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Herdoniae

(183 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (also Herdonia: Str. 6,3,7; Sil. Pun. 8,567; App. Hann. 48; Ptol. 3,1,72; Herdonea: Liv. 25,21,1; 27,1,6). City in Apulia ( regio II: Plin. HN 3,105; CIL IX 689f.; 1156; It. Ant. 116,2), modern Ordona, on the via Minucia (Str. 6,3,7; Plin. HN 2,244), starting-point of the roads to Beneventum, Aeclanum, and Ausculum. After the battle of Cannae (216 BC), H. switched allegiance to Hannibal, and until 210 BC, it was frequently involved in the disputes of the Second Punic War. H…

Cydonia

(357 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Hellenistic states | Crete | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine (Κυδωνία; Kydonía). Town in north-western Crete, now Chania, according to Str. 10,4,7 the third biggest town on the island (cf. Flor. 1,42,4). According to legend, its establishment can be traced back to  Minos and his son Cydon (Diod. Sic. 5,78,2; Paus. 8,53,4). Th…

Lyctus, Lyttus

(384 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete | Apollo (Λύκτος/ Lýktos, Λύττος/ Lýttos, Latin Lyctus). Important Doric city in eastern Crete with a wide territory, in the interior of the country on a ridge of the Lassithi Massif. The older form of the name is Lyctus (in this form already around 1380 BC on an Egyptian list of place names), whilst the more recent and more common form is Lyttus. Pol. 4,54,6 describes L. as the oldest city in Crete. In Homer (Hom. Il. 2,647; 17,611) L. is a participant in the Trojan War; with a close connection to Sp…

Olerus

(126 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὤλερος; Ṓleros). Location in eastern Crete from which most of the population probably migrated to the newly founded Hierapytna in the 4th cent. BC. Afterwards O. was a cultic center for Athena Oleria [1]. It can be located at modern Meseleri. There are no ancient remains there. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 A. Chaniotis, Die Verträge zwischen kretischen Poleis in der hellenistischen Zeit, 1996, no. 74,8. C. Bursian, Geographie von Griechenland, vol. 2, 1868, 579  H. van Effenterre, Die von den Grenzen der ostkretischen Poleis eingeschlosse…

Gnathia

(81 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (also Egnatia, Ignatia). Peucetic port town in Apulia between Barium and Brundisium (Str. 6,3,7; Ptol. 3,1,15; in Sallentino oppido G., Plin. HN 2,240) on the via Minucia (Tab. Peut. 6,5). Station on Horace's journey to Brundisium, who mocks alleged incense miracles in Sat. 1,5,97-100 (cf. Plin. loc. cit.). Ruins near modern Torre d'Egnazia (land wall, necropoleis, basilicas). Remains of Oriental cults (ILS 4178: Sacerdos Matris Magnae et Suriae deae et sacrorum Isidis). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen, 860.

Eleutherna

(197 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Ἐλευθέρνα; Eleuthérna). City in central Crete on the northern slopes of the Ida range, settled from the late Minoan period. Some vestiges have survived near the mod. village of Prinès (cisterns, town walls, bridge, Byzantine tower). In around 260 BC, E. joined the isopoliteia of Miletus with Cnossus, Gortyn, Phaestus and their allies [2. 482]. In c. 225 BC, the city entered into an alliance with the Macedonian king Antigonus [2] Gonatas [1. 20; 2. 501]. In 220 BC, as a consequence of disputes…

Chalce

(53 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Χάλκη; Chálkē). Island off the north coast of Rhodes (29 km2). The polis of C. (remains of acropolis, temple to Apollo, necropolis) belonged to Rhodian Camirus. During the 5th cent. BC a member of the Delian League. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography P. M. Fraser, G. E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954, 144f.

Aequum Faliscum

(58 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] According to Str. 5,2,9 a settlement on the   via Flaminia between Oriculi (modern Otricoli) and Rome, possibly identical with  Falerii (Str. loc. cit.). On the Tab. Peut. 5,4 ( Aequo Falsico) east of the Tiberis [1. 320]. Uncertain connection with the Aequi Falisci (Verg. Aen. 7,695; Sil. 8,490). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 Miller 2 Nissen, 2, 364.

