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Euphron

(449 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εὔφρων; Eúphrōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Paros, 5th cent. BC Sculptor from Paros who worked in Athens in the middle of the 5th cent. BC. Based on the evidence from extant sculpture pedestals, he created votive reliefs. The bearded head of a herm dedicated in Piraeus is extant. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Jeffery, 363, no. 29 C. Karouzos, En feuilletant les vieilles publications, in: BCH 70, 1946, 263-270 A. E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 298, 304. [German version] [2] Pro-Spartan Theban, succesful in a democratic coup Afte…

Sarcophagus

(4,388 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lesky, Michael (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Oepen, Alexis
(σαρκοφάγος/ sarkophágos, stone coffin, literally 'flesh-eater'; Lat. arca, capsula and sarcofagus, Juv. 10,171). I. Graeco-Roman [German version] A. Material, typology, research Since the 18th cent., scholars have been referring to containers for corpses decorated with reliefs as sarcophagi. These were made of marble, less frequently of limestone, tuff, sandstone, granite, basalt or porphyry. Pliny describes a lapis ... sarcophagus from Assus (Plin. HN 2,210; 36,131) as 'corpse-consuming'. Terracotta and lead were used in certain regions. Wooden sarco…

Aristander

(169 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] [1] Visionary from  Telmessus (4th cent. BC) Visionary from  Telmessus, in the service first of  Philippus, then of  Alexander [4] the Great; hero of many anecdotes which only report on successful predictions; no further references after the death of  Cleitus. Prophecies of the future success of some of the  Diadochi have turned out to be fabrications. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 117. [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor from Paros, c. 405 BC Bronze sculptor from Paros. To the tripod which the Spartans dedicated in Amyclae fol…

Alexander Sarcophagus

(174 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Modern technical term for the most opulent of all Greek relief sarcophagi ( Relief;  Sarcophagi). Found in 1887 in the royal necropolis of Sidon, it is attributed to the local regent  Abdalonymus (333-312 BC). It belongs to the group of house sarcophagi with architectural decor and is famous for the relief images on which residues of painting have been preserved. It is usually believed that Alexander is the warrior with the lion's trophy in the battle against the Persians, and tha…

Ageladas

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγελάδας; Ageládas). (Hageladas), bronze sculptor from Argus, was considered to be the teacher of  Phidias,  Myron,  Polycleitus. Victors' statues by A. are recorded since 520 BC. His votive offering by the Tarantines in Delphi has been dated to before 474 BC. His Heracles Alexikakos was erected in Athens after a pestilence (not necessarily 430 BC). From this, Pliny deducted the date for his zenith to be 432 BC. However, since this makes the postulated active period too long, ther…

Urn

(621 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Definition Originally a round water container, the Latin urna denotes the sepulchral vessel in a cremation (ashes and bones). Morphologically speaking, urns are not always distinguishable from vessels of everyday life or cult. They sometimes imitated furniture and building designs. The gathered bones and ashen remains were gathered ( ossilegium) for storing in cloth or vessels inside urns of terracotta, metal or stone. Because of the prevalence of cremation in the ancient Mediterranean, the urn was the usual vessel for contain…

Polycles

(443 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πολυκλῆς/ Polyklês). [German version] [1] Athenian councillor 367/6 BC Son of Polycrates from the deme of Anagyrous; Athenian councillor in 367/6 BC (Agora XV,14) and several times trierarch and syntrierarch (IG II2 1609,105 f.; 1611,371; 1622b,238 and 1630,6: again 327/6-325/4 BC). P. did not take over his trierarchy until a long time after the appointed date, for which he was taken to court by Apollodorus [1] in 359 BC (Dem. Or. 50). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 465 f.  Develin, Nr. 2567  PA 11988. [German version] [2] Sculptor in bronze from Argos, 4th cent. BC Scul…

Xenocrates

(2,016 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Ξενοκράτης/ Xenokrátēs). [German version] [1] X. of Acragas, mentioned by Pindar, c. 500 BC Brother of the tyrant Theron of Acragas. Pind. Pyth. 6 refers to X.' victory in chariot-racing at the Pythian Games (Pythia [2]) in 490 BC, and Pind. Isthm. 2 to his charioteering victory at the Isthmian Games (Isthmia) in c. 470 BC. The latter ode was written after X.' death. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 133; 135. [German version] [2] X. of Chalcedon Academic philosopher, 4th cent. BC Academic philosopher (Academy), 4th cent. BC. Stanzel, Ka…

