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Munatius

(2,051 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne)
[German version] A. (Roman) Name of a Roman plebeian family, of which the branch of the Planci acquired political significance in the 1st century BC. Its most prominent member is M. [I 4], cos. in 42 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] M. Flaccus, L. Took part in an attempt on the life of Cassius Longinus in 48 BC From Hispania Baetica; he escaped after a failed attempt on the life of the Q. Cassius [I 16] Longinus, a follower of Caesar's, in Corduba in 48 BC (Bell. Alex. 52,3f.). In 46/5 as a follower of the younger…

Egnatius

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, maybe originally Samnitic (cf. Schulze, 187f.), epigraphically also attested from central Italy. Name bearers in Rome are known from the 2nd cent. BC onwards. Egnat(i)us is uniquely also transmitted as a praenomen (Val. Max. 6,3,9. Plin. HN 14,89; [1]). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] E., Gellius Leader of the Samnites in the 3rd Samnite War from 296 BC on Leader of the Samnites in the 3rd Samnite War, who brought about a coalition between the Samnites, Etruscans, Umbrians and Celts against Rome in 296. Their united army was de…

Plotius

(1,222 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Probably originally the vulgar Latin form of the Roman proper name Plautius, an independent nomen gentile at the latest from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P. Gallus, L. Lat. rhetoric teacher, 1st cent. BC The first teacher of Latin rhetoric attested for Rome at the beginning of the 1st cent. BC who held his classes in Latin and on Roman matters and was very popular (cf. Cic. in Suet. Gram. 26). An edict of the censors of 92 BC, especially Cicero's teacher Licinius [I 10]…

Helvius

(995 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Wiseman, T. P. (Exeter) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Roman proper name, possibly derived from the first name Helvus. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] H., C. Praetor in 198 BC in Gallia Cisalpina In 199 BC plebeian aedile, in 198 praetor in Gallia Cisalpina (Liv. 32,7,13), in 189 legate of Cn.  Manlius Vulso in the campaign against the Galatians of Asia Minor (Pol. 21,34,2-4; Liv. 38,14,4f. etc.). MRR 1,327; 330; 364. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] H., M. Praetor in 197 BC in Hispania Citerior In 198 plebeian aedile, in 197 praetor in Hispania citerior. Kept there until 195 because of an illne…

Volusius

(944 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens name from Etruria, whose bearers first appear in the 1st cent. BC. With V. [II 2] Saturninus the family was ennobled under the emperor Augustus and in the 1st cent. AD was able to amass considerable wealth (large burial site on the via Appia: CIL VI 7281-7393). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] Haruspex (Haruspices) in the retinue of C. Verres 73-71 BC, several times appointed recuperator in - according to Cicero (Verr. 2,2,75; 2,3,28; 54; 137) - unfair lawsuits. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V., Cn. Travelled with C. Pompt…

Roscius

(1,412 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian nomen gentile, with many bearers in Ameria (CIL XI 4507-16) and Lanuvium (CIL XIV 3225-7). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] R., L. Roman envoy killed in 438 BC by the Fidenati A Roman envoy killed in 438 BC together with his three colleagues by the Fidenati (Fidenae); because of this all three were honoured with statues on the Rostra (Cic. Phil. 9,4; Liv. 4,17,2-6). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] R., Sex. Father and son; the latter was defended by Cicero in 80 BC against the accusation of patricide and embezzlement From Ameria; so…

Numerius

(564 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
During the Republican era, the praenomen Numerius (abbr. N.) was used in Roman aristocracy only by the Fabii (Fabius). They are said to have borrowed it from Samnium around 470 BC (Fest. 174 et passim). In fact, this praenomen is found most frequently during the Republican period in Oscan inscriptions: Niumsis, Νυμψισ, Νο(μ)ψισ < * Numesis (the Latin N. as well is most frequent in the former Oscan region); in addition there is the Umbrian Numesier (= Latin Nomesi; bilingual inscription [3. 9]). In Latin the original Oscan-Umbrian name was affected by rhotacism and was ass…

