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Prytaneia

(170 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (πρυτανεῖα/ p rytaneîa). At Athens (also at Miletus and Ilium), the court fees to be paid in advance by both parties to an action, but which the loser then forfeited to the winning party, were called prytaneîa. Prytaneîa were to be paid in most private cases (however, in inheritance cases, the parakatabolḗ was prescribed); in public cases, generally the παράστασις ( parástasis). The prytaneîa ran 3 drachmai for a contested value between 100 and 1,000 drachmai, 30 drachmai above that threshold, with no prytaneîa paid below the 100 drachmai threshold. It is uncertain wh…

Prostiman

(91 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (προστιμᾶν/ prostimân), 'additional penalty' available to the plaintiff. In Athens in cases of theft (Klope) courts had the option of imposing loss of honour in addition to a fine. The thief would be locked in the stocks for five days and nights and placed in the pillory (Lys. 10,15; Dem. Or. 24,114 and 146). Presumably prostimân happened in a third vote, after the jurors had voted on guilt and the fine. Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography A.R.W. Harrison, The Law of Athens, vol. 2, 1971, 177  D. Cohen, Theft in Athenian Law, 1983, 62.

Datetae

(140 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (Δατηταί; Datētaí). ‘Dividers’, i.e. private arbiters in Athens, chosen by the parties, who presided over disputes amongst joint heirs. The procedure was initiated by private litigation for a division into shares, δίκη εἰς δατητῶν αἵρεσιν (Aristot. Ath.Pol. 56,6), against a joint heir who objected to a compromise. Usually, the archon was responsible for accepting the litigation while the Polemarch was responsible in exceptional cases if the litigation was directed against a metic (…

Paragraphe

(303 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (παραγραφή/ paragraphḗ, derived from παραγράφειν ( paragráphein, 'write beside') describes various institutions in Greek legal language. Specifically in the law of Athens, those accused, who claimed that they had been proceeded against in contravention of the 403/02 BC amnesty (see Triákonta ), had, on the basis of a law introduced by Archinus, the opportunity of adding to the statement of claim, that the díkē [2] ' was not maintainable' (μὴ εἰσαγώγιμον εἶναι, mḕ eisagṓgimon eînai; Isocr. 18,2f.). Subsequently, in separate proceedings, the dikastḗrion [2] had t…

Enechyrasia

(154 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (Ἐνεχυρασία; Enechyrasía). In Greek law the enforcement of a demand for money or the release of goods. It was used against movable and immovable assets (outside of Athens also against the person) of the debtor after the expiry of a term that is not precisely known. It was based on a judgement or an enforceable document and took the form of the creditor personally taking a colleratal. In Athens the dḗmarchos ( Demarchoi) of the debtor's community of residence gave him access to the collateral. The creditor was free to choose the collateral objects (h…

Ephetai

(99 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἐφέται; ephétai). There were in classical Athens, besides the court of  Areopagus, three further collegiate courts for capital cases; these sat at the Palladion, at the Delphinion and in Phreatto ( Dikasterion), and comprised 51 ephetai (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 57,3f.). These colleges of jurors ( Dikastes) were small in comparison with the other dikasteria. It is now believed that, prior to Solon, ephetai also sat at the court on the Hill of Ares, but at that time not all citizens could yet be appointed. Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography R. W. Wallace, The Areopagos Cou…

Demioprata

(235 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
(δημιόπρατα; dēmióprata). [German version] [1] Public auction of goods for the benefit of the Athenian state treasury The public auction of goods for the benefit of the Athenian state treasury. They were initially submitted for confiscation in the course of the   dḗmeusis mostly by the plaintiffs in the main proceeding. After the index (the   apographḗ ) of the goods to be confiscated had been read to the public assembly, ‘to notify everyone of the dispossessed property’ (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 43,4), it was forwarded to the Eleven, …

Epikleros

(215 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἐπίκληρος; epíklēros). Not quite correctly translated as ‘heiress’. If an Athenian citizen or   métoikos was survived only by daughters, they were not entitled to the inheritance in their own right, but their legitimate sons were, and so the inheritance (  klḗros ) could in some circumstances benefit a different family. Because of that danger the law allowed the nearest male collateral relative of the testator ( Anchisteia), to obtain at the same time from the archon or polemarch ( Archontes I), by a process of   epidikasía , the immediate assignment of the klḗros and e…