Xenophon

(5,032 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Ξενοφῶν; Xenophôn). [German version] [1] Of Athens, strategos, 5th cent. BC Athenian. Initially commander of the cavalry ( hippárchēs; IG I3 511); then participated in the campaign against Samos in 441/40 BC as stratēgós (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38), was also stratēgós the following years and operated as such in Thrace in 430/429. He was treated with hostility due to his unauthorized acceptance of the capitulation of Potidaea (Thuc. 2,70), but remained in office and fell as stratēgós at Spartolus in the summer of 429 during a campaign against the Chalcidians and Bottians (…

Zoilus

(701 words)

Author(s): Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ζωίλος/ Zōílos). [German version] [1] Greek Sophist from Amphipolis, 4th cent. BC Greek Sophist from Amphipolis, 4th cent. BC; active in the area of historiography [1], rhetoric [3] and philology; pupil of Polycrates [3], teacher of Anaximenes [2] from Lampsacus and Demosthenes [2]. However, Z. owes his fame to his criticism of Homerus [1] in his work Κατὰ τῆς Ὁμήρου ποιήσεως/ Katà tês Homērou poiḗseōs ('Against Homer's verse'; 9 books; fragments in [2]) which earned him the epithet Ὁμηρομάστιξ ( Homēromástix, 'Scourge of Homer'). Motivated by the Cynic approach, Z. endeav…

Busts

(652 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] From the Renaissance, the word bust (from Italian busto) refers to a three-dimensional free-standing human image, which is restricted to head and chest ( Portrait). There is no ancient technical term, because busts were predominantly classified as portraits ( imagines). The term  bustum, on the other hand, meant gravesite, which in Italic cultures was marked by a  cippus or a stele, contouring a human head; in some instances as early as the 6th cent., but more commonly by the 4th and 3rd cents. BC, these developed int…

Myron

(1,023 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μύρων; Mýrōn). [German version] [1] Name of several persons from Sicyon Several persons from Sicyon named M. are mentioned in literature: a) Hdt. 6,126,1: Sicyonian nobleman (7th century BC), son of Andreas, father of Aristonymus, grandfather of the ‘tyrant’ Cleisthenes [1]. b) Paus. 6,19,1f.: the ‘tyrant’ M., victor in the chariot race at Olympia (648 BC), founder of the Sicyonian treasure house (thesauros) at Olympia. c) Nicolas of Damascus, FGrH 90 F 61: one of the three tyrant brothers descended from Orthagoras (evil M., good Isodemus, cunning Cleisthenes) from the ‘ Orthagorides…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Statue

(1,377 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Term and general Derived from the Latin statuere ('to set up'), in sculpture, 'statue' denotes a completely three-dimensionally designed figure. This form of stand-alone depiction of people, animals and the more than human is at the centre of Greek artistry. In archaeological usage, statues which are integrated into architecture are also included in the term (pediment, akroterion ), but reliefs are not. Individual statues can be combined in a group in content and execution. The format of the statue ranges from sm…

Cephisodotus

(988 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κηφισόδωτος; Kēphisódōtos). [German version] [1] Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of Aigos Potami Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of  Aigos Potami or executed afterwards with other Athenian prisoners of war (Xen. Hell. 2,1,16-32; Diod. Sic. 13,105f.; Plut. Alcibiades 36,4; Plut. Lysander 13,1) [1]. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian stratēgós, friend of  Charidemus, whom he unexpectedly faced as enemy in 360/59 BC Athenian stratēgós from the Acharnae deme; friend of  Charidemus [2], on whose request he …

Theke

(104 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (θήκη; thḗkē) is a term for any kind of container. In particular, from the 5th/4th cent. BC onwards it is used in texts and inscriptions for niche-shaped burial places, whether for burials in funerary buildings (Melos, 4th cent. BC) and vaults (Hdt. 1,67,3; 2,148,5), or for storing cinerary urns (Alexandria), but not sarkophagoi (Sarcophagus). Latin theca , in contrast, refers exclusively to holders for objects, primarily writing implements. Loculi Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography E. Saglio, s. v. loculus, DS 3.2, 1904, 1292-1295  A. Hug, s. v. T., RE …

