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Metilius

(623 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens name, probably of Latin origin with Etruscan parallels (the patrician gens in Dion Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7 is invented), historically attested no earlier than the 3rd century BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Between 220-219 BC Creator of a lex Metilia In 220-219 BC, at the instigation of the censors C. Flaminius [1] and L. Aemilius [I 27] Papus, a l ex Metilia was passed on the professional status of fullers ( fullones) (Plin. HN. 35,197; MRR 1, 236). Its exact purpose, its creator and his office remain…

Caecilia

(562 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn)
[German version] [1] C. Gaia Wife of Tarquinius Priscus Wife of  Tarquinius Priscus (Fest. p. 276); in Plin. HN 8,194 and Paul. Fest. s.v. G.C. p. 85 L., her name is  Tanaquil (refer [1]). Her name links her to the goddess Gaia and thus with wedding rites. For the connection with the ager Tarquiniorum cf. Liv. 2,5; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,13,2-4, with the river god Tiber [2. 378-83]. For the name C. [2. 382]. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. Thomsen, King Servius Tullius, 1980, Index s.v. Tanaquil 2 A. Momigliano, Roma Arcaica, 1989, 371-83 (with all sources). …

Flavus

(213 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
Roman cognomen (‘golden yellow’, ‘blond’, probably named after the hair colour), in the Republican period for C. Alfius [I 6] F., the family of the Decimii, Sp.  Larcius F. and L.  Lucretius Triticipinus F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Of the Cheruscan tribal aristocracy, father of Italicus, also after AD 9 on the side of Rome Brother of  Arminius, of the Cheruscan tribal aristocracy. Son of  Segimerus, son-in-law of the Chatti princeps Actumerus (Tac. Ann. 11,16,1), father of  Italicus [1. 201f.]. F. remained on the side of Rome…

Florus

(838 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman cognomen (‘blond’, ‘radiant’, with ablaut, related to flavus [1]), in the Republican period epithet of C. Aquilius [I 11] F. and L. Mestius F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] P. Annius F. Lat. poet and writer, 1st/2nd cent. AD Under the cognomen Florus (in conjunction with the family name Annius or Ann(a)eus and the first name P. or L.) four works or groups of works are known: 1. the introduction to a dialogue Vergilius orator an poeta (P. Annius F.), 2. and 3. fragment of a correspondence (Charisius, Gramm. 66,10f.; 157,21f. B.) and an exchange o…

Gellius

(1,322 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Krasser, Helmut (Gießen)
Roman nomen gentile, which can almost certainly be traced back to the praenomen G. attested from the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC. There is evidence of the bearers of the name in the political life of Rome from the 2nd cent. BC. [German version] [1] Stepbrother of L. Marcius Philippus (Cos. 56 BC) Stepbrother of L. Marcius Philippus ( cos. 56 BC), otherwise unknown supporter of P. Clodius [I 4] from the equestrian class, defamed by Cicero as ‘the wet-nurse of all revolutionaries’ (Cic. Vatin. 4; Cic. Sest. 110-112). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., Cn. Rom. historia…

Coelius

(856 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentilicium, also Coilius, in surviving manuscripts often confused with Caelius (Schulze 155; ThlL, Onom. 2, 523-525). Bearers of this name are documented since the 2nd cent. BC, usually belonging to the Tribus Aemilia. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C. Antipater, L. Historiographer, late 2nd cent. BC Possibly the brother of the senator C. Coelius C.f. [1; 2. 16], a highly educated scholar of law and rhetoric (Cic. Brut. 102; Dig. 1,2,2,40), considered the teacher and friend of L. Licinius Crassu…

Musa

(99 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (‘Muse’) of the family of the Pomponii (Pomponius). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 53; 216. [German version] [2] Roman rhetor of the Augustan-Tiberian period Roman rhetor of the Augustan-Tiberian period. His contemporary Seneca the Elder (Contr. 10, pr. 9f.) characterised him as talented but tasteless, since he had a tendency towards unnatural bombast (cf. also Sen. Contr. 7,5,13; Sen. Suas. 1,13). However, M. appears to have found the approval of Seneca's sons (Sen. Contr. 10, pr. 9). Schmidt, Pet…

