] Uncle of Demosthenes Uncle of  Demosthenes, honoured for the way in which he conducted his office as priest in 386/5 BC (IG II2 1140); possibly trierarch in 373/2 (IG II2 1607, 26; again later IG II2 1609,13; [1. 115] see Demosthenes 3597 II). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Nephew of Demosthenes, Athenian priest Son of Demomeles of the Paeania deme, nephew of  Demosthenes, priest of the urban Asclepius cult (IG II2 4969), probably identical with the rhetor whose extradition was demanded by  Alexander [4] the Great i…

Anaxilaus

(309 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀναξίλαος; Anaxílaos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Rhegium (494-476 BC) Of Rhegium. Belonged to a family which emigrated from Messene to  Rhegium after the second Messenian War at the end of the 7th cent. BC. In 494 BC A. deposed the oligarchy of the 1,000 richest citizens in Rhegium (Aristot. fr. 611,55; Pol. 6,1316 a 38) and established there a personal rulership. A short while later he convinced the Samians and Milesians, who during their flight from the Persians were invited by the Zanclaeans to s…

Myrsilus

(356 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μύρσιλος; Mýrsilos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Mytilene, c. end of the 7th cent. BC Pilloried as the ‘tyrant of Mytilene in the fragments of the lyric poet Alcaeus [4] (oldest documentary evidence for the word monarchía ), M. is therefore ranked by Strabo alongside Melanchrus and Pittacus (Str. 13,2,3). His name points to Lydia (Hdt. 1,7 and he was possibly part of the Cleanactid family (schol. to Alcaeus 112,23 Lobel-Page = Voigt). After Melanchrus' overthrow he became a tyrant and survived a conspiracy…

Cratippus

(339 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Κράτιππος; Krátippos). [German version] [1] Of Athens, contemporary of Thucydides, continued Th.'s work of Athens. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus (De Thucydide 16), he was roughly a contemporary of  Thucydides and also the one who continued his work. The table of contents from his historical work which spanned at least to 394 BC is recorded in Plutarch (mor. 345c-e). Some researchers (e.g. [1; 2; 4; 5; 6]) claim that C. was a significant historian of the 4th cent. BC and the author of the   Hellēnikà Oxyrhýnchia , others (e.g. Ed. Schwarz, Ed. Meyer…

Hicetas

(519 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἱκέτας; Hikétas). [German version] [1] Syracusan nobleman, tyrant of Leontini, around 350 BC Syracusan nobleman, friend of  Dion [I 1]. In the troubles after Dion's death in 353 BC he won the tyranny of Leontini. He initially supported the Syracusans in their struggle against  Dionysius [2] II. However, during his campaign against Syracuse in 346 he reached an understanding with Dionysius because of the approaching Carthaginians and supported his plea to the Corinthians for help. The superiority of the Cart…

Phoenicussa, Phoenicodes

(107 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φοινικοῦσσα/ Phoinikoûssa, Φοινικώδης/ Phoinikṓdēs, Latin Phoenicusa). The sixth of the Aeoliae Insulae in Plin. HN 3,94, modern Filicudi, between the islands of Aliculi in the west and Salina in the east. The date-palm island (φοῖνιξ/ phoînix, Aristot. Mir. 132; Str. 6,2,11) was used for pasture, but at times was settled: a prehistorical settlement has been discovered on Cape Graziano in the east of P., and also numerous graves of the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Below sea-level there are remains of buildings surviving from various eras. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) F…

Maeandrius

(177 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μαιάνδριος; Maiándrios). [German version] [1] M. of Samos Tyrant of Samos, 6th cent. BC Confidant of the tyrant Polycrates, conducted negotiations with the Persian satrap Oroetes (Hdt. 3,123; cf. Lucian. Charidemus 14) for him. After the death of Polycrates, M. himself managed to become tyrant in about 521 BC but soon had to give way to Syloson, who was appointed by the Persians (Hdt. 3,142-6). He fled to Sparta but was expelled from the country by the ephors because of his wealth (Hdt. 3,148; Plut. Mor. 224a-b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Roisman, M. of Samos, in: Historia …

Sosistratus

(321 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Σωσίστρατος/ Sōsístratos). [German version] [1] Oligarch in Syracuse, second half of the 4th cent. BC From c. 330 BC leader with Heraclides of the Oligarchy of the Six Hundred in Syracusae. Although he was suspected by Agathocles [2] of aspirations to tyranny, his successes in the war of Croton with the Bruttii confirmed his position in Syracuse (Diod. 19,3,3-5). After a military failure against Rhegium he was banished from Syracuse c. 322 (Diod. 19,4,3), but he and his followers were able to return under Acestoridas; after Agathocles seized power in 316/5, howe…

Timagenes

(304 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Τιμαγένης/ Timagénēs). [German version] [1] T. of Alexandria Greek rhetor and historian, 1st cent. BC The Greek rhetor and historian T. arrived in Rome in 55 BC as a prisoner of war of A. Gabinius [I 2] and was ransomed by Sulla's son Cornelius [I 87] Faustus (FGrH 88 T 1). He worked there as a respected rhetor, mentioned in the same breath as Caecilius [III 5] of Cale Acte and Craton (T 1 and 2). Initially, he was in great favour with Augustus, but later fell into disgrace with the emperor because of his all…