Malia, Mallia

(276 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Linear B | Aegean Koine Minoan palace on Crete, on the northern coast c. 40 km east of Heraklion, with two harbour bays. The relatively low level of ancient building on top of the site and of later reconstruction makes genuine insight into Minoan palace architecture possible. Like the palaces of Knossos, Phaestus and Zakros, the buildings are grouped around a large central court. The history of the palace with its individual building phases also corresponds…

Mykonos

(344 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μύκονος; Mýkonos). Island in the  Cyclades (Plin. HN 4,66) with an area of 88 km2, barren, rocky, poor in water, hilly, but without very high mountains (the highest elevation amounts to just 390 m). The earliest settlement was in the late Neolithic (beginning of the 3rd millennium BC; Bay of Panormos in the north). An early Cycladic settlement (after 2600 BC) was on the peninsula of Anavolousa in the southwest. There were two urban centres on M. (Skyl. 58; cf. Syll.3 1024): near Palaiokastro to the southeast of the Bay of Panormos (from the middle of the B…

Rhaucus

(146 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Ῥαῦκος; Rhaûkos). Town in central Crete, c. 15 km southwest of Heracleum [1], present-day Agios Myron (named after a 3rd cent. bishop of R.), with Minoan remains in the surrounding area. The acropolis had been inhabited since the Late Mycenaean Period. At the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC, R. formed an alliance with Gortyn (Pol. 22,15,1) and in 166 BC it was the object of a combined military operation by Gortyn and Knossos (Pol. 31,1) [1. no. 4…

Drerus

(228 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Crete | Apollo (Δρῆρος; Drêros). Town in north-east Crete in a mountainous position, with a double acropolis, from which there is a view of the Gulf of Mirabello, modern Hagios Antonios near Neapolis. Already populated in the Minoan period, D. reached its peak between the 8th and 6th cents. BC. The Temple of Apollo Delphinios from the mid 8th cent. BC, combining Minoan and Doric elements (with cult images of Apollo, Leto and Artemis) [1], …

Methymna

(468 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Μήθυμνα; Mḗthymna). City on the north coast of the island of Lesbos, formerly Molivos, today again officially M., on a hill jutting into the sea. M. was one of the five póleis of Lesbos (Hdt. 1,151; Strab. 13,2,2) with a considerable amount of territory after the subjugation of Arisbe ( c. 600 BC). The ancient history of M. was dominated by continual rivalry with Mytilene. M. was involved in the founding of Assus in Asia Minor (Strab.…

Pedies

(64 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πεδιῆς; Pediês). Deme of Lindos on Rhodes, possibly on the coastal plain to the north of Lindos [1. 747]. It had its own tribute payment in the Delian League (between 2000 drachmas and 1 talent: ATL 1, 370f.). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 F.Hiller von Gärtringen, s.v. Rhodos, RE Suppl. 5, 731-840. Id., Die Demen der rhodischen Städte, in: MDAI(A) 42, 1917, 171-184.

Caeratus

(45 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καίρατος; Kaíratos). River on Crete. On its western bank lies  Cnossus, occasionally also referred to as C. (Str. 10,4,8; Callim. H. 3,44; Eust. in Dionys. Per. 498). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography M. S. F. Hood, D. Smyth, Archaeological Survey of the Knossos Area, 21981.

Ager Teuranus

(67 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Area in Bruttium. The only reference was found on an epigraphical copy of the Senatus Consultum deBacchanalibus from 186 BC, containing instructions for the local administration (CIL I2 581,30 in agro Teurano; cf. ILLRP 2, 511). Judging by where the bronze tablet was found (Tiriolo), the Ager Teuranus should be localized in the vicinity thereof.  Bacchanalia Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 945.

Ialysus

(372 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Persian Wars | Delian League (Ἰάλυσος; Iálysos). City on the north coast of the island of Rhodes; with  Lindus and  Camirus one of the three ancient cities of Rhodes. Situated c. 15 km south-west of Rhodes city, on the western slope of the 267 m-high mountain Filerimos (ancient name Achaía, Diod. Sic. 5,57,6; Ath. 8,360e), which functions as the acropolis of I. Settlement and necropolis from the Mycenaean period at the present-day village of Trianda. …

Matalum

(88 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μάταλον; Mátalon). Town on the Southern coast of Crete (Strab. 10,4,11; Stadiasmus maris magni 323), originally the harbour for Phaestus (Pol. 4,55,6), later for Gortyn; now called Matala. According to one myth, this is where Zeus made landfall after abducting Europa. Only a few classical remains from the Roman period. Some early Christian cliff graves on the northern side of the bay, now partly below sea-level. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Buhmann, s.v. Matala, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 410 I. F. Sanders, Roman Crete, 1982, 161.

Aletrium

(64 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in the area of the  Hernici (Plin. HN 3,63), today Alatri. Like Ferentinum and Verulae, A. did not participate in 307-306 BC in the war of the Hernici against Rome (Liv. 9,42,11) and was therefore rewarded like them with autonomy and   conubium (Liv. 9,43,23). A few structural ruins, i.a. an aqueduct and wall. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 654.

Ager Falernus

(55 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Region in northern  Campania (Plin. HN 14,62) between Mons Masicus and Volturnus, known particularly for its wines (Plin. HN 23,24). From 340 BC under Roman control (land distribution to Roman settlers: Liv. 8,11,13 f. 12,12). Pillaged by Carthaginians in the war against Hannibal (Liv. 22,13,9). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 689 f.
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