Amphion

(378 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀμφίων; Amphíōn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and of Antiope Son of Zeus and of Antiope, daughter of Asopus, twin brother of Zethus (Hom. Od. 11,260-265). He built a wall around Thebes, by enchanting the stones with his lyre-playing (Hes. fr. 182 M-W). A. married Niobe, daughter of Tantalus (Hes. fr. 183). After the death of their children A. attacked the temple of Apollo and was killed by Apollo's arrows (Hyg. Fab. 9). Ovid (Met. 6,271 f.) has him commit suicide, according to Lucian (Salt. 41) he go…

Meidias

(508 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μειδίας/ Meidías). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue, 420-400 BC Athenian demagogue. Nothing certain is known about his role in politics (Pl. Alc. 1,120a-b). Between 420 and 400 BC he was mocked by comedians for embezzlement of public funds, as a sycophant and braggart, and for his breeding of quails and cockerels (Aristoph. Av. 1297f.; Metagenes fr. 12; Phryn. fr. 4; 43; Pl. fr. 85; 116 PCG). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9714 Traill, PAA 637170. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, c. 400-330 BC Athenian rhetor, son of Cephisodorus of Anagyrus, born c…

Periclytus

(113 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Περίκλυτος; Períklytos). Sculptor, pupil of  Polyclitus [2]. P. is named as the teacher of an Antiphanes active in Delphi in 359 BC. Pausanias (2,22,7) mentions a brother of Naucydes, but the name is given variously in MSS as P. or Polyclitus. Hence P. plays a part in the reconstruction of the family tree of Polyclitus [2] and [3], whereas of his work nothing is known. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 985, 995  D. Arnold, Die Polykletnachfolge, 1969, 6; 12-14  A. Linfert, Die Schule des Polyklet, in: H. Beck (ed.), Polyklet. Der Bildhauer der gri…

Melas

(695 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
(Μέλας/ Mélas). [German version] [1] Brother of Oeneus Son of Porthaon (Portheus) and Euryte in Calydon [3], brother of Oeneus, Agrius [1], Alcathous [2], Leucopeus and Sterope (cf. Hom. Il. 14,115ff.; Apollod. 1,63). M.'s eight sons were killed by Tydeus for pursuing their uncle Oeneus (Apollod. 1,76 = Alcmaeonis fr. 4 EpGF). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Phrixus and Chalciope Son of Phrixus and Chalciope [2], the daughter of Aeetes, brother of Argus [I 2], Phrontis and Cytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83). In the older myth M., like Argus, prob…

Agesander

(34 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγήσανδρος; Agésandros) (Hagesandrus), son of Paeonius, sculptor from Rhodes. Together with  Athanadorus and Polydorus, he produced famous groups of Hellenistic sculptures in Rome. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography B. Andreae, Praetorium Speluncae, 1994.

Agoracritus

(246 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγοράκριτος; Agorákritos). Sculptor from Paros, master of the high-classical period in Athens. Uncertain attributions to A., his rival  Alcamenes and their teacher  Phidias are reflected in anecdotes of ancient literature, which makes attributing the œuvre difficult. When it came second in a contest with Alcamenes, A. is said to have sold a statue of Aphrodite to a buyer in Rhamnus as one of Nemesis, or that Phidias had one of his own statues signed by A. The signature was discove…

Agasias

(235 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀγασίας; Agasías) [German version] [1] Lochagos in the mercenary army of the younger Cyrus From Stymphalus. Lochagos in the mercenary army of the younger Cyrus, friend of Xenophon, who praises A. for his courageous demeanour, bravery in battle and resolute advocacy for his own soldiers (cf. especially Xen. An. 6,6,7 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Sculptor from Ephesus, 1st cent. BC Son of Menophilus, sculptor from Ephesus. In the early 1st cent. BC, created portrait statues for Romans in Delos and in Tenos, according to base inscript…

Angelion

(77 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor in archaic times who, together with  Tectaeus, is regarded as a pupil of  Dipoenus and Scyllis. Plutarch describes the wooden cult statue of Apollo on Delos with a discus in his hand on which the three Charites stood; it was produced together with Tectaeus. Later, gold wreaths were added to the Charites by queen Stratonice. The statue is shown on later Athenian coins. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 179-180 Overbeck, no. 334-337 (sources).