Pinarius

(949 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(In an older form also Peinarius, CIL I2 1357; 2469f.). Name of a patrician gens. According to tradition, they maintained a cult for Hercules at the Ara Maxima together with the Potitii (further evidence there). Hercules himself - or Evander [1] - is said to have transferred the cult to them at an extremely early time. The derivation of the name from πεινᾶν ( peinân, 'starve') is a scholarly construction based on the P. having had the smaller share in the sacrifices for Hercules (Serv. Aen. 8,270, i.a.). The family was also traced back to Pinus, the ostensib…

Silius

(1,908 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Reitz, Christiane (Rostock)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, documented since the first cent. BC (the name in Liv. 4,54,3 is probably a later invention). Under Augustus the family attained the consulate, but it disappeared at the end of the first cent. AD. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S., P. Praetor c. 58 or 52 BC, as propraetor of Bithynia et Pontus 51-50 BC addressee of laudatory letters from Cicero (Cic. Fam. 13,47; 61-65; cf. 7,21). S., who was regarded as an authority on Asia Minor, brought an inheritance lawsuit in 44 BC (Cic. Att. 7,1,8). His son is probably S. [II 7]. Fündli…

Vibius

(2,209 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
Uncommon Latin praenomen , abbreviation V. The etymology of the name is unknown. Like the identical nomen gentilicium, it derives from the Osco-Umbrian Vībie/o-. Related nomina gentilicia were Vibidius, Vibuleius, Vibulenus. The praenomen and its feminine equivalent Vībia- were loaned into Etruscan as Vipie and Vipia respectively. The nomen gentilicium formed from that, Vipi(e)na, appears in Latinized form as Vibenna . Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V. Curius Prefect of Caesar, to whom troops of L. Manlius [I 18] Torquatu…

Venuleius

(355 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name, variant of Venilius (Schulze, 378; 458). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] L. V. Apronianus Octavius Priscus Son of V. [4]. Cos. ord. in AD 123; procos. of Asia 138/9, SEG 36, 987. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Scheid, Collège, 338-342. [German version] [2] L. V. Apronianus Octavius Priscus Senator. Son of V. [1]. Although a Patrician, after a praetorship he took on command of the Legio I Italica in Moesia Inferior. Cos. suff. under Antoninus [1] Pius; also a consular legate in Hispania Tarraconensis. Cos. ord. II in AD 168. Eck, Werner (Cologne) B…

Statius

(2,106 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Vessey, David T. (Huntingdon) | Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
Praenomen of Oscan origin, particularly widespread in Upper Italy (cf. S. Gellius [3], S. Abbius Oppianicus); later also occurring as nomen gentile with many variants [1. 37, 237, 469]. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] A Samnite, in 90 BC a leader of the Itali in the Social Wars [3], later (81?) on the Roman side. Proscribed at the age of 80 in 43 BC, he distributed his property and burned himself to death in his empty house (App. B Civ. 4,102). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] A slave and close friend of Cicero's brother Quintus, from 61 to 59 BC Quintus' pro…

Asinius

(1,625 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian family name, documented in Rome since the 1st cent. BC (on the derivation of asinus [1], on Etruscan parallels [2]). The family, whose most famous name-bearer was Asinus Pollio, originally came from Teate Marrucinorum (modern Chieti), was a member of the patrician class since the Augustan period and was particularly prominent in the 1st cent. AD. I. Republic [German version] [I 1] A. Senator (mid-1st cent. BC) Senator, supporter of Antony at Mutina in 43 BC (Cic. Phil. 13, 28). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Hug, s.v. Spitznamen, RE 3 A, 1829 2 Schulze, 129. …