Blabes dike

(171 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (βλάβης δίκη; blábēs díkē). In Greek law, a private action for damage to property. In the case of intentional damage, the guilty party had to pay compensation to the tune of twice the value of the damage caused, as assessed by the plaintiff in his petition. The blabes dike may originally have been legally applicable only as regards violation of the law relating to neighbours. It may only have been by virtue of case law that this restricted profile of action was extended to include other cases of damage to property. Prevailing o…

Kategoros

(139 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (κατήγορος; katḗgoros). The prosecutor in Athens. Athenian public criminal law was based on the principle of popular complaint ( graphḗ ), a special office for public prosecution did not exist. Nonetheless, in cases that threatened the state directly, the council or the public assembly could nominate citizens to represent the interests of the state without holding an office. They were called kategoros, or, more frequently, synḗgoros (‘attorney’) (representation of the demes: Aristot. Ath. Pol. 42,1; IG II2 1196; 1205). In such cases, the public assembly c…

Engyesis

(117 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἐγγύησις; engýēsis). In Greece a festive legal act concluded between the bridegroom and the   kýrios of the bride in the presence of witnesses on which the husband's rights are founded (also called ἐγγύη, engýē), formerly wrongly interpreted as ‘engagement’. It only became fully effective with the transfer of the bride to the husband (  ékdosis ). In Gortyn the engýēsis is never mentioned but it is by Plato (Leg. 774e). In the papyri engýēsis is a synonym of   engýē . Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography H. J. Wolff, Beiträge zur Rechtsgesch. Altgriechenlands, 1961, 1…

Lipomartyriou dike

(315 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (λιπομαρτυρίου δίκη; lipomartyríou díkē). Law suit on account of failure to provide a witness statement. The procedural testimony ( martyría ) consisted in the Greek poleis of a statement pre-formulated by the plaintiff or the defendant that was pronounced to the witness in the procedure and which the latter confirmed by his very appearance before the court. When a witness was summoned privately by a procedural party (καλεῖν, kaleîn, Pl. Leg. 937a, PHalensis 1,222f., IPArk 17,12; προσκαλεῖν, proskaleîn, Dem. Or. 49,19), he had two options: either he refuse…

Poine

(201 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ποινή; poinḗ). Used in Homer quite concretely for blood money (Hom. Il. 18,498; aídesis ), but also generally for revenge, retribution, later extended to any monetary penalty a private person could demand for a tort ([4. 10, 35]; cf. Latin poena ; however, the extension to fines to be paid to the state or to corporal punishment entered Greek only by way of back-translation of the Latin term). The connexion with blood money (also ἄποινα, ápoina; cf. ἀποινᾶν, apoinân, demand poine, Dem. Or. 23,28 and 33; IPArk 7,14) lives on in the negative νηποινεὶ τεθνάναι ( nēpoineì tethn…

Paramone

(255 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (παραμονή; paramonḗ). Noun formed from the verb παραμένειν ( paraménein, 'to stay with someone') used throughout Greece to denote a number of legal relationships. In Egyptian and Mesopotamian papyri the word paramone regularly occurs as a civil-law obligation whereby the debtor subjected himself or a dependant of his, to the power of the creditor to repay the capital sum or the interest ( antíchrēsis [6. 127]). Contracts for the letting of services or the completion of a task ( místhōsis ) often contained a paramone-clause, however, these did not entail civil-la…

Anchisteia

(156 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἀγχιστεία; anchisteía). In Athens the closest collateral relatives were combined as anchisteia. In the event of  murder of a member of their family they had a duty to bring an action against the perpetrator and the right to grant pardon ( Aidesis) to an unintentional perpetrator (IG I3 104,13-25). The anchisteia also referred to the circle of those with inheritance rights if there were no direct descendants (blood or adopted   eispoiesis ). The anchisteia comprised 1) the brothers of the deceased coming from the same father and their descendants, 2) c…

Land register

(298 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] One can only speak of a land register (LR) in the legal sense when a complete, comprehensive register of property - either of all inhabitants (personal property system) or of all plots of land in a precinct (real property system) - is generally acknowledged, thus guaranteeing the right of ownership of the registered purchaser. In antiquity, there were numerous simple property registers ( Estate register), which, however, mostly served as the basis for tax assessment (examples and literature [1]). Institutions for the control of legal transactions regarding p…

Proklesis

(214 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (πρόκλησις; próklēsis), literally 'challenge'. The concentration in cases before the Athenian courts of justice ( d ikastḗrion ) on a single time-limited trial created a need for careful preparation of material before the case, or in a preliminary trial before the relevant court magistrate ( anákrisis , diaitētaí ). Próklēsis was an opportunity to provoke the opponent to make binding statements before the trial. This means both the act, before witnesses, of making a deposition aimed at the opponent and its content  and the fixin…