Mnasitimus

(230 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μνασίτιμος/ Mnasítimos). [German version] [1] Greek painter from Rhodes, later 3rd cent. BC Greek painter from Rhodes (?) of the later 3rd cent. BC (?), mentioned by Plin. HN 35,146 as a rather second-rate painter. Provenance and date can only be inferred by genealogical conclusions from other artists of this name; nothing is known of his work. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) Bibliography G. Lippold, s.v. Mnasitimos (1), RE 15, 2256f. [German version] [2] Various sculptors from one Rhodes family, 4th to 2nd cents. BC Various sculptors from one Rhodian family. The reconstructed famil…

Leochares

(431 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Λεωχάρης; Leōchárēs). Greek sculptor; his surviving works date from the mid 4th cent. BC to 320 BC; the period of main activity given by Pliny, 372-369 BC, is therefore too early. L.'s reputation rested on idols and portraiture, and led to a corruption of the evidence. Among the literary inventions are a statue of Apollo attributed to the still young L., which Plato is said to have sent to Dionysius II (around 365 BC). In 354 BC at the latest (death of work's commissioner Timotheu…

Simon

(1,722 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Et al.
(Σίμων/ Símōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor in bronze from Aegina, c. 480-460 BC Sculptor in bronze from Aegina. S. participated with a horse and a charioteer in the votive offerings dedicated by Phormis at Olympia; accordingly, his period of artistic activity is around 480-460 BC. The base which belonged to it has been identified. A dog and an archer by S. (Plin. HN 34,90) probably formed a further group. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, nos. 402, 437  M. Zuppa, s.v. S. 2, EAA 7, 1966, 315  F. Eckstein, Anathemata, 1969, 43-49  E. Walter-Karydi, Die äginetische Bi…

Branchidae

(81 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Term used, since their discovery in 1765, for statues from the oracle sanctuary of Apollo Branchos in  Didyma. The 15 extant statues of seated males date from 590-540 BC, record the names of their sculptors and were placed on the sacred road linking  Miletus to the sanctuary. They are significant examples of Ionian sculpture style and of the oriental influence on Greek iconography. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 374-375 K. Tuchelt, Die archa. Skulpturen von Didyma, IstForsch 27, 1970.

Silver

(2,474 words)

Author(s): Riederer, Josef (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Definition Silver (ἀργύριον/ argýrion, ἄργυρος/ árgyros; Latin argentum) is a precious metal, which in Antiquity was extracted primarily by smelting silver-bearing ores of lead. Four different kinds occur naturally: 1. as pure silver; 2. as silver ore; 3. as a component of galena, the only economically interesting ore of lead; 4. in alloy with gold, i.e. as electrum (Elektron), in which the gold content can amount to less than 30 %. Pure silver is rare and its surface corrodes, so that…

Zeuxiades

(86 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ζευξιάδης/ Zeuxiádēs). Bronze sculptor, pupil of Silanion (Plin. HN 34,51). A base from Rome, recorded in the 19th cent. and since lost, was evidence that Z. had created a sculpture of the rhetor Hypereides, which can be dated on historical grounds to after 307 BC. The usual identification of this sculpture with a certain type of which only copies have survived must be rejected. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, 1350 Loewy, Nr. 483 Lippold, 303 P. Moreno, s. v. Z., EAA 7, 1267 f. Richter, Portraits 2, 210 f.

Reproduction techniques

(677 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] were used in antiquity from the Geometric Period on for the serial production of art. It exists when a model created specifically for the purpose is used to manufacture a not always specified number of repetitions. The intention may be economic, aesthetic (if identical products are desired) or, in the particular case of coins, dictated by the very purpose of the objects. It is crucial to distinguish this from the subsequent repetition of an original which is itself of value, as se…

Endoeus

(165 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἔνδοιος; Éndoios) Sculptor in Athens in the late 6th cent. BC. He made statues of goddesses in ivory and wood for Ephesus, Erythrae and Tegea, the latter were later brought to the forum of Augustus in Rome. His seated marble figure of Athena, the dedicatory gift of a certain Nicias on the Athenian Acropolis, is identified as the statue Athens, AM Inv. No. 625 ( c. 520 BC). The suppletion of his signature on the votive relief of a potter is plausible, but the association of a signed base with the kore Athens, AM Inv. No. 602 is uncertain. The p…

Archelaus

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Pietsch, Christian (Mainz) | Et al.
(Ἀρχέλαος; Archélaos). [German version] [1] Macedonian king (ca. 413-399 BC) Son of  Perdiccas, king of Macedonia about 413-399 BC, who according to Plato's spiteful representation (Gorg. 471) was the son of a slave woman and had ascended to the throne by murder. However, he appeared about 415 in a contract with Athens in third place after Perdiccas and his brother Alcetas, i.e. as legitimate (IG I3 89,60). Murdering other pretenders to the throne was not uncommon among the  Argeads, who had no firm rule of succession. He was on a good footing with the Atheni…