Domitianus

(2,341 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor, born AD 51 Roman emperor; original name T. Flavius Domitianus = Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] A. Up to the death of Titus Born on 24 Oct. AD 51 in Rome; his parents were T. Flavius  Vespasianus and Flavia Domitilla. D. spent his childhood in Rome; he did not accompany his father Vespasian to Judaea. His life was first threatened in the 2nd half of 69 during the reign of Vitellius, when D.'s father had already been proclaimed emperor, and fightin…

Tiberius

(2,375 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
I Greek [German version] [I 1] Greek rhetor, prob. late 3rd/4th cent. (Τιβέριος/ Tibérios). Greek rhetor, probably of the late 3rd or 4th cents. AD, author of a small surviving treatise on figures (Περὶ τῶν παρὰ Δημοσθένει σχημάτων, Perì tòn parà Demosthénei schēmáton, 'On the figures in Demosthenes'), which uses Apsines as its main source. The latter's dates (1st half of 3rd cent. AD) are thus the only point of reference for dating T. The treatise deals separately with figures of thought (1-22) and figures of speech (23-42; Figures). E…

Ofellius

(378 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
Roman family name (also Offellius, Offillius etc.), probably from the Oscan praenomen Of(f)ellus, which also appears as a cognomen (a landowner in Venusia: Hor. Sat. 2,2,2f.; 53f.; 112ff.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] O. Tribunus militum, 36 BC Tribunus militum in 36 BC, mocked rewards handed out by Octavian (Augustus) as paltry, whereupon according to Appian he vanished without trace (App. B Civ. 5,532f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] O., A. Roman jurist Jurist, see Ofilius Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2a] O. Ferus, C. Campanian …

Caesius

(558 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leonhardt, Jürgen (Marburg/Lahn)
Roman family name, evident from the 3rd. cent. BC, in Rome from the 1st cent. (Schulze, 135 ThlL, Onom. 49-51). I. Republican Age [German version] [I 1] C., L. Mint master 112 or 111 BC Mint master 112 or 111 BC (RRC 298), perhaps identical with the praetor or propraetor of Hispania ulterior of 104 BC (AE 1984, 495). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography D. Nörr, Aspekte des röm. Völkerrechtes, 1989, 24-27. [German version] [I 2] C., M. Praetor in 75 BC Praetor in 75 BC. (Cic. Verr. 2,1,130; MRR 3,44f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imperial Age [German version] [II 1] C. Anthianus, …

Ulpius

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [0] C. U. Antoninus Proconsul of Lycia-Pamphylia (communication from M. Waelkens). Whether he is identical with the senator U. Antoninus who participated in the secular games of AD 204 [1] must remain an open question. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography W. Eck, s. v. U. (25), RE Supplementum 14, 935. [German version] [1] M. U. Arabianus Senator from Amastris [4] in Pontus; cos. suff.; consular governor of Syria Palaestina (Syria) between AD 187 and 190 (IGR III 85 = [1. 163, no. 16]); procos. of Africa around 200 (CIL VIII 15876). His son was M. U. Domitius…

Memmius

(1,801 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman plebeian gens name, whose bearers may have originated from the territory of the Volscians and who rose to prominence (in several branches) during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. They rose to consular rank only with M. [I 4]. The descent of the gens from the Trojan Mnestheus (Verg. Aen. 5,117) is a late-Republican construction. An aedile called M. supposedly instituted the Cerealia (before 211 BC; RRC 427). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] M., C. Popular politician at the end of the 2nd cent. BC Popular politician at the end of the 2nd centur…

Arruntius

(838 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
Lat. gentile name (Etruscan arntni ?) also as Arentius in inscriptions, derived from the Etruscan name Arruns ([1]; ThLL 2,647). The gens appeared in Rome in the 1st cent. BC, attained the consulate under Augustus and was then probably accepted into the patriciate at that time (see Stat. Silv. 1.2.71 concerning the poet Arruntius [II 12] Stella). I. Republic [German version] [I 1] A. Father and son, died 43 BC In 43 BC, father and son were proscribed outlaws by the Triumvirate and killed (App. B Civ. 4,86). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A., L. (middle of 1st cent. BC) In…
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