Parakatatheke

(462 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (παρακαταθήκη; parakatathḗkē). derived from the verb παρακατατίθεσθαι ( para-kata-títhesthai, to deposit) the noun parakatatheke, also parathḗkē, is employed in the entire Greek sphere to denote a range of legal relationships in which objects of persons were entrusted to someone under a duty of care. Although the term was used in Byzantine legal literature as a Greek translation for the Roman term depositum , Greek parakatatheke had a more wide-ranging application. For example the person to whom it was entrusted was entitled to use or consume …

Apagoge

(135 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἀπαγωγή; apagōgḗ). ‘Taking away’ was a drastic, speedy procedure in criminal cases in Athens. In its original form it permitted two categories of criminals (κακοῦργοι and ἄτιμοι, kakoûrgoi and átimoi), if caught in the act, later also where the facts of the case were obvious, to be taken away to prison and if they confessed to be punished immediately, or otherwise to be kept in custody and handed over to the court. Responsibility lay partially with the Eleven and partially with the thesmothetai. The penalty was death. Later written charges of the same name cou…

Parabolon

(116 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (παράβολον; parábolon). Literally payment, a sum of money that according to Poll. 8,63, had to be deposited in Athens as security payment when lodging an éphesis , however, it was probably indentical to the parakatabolḗ (cf. also Aristot. Oec. 1348b 13). Further expressions for payment in the context of a legal procedure: ἀπάρβολος ( apárbolos, i.e. 'without parábolon': IG IV 175, 8f. and 197, 21-27; SGDI 3206,117); παρβάλλειν ( parbállein, to pay: IPArk 17,65f.) In the papyri the words παραβολή ( parabolḗ; as also in OGIS 41) and παραβόλιον ( parabólion) are used as …

Exomosia

(177 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἐξωμοσία), literally ‘denial on oath of knowledge’. 1) In the procedural law of Athens, witnesses could avoid the obligation to appear in court (and confirm evidence which had been pre-formulated by one of the two parties in the case) by swearing ceremonial oaths out of court to the effect that they ‘did not know’ the facts in question. The exōmosía did not entail any legal sanctions, only positive testimony in court could be sued for (  pseudomartyríōn díkē ). There is evidence of a similar system recorded as apōmosía in the indemnity contract of Stymphalus (IPArk …

Balantiotomoi

(34 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (βαλαντιοτόμοι; balantiotómoi). ‘Cutpurses’ (pickpockets) were pursued in Athens on the basis of the νόμος τῶν κακούργων ( nómos tôn kakoúrgōn) with   apagōgḗ (‘leading away’) and punished with death. Thür, Gerhard (Graz)

Paratilmos

(199 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (παρατιλμός/ paratilmós, literally the removal of hair), a measure employed against an adulterer ( moicheía ) caught in the act, whereby the hair around the anus was plucked out whilst rubbing in hot ashes. Generally it was accompanied by inserting a radish into the anus (ῥαφανίδωσις, rhaphanídōsis; Aristoph. Plut. 168 with scholia.; Aristoph. Nub. 1083). This degrading self-help measure could occur in Attic law instead of legally permitted killing, but it could also be avoided by paying a ransom. Presumably the paratilmos is referred to by the legal rule, tha…

Epiorkia

(104 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἐπιορκία; epiorkía) means ‘perjury’, ever since Homer and throughout (with the exception of a single incidence in Solon's Laws as ‘oath’, Lys. 10,17). It was common practice for every  oath to conclude with a curse for a potential perjurer. As epiorkia was not a secular offence, its punishment ─ which was not limited to the offender himself, but could extend to his entire household ─ was in the remit of the gods, who were witnesses and guarantors of the oath (Xen. An. 2,5,21; Dem. Or. 23,68; 19,220; Lys. 32,13).  Oath Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography K. Latte, s.v. Meine…

Synegoros

(252 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (συνήγορος; synḗgoros), literally 'co-speaker'. Person who speaks in court with - not instead of - one of the parties in a case; a term not always distinguished from sýndikos . In principle, the Greek view was that each party should present their own case in person. In ancient Athens synēgoroi claiming either a close relationship to the party they supported or enmity to the party they opposed could be allowed in private and public actions; only accepting money was forbidden to a synegoros (Dem. Or. 47,26). Since joint action in court was, from a more recent poi…