Hellanicus

(786 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἑλλάνικος; Hellánikos). [German version] [1] H. of Mytilene Greek historian, end of 5th cent. BC (T 1). Contrary to ancient tradition, which sometimes puts his birth date towards the end of the 6th cent. (T 4), sometimes at the beginning of the 5th cent. (T 3) and sometimes in the year 480/479 BC (T 1 and 6), younger rather than older contemporary of  Herodotus. At any rate the datable works belong to the last third of the 5th cent. H. analyzed the Herodotean collection of topics into individual components by a series of monographs and, reverting to  Hecataeus [3], even…

Damophilus

(178 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δαμόφιλος; Damóphilos). [German version] [1] Coroplast and painter, c. 493 BC Coroplast and painter, probably from Magna Graecia. Together with Gorgasos he decorated the Temple of Ceres in Rome (493 BC) with murals and terracotta pediment figures and added artist's epigrams. Later renovations preserved both of these. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 427, 440 Overbeck, no. 616, 1647 (sources) I. Scheibler, Griech. Malerei der Ant., 1994. [German version] [2] Rich property owner from Enna 136 BC Rich property owner from Enna, who treated the slaves i…

Ister, Istrus

(810 words)

Author(s): Cabanes, Pierre (Clermont-Ferrand) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Modern Danube (ὁ Ἴστρος/ ho Ístros; Hister, Danuvius, Danubius, Δάνυβις; Dánybis, the modern Danube). According to Apoll. Rhod. 4, the  Argonautae (with map of the journey of the Argonauts) must have returned from the Black Sea by way of the I. and its tributaries, in order to reach the mare Adriaticum. Hdt. 4,33 is probably describing the same route that the  Hyperborei took from Scythia to Dodona. The Greeks long knew primarily the lower reaches of the I. Hdt. 4,48f. describes the I. as the most important of the rivers known…

Daphnaeus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαφναῖος; Daphnaîos). [German version] [1] Strategos in Syracus 406 BC Strategos in Syracuse, was supposed to relieve Acragas in 406 BC when it was besieged by the Carthaginians, but this went wrong, apparently because of his corruption (Diod. Sic. 13,86,4ff.). This failure led to the removal from office of the group of commanders, the appointment of  Dionysius [1] as an authorized strategos and thereby to the latter's tyrannis. Dionysius killed D. in 405 (Diod. Sic. 13,96,3). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] Epiclesis of Apollo Epiclesis of Apollo (Anth. Pal. 9,477…

Menemachus

(174 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μενέμαχος/ Menémachos). [German version] [1] Pontic general, 71 BC Pontic general. When Mithradates [6] VI and Licinius [I 26] Lucullus faced one another at the Lycus in northern Bithynia in 71 BC, Mithradates had a unit under M. and Myron attack a Roman supply column under M. Fabius Hadrianus. The king tried to explain its heavy defeat (the two leaders and almost all the men fell) by the lack of experience of the generals (Plut. Lucullus 17; Sall. fr. IV 8 M.). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] Cavalry leader of Tigranes II of Armenia, 67 BC Cavalry leader of Tigranes II …

Gelon

(562 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Γέλων; Gélōn). [German version] [1] Greatest Sicilian tyrant prior to Dionysius I, about 491-479 BC Son of Deinomenes from Gela, greatest Sicilian tyrant prior to Dionysius I, period of reign c. 491-478 BC. Firstly bodyguard, later master-of-horse of Hippocrates of Gela, after whose death in 491 he usurped the tyrannis over Gela and brought the east Sicilian archḗ of his predecessor, comprising Gela, Camarina, Callipolis, Leontini, Catana, Naxos and numerous Sicilian communities, into his power (Hdt. 7,154). Called to help around 485 by the Syracusan gamoroi (land owners), who …

Andriscus

(174 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀνδρίσκος; Andrískos). [German version] [1] (Pseudophilippos) the Macedonian; king Philippus VI (149-148 BC) (Pseudo-Philippus) from Adramyttium, incited 153 BC a rebellion in Syria as alleged son of  Perseus and was handed over by  Demetrius I to the Romans, but he fled and 151 arrived at Pergamum, where he came into possession of a diadem, in an ominous way, before he sought restoration of the Antigonid throne from Thrace with the help of his ‘relative’ Teres; 149 in Pella he was named king (Philip VI), 1…

Demarchus

(98 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δήμαρχος; Dḗmarchos). [German version] [1] Lycian, honoured in Samos Son of Taron, Lycian, rewarded with citizenship and privileges of honour for his services to the Samians (at the time of their banning) and to  Phila on Samos (Syll.3 333). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [German version] [2] Syracusan strategos c. 400 BC Syracusan strategos, who in 411 BC, as one of the followers of the exiled Hermocrates, commanded the Syracusan fleet in the Aegean (Thuc. 8,85,3; Xen. Hell. 1,1,29) and was removed in 405/4 by Dionysius I as a political rival (Diod. Sic. 13,96,3). Meister, Klaus (Berli…
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