Gabinius

(906 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Roman family name, probably related to Gabii (Schulze 532f.), widespread in Latium, and documented from the 3rd cent. BC; during the 2nd cent. BC, the family gained senatorial rank. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] G., A. People's tribune 139 BC Allegedly the grandson of a slave (Liv. Per. Oxyrhynch. 54; cf. Cic. Leg. 3,35), in 146 BC envoy to the Achaeans; as people's tribune he introduced the secret ballot with voting tablets ( tabellae) for the election of officials in 139 (1. lex tabellaria, Cic. loc. cit.; Lael. 41). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography M. Jehne, Ge…

Lucanus

(1,709 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Vessey, David T. (Huntingdon)
Italic surname, Lucanius [1. 532]; better known as a Roman cognomen, probably originally an ethnicon from the place name Luca [1. 532; 2. 193]. In the fasti of the Imperial period in the family of the Claudii, Curvii, Domitii, Titii [3. 257]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] M. Annaeus L. Epic poet Lucan, 1st cent. AD The Roman epic poet Lucan. Vessey, David T. (Huntingdon) [German version] A. Life L. was born on 3 November AD 39 in Corduba as son of a family often described as Spanish, but more probably descended from Italic colonists. He came t…

Peducaeus

(502 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family which does not appear until the 1st century BC; in fact a nickname ('flat-footed'). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] People's tribune in 114 BC Elected people's tribune for the year 113 BC. Straight after assuming office in December 114, he carried through a law which led to new proceedings for 'fornication' against the Vestals Licinia [4] and Marcia [3] under the chairmanship of C. Cassius [I 17] Longinus Ravilla (Cic. Nat. D. 3,74; Ascon. 45f. C.). MRR 1, 536. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] P., Sex. Praetor in 77 BC, pr…

Salvianus

(171 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
Roman cognomen, extension of Salvius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] S. of Massilia Christian theologian at Massilia, died after 465 (modern Marseille), probably born after AD 400 at Trier, evidence of his presence on the Lérins Islands, married, later ascetic, wrote the treatise Ad Ecclesiam (‘To the Church’; Pseudepigraphy [II]) after 435, exhortating all Christians to donate all inheritance for ascetic reasons for the work of the church. S. then lived at Marseille as a priest until his death (after c. 465), there composing De gubernatione Dei (‘The Government…

Pompilius

(148 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman nomen gentile of Etruscan origin ( pumple). King Numa Pompilius was considered as the first ancestor of the family. The known bearers of the name are historically insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] P. Andronicus, M. Grammarian, 1st cent. BC According to Suet. Gram. 8, a 1st century BC grammarian and freedman from Syria; because of his Epicurean philosophical focus, he failed to establish himself in Rome and so moved to Cumae (Cyme [2]). His main work, a criticism of the Annales of Ennius [1] ( Annalium Enni Elenchi in 16 books), was published by …

Faustinus

(309 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] [1] see Faustulus See Faustulus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Wealthy friend of the poet Martial Wealthy friend of the poet Martial, who dedicated bks. 3 (3,2) and 4 (4,10) to him; he owned villae in Baiae (3,58), Tibur (4,57), Tarracina (10,51,8) and Trebula (5,71). PIR2 F 127. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Governor, in AD 273, of the province of Belgica under Esuvius [1] Tetricus Governor, probably in AD 273, of the province of Belgica under Esuvius [1] Tetricus; according to Polemius Silvius (Chron. Min.…