Damocritus

(82 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Δαμόκριτος/ Damókritos; also: Democritus [Δημόκριτος/ Dēmókritos]). Sculptor from Sicyon, active during the first half of the 4th cent. BC. Pausanias saw a victor's statue of his in Olympia. Pliny chose the Attic form of the name, for a Democritus, who made statues of philosophers. In Rome his name was found on the statue of Lysis from Miletus in a lost collection of copies of 4th cent. works. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 463, 466-468 (sources) Loewy, no. 484 Lippold, 247-248.

Archaism [II]

(694 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] II. Archaeology The definition and application of this term, which has been transferred by modern scholars from Hellenistic literary criticism (ἀρχαισμός/ archaismós, ἀρχαίζειν/ archaízein = 'to archaize') to the fine arts, are disputed. Archaism exists where works of art from the Classical period and later (from c. 480 BC) intentionally adopt aspects of the Late Archaic period (2nd half of the 6th cent. BC). Such aspects are especially hair and beard styles, garments (zigzag folds) and motifs of gesture (splayed fingers, mo…

Zopyrus

(988 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζώπυρος; Zṓpyros). [German version] [1] Persian, took part in the capture of Babylon Prominent Persian, son of Megabyzus [1], who according to Hdt. 3,153ff. had the gates of rebelling Babylon opened to Darius [1] I by using a ruse (self-mutilation and pretending to be a victim of the Great King). For this deceptive manoeuvre (Polyaenus, Strat. 7,13; referring to King Cyrus: Frontin. Str. 3,3,4) Z. allegedly received from Darius the satrapy of Babylonia for life and tribute-free, but he was killed when the B…

Socrates

(6,685 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Σωκράτης; Sōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Thebes, c. 470 BC Sculptor from Thebes. He created a cult statue of Meter Dindymene for Pindar [2] in Thebes (Paus. 9,25,3) and therefore must have worked in the 'Severe Style' around 470 BC. Paus. 1,22,8 attributed a relief of the Charites and a Hermes Propylaios on the Acropolis in Athens to the philosopher S. [2] as the alleged sculptor. The relief of the Charites is identified as the model of a much-copied type. Because it is dated to around 470,…

Silanion

(280 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Σιλανίων; Silaníōn). Bronze sculptor from Athens. According to Plin. HN 34,51 he was the height of his career in 328-325 BC. S. created statues of the mythical figures Achilles, Theseus and Jocasta, and in Olympia the victor statues of the boxers Damaretus, Telestas and Satyrus. A 'sports instructor' ( epistaten exercentem athletas, Plin. HN 34,82) ascribed to him can perhaps be interpreted as Connidas, Theseus' teacher. Of S.'s portraits a statue of Plato in the Athenian Academy is recognised has been reliably identified in Roma…

Appliqués (pottery)

(158 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Term for attached decorative items representing figures or plants. On bronze vessels of the 7th cent. BC, they are attached as protome (e.g. griffin cauldron). In Hellenistic and imperial times, crustae on tableware are highly valued masterpieces of  toreutics, and also on clothing, luxurious armour such as gladiators' helmets, on horse harness and carriage components. On kline rests ( fulcra), bronze animal protomes can be found, appliqués of ivory on furniture. Wooden sarcophagi in Taranto and south Russia of the 4th cent. BC had relief…

Callicles

(471 words)

Author(s): Narcy, Michel (Paris) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Καλλικλῆς; Kalliklês). [German version] [1] Collocutor in Plato's Gorgias Collocutor in Plato's ‘ Gorgias; taking it as his premise that nature ranks above the law, he advocates the right of the stronger (Pl. Grg. 483 c-d). This is the lesson of the  Gorgias (Gorg. Encomium Helenae 6), understood by Aristotle (Aristot. Soph. el. 12,173a 8-16) as the conflict between truth and the opinion of the majority. C. is, however, no Sophist: on the contrary, he distances himself from them (Pl. Grg. 520a). From his So…

Critius

(308 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Κρίτιος; in written sources: Κριτίας). Bronze sculptor in Athens. C. is always mentioned together with Nesiotes. His prime was in 448-444 BC, Pliny's date is too late. C. was a contemporary of  Hegias [1]. In antiquity his style was considered antiquated and dry. He became famous as the master of the  Severe Style (1st third of the 5th cent. BC) with his statues of  Harmodius [1] and  Aristogeiton, the Tyrannicide group, which in 477/6 BC was set up in the Agora to replace a grou…