Martyria

(455 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (μαρτυρία, martyría). In Greek law, the deposition in court of a testimony, its content or a document drawn up for this purpose. Witnesses (μάρτυρες, mártyres; synonyms [2. 2032f.]) were formally invited to be present at business transactions, and witnesses to wrongful acts were called by the injured or avenging party. At the time of the Attic orators (5th/4th centuries BC) they were not sworn in but affirmed that they were ‘acquainted with’ a formulaic phrase drawn up by the person presenting the case o…

Dikaspolos

(74 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (δικάσπολος; dikáspolos). In the Homeric epics this term applied to a king or geron (member of the council of elders) in the role of judge or magistrate (Il. 1,238). Wielding a sceptre he would deliver the judgement (θέμιστες, thémistes) coming from Zeus. It depends on one's theory about the course of a lawsuit (  dikázein) how this is to be imagined in practice. Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography M. Schmidt, LFE 2, 1991, 302.

Heliaia

(302 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἡλιαία; hēliaía). 1. Derived from ἁλίζω ( halízō, ‘assemble’), heliaia originally means simply ‘assembly’. In the Doric area this expression survived for the public assembly [1. 32ff.] and in Arcadia for a committee, of probably fifty people, which made political and legal decisions (IG V 2,6A 24 and 27; 3,20 = IPArc nos. 2 and 3, both from Tegea [2. 36f]). 2. In Athens, according to Aristot. Ath. Pol. 9,1 (cf. on this [3. 160]), in opposition to judicial decisions by the archons, Solon introduced the   éphesis to the heliaia, at that time either the entire public…

Epobelia

(108 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἐπωβελία; epōbelía). Athenian law stipulated that in some private law proceedings, the losing plaintiff had to pay a fine equivalent to a sixth of the sum in dispute ─ i.e. an   obolos to the drachma (hence epobelia) to the defendant for wilful litigation. The same applied to litigants who were unsuccessful in a   paragraphḗ or who lost an appeal against a   diamartyría , but in this instance only if they had not even succeeded in securing the support of one fifth of the judges' votes for their case (Isoc. Or. 18,12). Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography A. R. W. Harrison, The Law…

Kataballein

(46 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (καταβάλλειν; katabállein). Any method of making a monetary payment, or paying for other services. Plentiful evidence from public life in [1]. Payment of legal fees in IPArk 17,42 (=IG V 2,357). Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography 1 J. Oehler, s.v. K., RE 10, 2357f..

Antomosia

(95 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἀντωμοσία; antōmosía) was in Greece, in particular in Athens, an oath, which both parties had to make in the preliminary examination or in the main proceedings, probably a relic from archaic legal procedure. By means of the antomosia the truth of the plaint and the answer to the plaint was substantiated in advance. Therefore the name also extended to the pleas ( Antigraphe). The antomosia was not adopted by Plato (Leg. 948d). Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography A. R. W. Harrison, The Law of Athens I, 1971, 99 f. G. Thür, Greek Law, ed. by L. Foxhall, 1996, 63 f.

Kakourgoi

(134 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (κακοῦργοι; kakoûrgoi). Generally ‘malefactors’ but in Athens criminal offenders listed in a specific law: night thieves, thieves of clothing, kidnappers, burglars, and pickpockets. When they were caught in the act, anybody could take action against these mostly lower-class criminals through private arrests ( apagoge ), and could bring them before the Eleven ( Hendeka ). The latter immediately ordered the execution of the criminal if he confessed. Anybody who could plausibly deny the crime was brought before the co…

Dekasmou graphe

(155 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (δεκασμοῦ γραφή; dekasmoû graphḗ). In Athens the charge of active corruption of judges (Dem. Or. 46,26; see also Poll. 8,42; Harpocr. s.v. Δ. γ.). It concerned the offering of inducements to the chairman of a court, a member of a jury committee, the council or the people's assembly in the context of a legal case before them, to manipulate or decide the case to the advantage or disadvantage of a participant. The offence of dekasmou graphe was more precise than that of passive corruption (  dṓrōn graphḗ ), to which bearers of office were exposed irr…

Dikastikos misthos

(308 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (δικαστικὸς μισθός; dikastikòs misthós). Daily payment for Athenian jurors from the mid 5th cent. BC (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 2,2). In early Athenian democracy the principle of democratic equality of all citizens applied. Increasing economic and social inequality resulted in only the economically independent citizens, i.e. the wealthy part of the population, being able to participate in courts while the less wealthy and poor citizens, especially the rural population, could not abandon the…

Loidoria

(67 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (λοιδορία; loidoría). Greek ‘invective’, originally perhaps ‘blasphemy’ (Pind. Ol. 9,37). Solon already made ‘speaking badly’ a punishable offence (fr. 32f. Ruschenbusch); in the 4th cent. BC this element of an offence included insult through the use of certain enumeratively listed words ( kakēgoría ). Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography R. W. Wallace, The Athenian Law against Slander, in: G. Thür (ed.), Symposion 1993, 1994, 109-124.