Fannius

(762 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian nomen (Schulze 266; 424), attested historically from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] F.M. f., C. Rom. senator and historian, partaker in the storming of Carthage Roman senator and historian (in Cic. Brut. 99 falsely differentiated from a relative). F. distinguished himself in 146 BC with Ti. Gracchus at the storming of Carthage (Plut. Gracchi 4,6), fought in 141 as tribunus militum in Spain (App. Ib. 287), was the son-in-law of C.  Laelius and heard  Panaetius (Cic. Brut. 100f.). In…

Tremelius

(425 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile (in the MSS very frequently Tremellius), attested from the 2nd. cent. BC onwards. The six generations of praetorian ancestors on whom T. [3] prided himself (Varro, Rust. 2,4,2) are quite believable. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Cn. As tribune of the people, he successfully interceded in 168 BC against an extension of the term served by the censors (Liv. 45,15,9) who had passed him over in the lectio senatus . As praetor in 159 BC, he insulted the pontifex maximus who gave him a penalty ( multa ). A people's court confir…

Furnius

(230 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian family name, perhaps connected with Etruscan furnial (Schulze 217, with epigraphical evidence). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] F., C. People's tribune 50 BC, orator Like his son F. [2], a famous Roman orator ( Furnii ... clari oratores; Jer. Chron. ad annum 1980-81). People's tribune in 50 BC, legate in 44-43, praetor in 42 (?), envoy in 40 and 39, promagistrate in Asia in 36-35, c onsul designatus for 29 (MRR 2, 249, 331, 353, 359, 376, 389, 402, 408; 3, 97). At first, an admirer of the orator Cicero, he placed himself politically in …

Attius

(775 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentilicium, verifiable since the 2nd cent. BC, in the older form Atius, in the MSS often confused with Accius (on the origin and spread, Schulze 68; 423; 551; ThlL 2,1169-71). The gens first achieved prominence with  Atia, the mother of the emperor Augustus. Early imperial pseudo-genealogy therefore invented an ancestor Atys (Verg. Aen. 5,568 Atys, genus unde Atii duxere Latini). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A. Balbus, M. Grandfather of Augustus Brother-in-law of Caesar ( Iulia) and grandfather of Augustus ( Atia [1]). …

Balbinus

(357 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Roman cognomen (ThlL 2,1694f.; [1. 240]). Consuls with the epithet B.: L. Saenius B. (? 30 BC), P. Coelius B. Vibellius Pius (AD 137), L. Valerius Poblicola B. (AD 256). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] D.C. (Calvinus) B. = Imperator Caesar D.C. Calvinus B. Elected emperor by the Senate in 238 AD According to Zonaras, (12,17, not precise) 60 years old in the year AD 238, when he was elected emperor by the Senate, together with  Pupienus, who is always mentioned before him. Supposed descendant of the Gaditanian Cornelius Balbus (S…

Africanus

(177 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Originally the epithet of a victor, first assumed by P. Cornelius Scipio A. (Maior) after the victory over Carthage in 201 BC (Liv. 30,45,6), then assumed by his adoptive son P. Cornelius Scipio A. (Minor), cos. 147; later as surname also in other families [1]. In the imperial era surname of the emperors Gordian I and II, Justinian I and Flavius Mauricius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Greek doctor 2nd or 1st cent. BC Greek doctor of the 2nd or 1st cent. BC, who dedicated a few of his prescriptions to a king Antigonus [1]. Not to be confused with a…

Ap(p)uleius

(3,219 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Zimmerman, Maaike (Groningen)
Plebeian gentile name (on form and distribution [1], ThLL 2, 291). The poet  Apuleius [III, of Madaura] I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] A. Real-estate dealer (1st cent. BC) Late Republican real-estate dealer ( praediator) (Cic. Att. 5,11,16; 12,4,2; 12,17). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A. Proscribed in 43 BC Proscribed in 43 BC but escaped (App. B Civ. 4,166). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 427. [German version] [I 3] A., L. People's tribune in 391 BC People's tribune in 391 BC, whose complaint supposedly caused M…
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