Callistratus

(1,229 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Καλλίστρατος; Kallístratos). [German version] [I 1] Tragedian Tragedian (TrGF I 38), whose ‘Amphilochus and ‘Ixion (DID A 2b, 80) won him second place at the Lenaea of 418 BC; probably not identical with the didáskalos (‘director’) of  Aristophanes [3]. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography P. Geißler, Chronologie der altatt. Komödie, 1969, 6f. PCG IV, p. 56. [German version] [I 2] Important Athenian politician, elected strategos in 378/7 BC Important Athenian politician and outstanding orator, nephew of  Agyrrhius and kēdestḗs (probably fat…

Tauriscus

(252 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ταυρίσκος/ Taurískos). [German version] [1] Grammarian, 2nd cent. BC Grammarian of the 2nd cent. BC and pupil of Crates [5] from Mallus, to whom his definition of philological scholarship (κριτικὴ τέχνη, kritikḕ téchnē) can be traced [1. 56]. According to Sext. Emp. adv. math. 248-249, T. distinguished three sub-disciplines: grammar (λογικόν, logikón), dialectology and stylistic criticism (τριβικόν, tribikón) and commentary (ἱστορικόν, historikón) on content needing explanation. For T.' position within the classification of the grammatical discourse o…

Bathycles

(131 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Legendary sculptor and architect from  Magnesia on the Maeander, famous for his so called ‘throne’ of Apollo in Amyclae near Sparta, which is described in great detail by Pausanias (3,18,6-3,19,6): as a structure, it combined the grave of Hyacinthus, an  altar, and a colossal  cult image, decorated with 45 mythological scenes, statues, and a depiction of his co-workers dancing in a circle. Since we have no surviving remnants at all, we must regard its numerous reconstructions and its dating to the late 6th cent. as speculative. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography A.…

Perilaus

(201 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Περίλαος/ Perílaos, Περίλεως/ Períleōs). [German version] [1] Son of Icarius and Periboea Son of Icarius [2] and Periboea [1], brother of Penelope (Apollod. 3,126). According to Peloponnesian legend, P. appeared before the Areopagus as the prosecutor of Orestes [1], rather than Tyndareos, who was already dead (Paus. 8,34,2). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Argive Argive; a statue depicting him in combat with the Spartan Othryades was displayed in the theatre at Argos (Hdt. 1,82; Paus. 2,20,7). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Greek worker in bronze, 6th cent. BC (al…

Eudemus

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Εὔδημος; Eúdemos). [German version] [1] Sculptor in Miletus, 1st half of the 6th cent. BC Sculptor in Miletus. He signed a male seated statue of the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC, one of the earliest  Branchidae of Didyma. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 373-375 Loewy, No. 3 K. Tuchelt, Die archaischen Skulpturen von Didyma, 1970, 77-78, 121. [German version] [2] of Cyprus Friend of Aristotle A friend of  Aristotle of about the same age, participated, as a follower of Dion [I 1], in the overthrow of Dionysius II and was killed in the fight…

Evenor

(217 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] [1] Athenian sculptor, c. 490-470 BC (Eύήνωρ; Euḗnōr). Athenian sculptor. Three bases on the Acropolis bear his signature, dating from around 490-470 BC. One of these is linked, not without controversy, to the so-called Angelitus' Athena (Athens, AM Inv. no. 140). Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography A. E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 14, 22, 23. B. S. Ridgway, The Severe Style in Greek Sculpture, 1970, 29-30, fig. 39. [German version] [2] Greek physician Greek physician from Argos in Acarnania; he lived in Athens, a…

Stephanus

(2,678 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Στέφανος; Stéphanos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Antidorides from the deme Eroiadai (Syll.3 205 = IG II/III2 213 = Tod 168: request to renew friendship and alliance with Mytilene in the spring of 346 BC), as prosecutor and politician aligned with Callistratus [2]. The allegation by Apollodorus [1] that S. had attempted to pass off the children of (his children b…

Zeno

(6,572 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Ameling | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζήνων/ Zḗnōn.) [German version] [1] Z. of Elea Eleatic philosopher, 5th cent. BC (Son of Teleutagoras). Eleatic philosopher of the 5th cent. BC; a pupil and intimat…

Caecosthenes

(101 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
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