Hemiolion

(148 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἡμιόλιον; hēmiólion), literally ‘one and a half times’. Hemiolion refers to a supplementary charge of 50% of a monetary or goods service (calculated by multiplying the basic amount by one and a half). In the Hellenistic and Roman periods the hemiolion stereotypically appeared in the penalty clauses of private contracts as a fine for non-fulfilment (frequently in addition to interest), both in the papyri of Egypt and in the few documents extant elsewhere. The hemiolion had replaced the diploûn (διπλοῦν, double) of the older contractual clauses, as is well i…

Exhaireseos dike

(170 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἐξαιρέσεως δίκη; ex(h)airéseōs díkē). In Athens, anyone who claimed that someone else was his slave needed no special authority in order to ‘lead away’ (ἄγειν, ágein) the person concerned. A third party could then intervene and ‘free’ (ἐξαιρεῖσθαι or ἀφαιρεῖσθαι εἰς ἐλευθερίαν, ex(h)aireîsthai / aphaireîsthai eis eleutherían; Aeschin. in Timarchum 62; Demosth. Or. 59,40; Lys. 23,9) the captive with an act of formalized violence. The captor then had to free the captive, although only on receipt of surety, and could then proceed against the third party arguing exhair…

Hypeuthynos

(93 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ὑπεύθυνος; hypeúthynos) is used in the penal provisions of Greek decrees to mean ‘liable, owing’ (context: payment of monetary fines, e.g. IPArk 11,37), in Athens specifically for ‘accountable’. Every Athenian holding an office had to submit to an accountability process when his term had expired (εὔθυναι,   eúthynai ) before the completion of which he could not leave the country or dispose of his assets. In the Egyptian papyri, hypeuthynos simply means ‘required to make payment’. Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography A. R. W. Harrison, The Law of Athens 2, 1971, 208-211 I…

Timetai dikai

(211 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (τιμηταὶ δίκαι/ timētaì díkai). Legal processes at Athens which, having completed the ballot on the issue of conviction, had to undergo a further 'assessment procedure' ( timetos agon ). In private cases concerning money ( dike [2]), it was the rule, in public cases ( eisangelia , graphe [1]) the exception. Recorded as TD are: the dike epitropes ( epitropos [2]), dike klopes ( klope ), aikeias dike , exhaireseos dike , pseudomartyrion dike , lipomartyriou dike , kakotechnion dike , biaion dike , exoules dike , blabes dike ([4. 98 f.] assumes fixed …

Laographia, Laographos

(156 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (λαογραφία, λαογράφος; laographía, laográphos). From the Ptolemaic period onwards, censuses were conducted in Egypt ( laographíai: the people were ‘written down’). These took place from Augustus onwards on a 7-year cycle, and from Tiberius onwards every 14 years. In the Roman period, laographía also referred to the list compiled in the process of those liable for poll tax and the poll tax itself ( Taxes). Men between the ages of 14 and 60 were subject to it unless they were Roman citizens or citizens of privileged Greek p…

Amnestia

(252 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἀμνηστία; amnēstía). Legally established relinquishment of accusation, reopening of proceedings, execution of judgement and carrying out of punishment as means of reconciling the contending parties after internal or external wars. Plutarch (Mor. 814b) mentions the Athenian amnesty decree of 403 BC τὸ ψήφισμα τὸ τῆς ἀμνηστίας ἐπὶ τοῖς τριάκοντα, while Aristotle (Ath. Pol. 39,6) and the orators Andocides (1,90), Isocrates (18,3) and Aeschines (2,176; 3,208) use the original phrasing ‘not to think badly’, μὴ μνη…

Ekecheiria

(64 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἐκεχειρία; ekecheiría). Technical term for ‘armistice’, ‘court rest’, and the ‘divine peace’ as agreed upon by Iphitus of Elis and Lycurgus of Sparta for the games in Olympia (Plut. Lycurgus 1,2; Paus. 5,20,1), claimed by the other great festival locations as well. Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography StV II no. 185; III S. 414 (II A6)  L. Robert, Études Anatoliennes 2, 1937, 177ff.

Emporikai dikai

(109 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἐμπορικαὶ δίκαι; emporikaì díkai). Commercial suits in Athens involving maritime imports and exports. Traders and shipowners were the parties but also foreigners and   métoikoi . The emporikai dikai could be brought on only in winter months when maritime traffic was resting. First they came under the jurisdiction of the nautodíkai, then the   eisagogeís and finally (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 59,5) under that of the   thesmothétai . Under the jurisdiction of the eisagogeís they had to be completed speedily within one month. Execution of the judgement was assu…

Enklema

(172 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἔγκλημα; énklēma). In general Greek usage ‘reproach’, in the laws of Athens ‘suit’ in civil trials, in the criminal law of Egyptian papyri ‘charge’. Before the law, which in Athens required written form for the court file (presumably 378/7 BC), the enklema was a verbal application to the head of the court (  dikastḗrion 3.) to open the trial, which included the name of the parties, the suit and, if provided, (in the   tímētos agṓn ), an estimate of the judgement sum. Written enklḗmata are preserved in Dem. Or. 37,22-32; 45,46, and imprecisely called   graphḗ

Prodosia

(172 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (προδοσία; prodosía). There is evidence of constant efforts to punish 'treason' ( prodosía) and 'high treason' ( katálysis toû dḗmou) in Athens. Prodosía is the infringement on the external security of the state, which could extend to the failure of recovering the corpses of the fallen or saving the shipwrecked (Battle of Arginusae, 406 BC; Xen. Hell. 1,7,22 and 32, where a law against temple-robbers and traitors is referred to). Later prodosía fell under the law on eisangelía , but often ad hoc decisions on prodosía were enacted (thus after the Battle of Chaero…

Apographe

(109 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἀπογραφή; apographḗ) was in Athens any written statement in respect of an authority, especially the submission of a list of goods to be confiscated by the state. Subsequently the application for confiscation of the listed stock and the whole confiscation process were also called apographe [1]. Trial by jury, normally presided over by the Eleven Men, was responsible for the proceedings. In Egypt apographe meant a written notice to a public authority on property or personal status as well as an entry in the public land registry [2]. Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography 1 A. …

Codex Hermopolis

(329 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] This name has been given to a papyrus scroll of 2 m in length discovered by S. Gabra in Tuna-el-Gebel, which contains 10 columns of a legal text in the Demotic language. The text dates from the 1st half of the 3rd cent. BC, but individual regulations could reach back to the time of the pharaohs; in POxy 46,3285 two fragments of a Greek version have survived, dating to the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. AD. Viewed in today's terms, the content can be divided into four sections: 1. Land …

Kakogamion

(71 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (κακογάμιον; kakogámion, literally ‘marrying badly’) was a punishable offence in Sparta (Stob. 66,16), or ‘it appears’ (Plut. Lysander 30,7) to have been prosecuted through dike , although clearly this did not entail a private complaint as in agamíou díke . It is unknown what offences committed by the husband counted as kakogámion or what punishments were imposed. Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography D. M. MacDowell, Spartan Law, 1986, 73f.

Aikeias dike

(101 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (αἰκείας δίκη; aikeías díkē). In Athens a private charge of assault and battery. It presupposed that the physical mistreatment had been perpetrated without intention of insult and that the defendant had attacked first (Demosth. 47,40; cf. PEnteuxeis 74; 79; PHalensis 1,115; 203 f.). The penalty, estimated by the plaintiff himself, was awarded to him if he succeeded in the proceedings. It was the only private action in Athens in which there were no court fees to pay. Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography A. R. W. Harrison, The Law of Athens II, 1971, 93 f. G. Thür, Beweisf…

Andrapodistes

(132 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἀνδραποδιστής; andrapodistḗs). A person who made another person into a slave (ἀνδράποδον, andrápodon) was an andrapodistes (Aristoph. Equ. 1030; Lys. 10,10). The criminal act ἀνδραποδισμός ( andrapodismós) comprised two different criminal deeds. One consisted in that the perpetrator took possession of a free man by force or trickery (cf. for this Pl. Leg. 879a) to sell him into slavery (delict of freedom) and the other was directed against the owner of a slave and consisted in the theft of this slave for …
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