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Teledamus

(185 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Son of Odysseus and Calypso (Τηλέδαμος; Tēlédamos). According to Eust. on Hom. Od. 16,118, the author of the Tēlegonía names a son of Odysseus and Calypso“Telegonus or Teledamus”, which would make him the brother of Nausithous [2] and Nausinous. The passage is evidently corrupt, since elsewhere Telegonus is Odysseus' son with Circe. For a discussion of conjectures: [1]. Antoni, Silke (Kiel) Bibliography 1 K. Scherling, s. v. T. (1), RE 5 A, 313 f. [German version] [2] Son of Agamemnon and Cassandra (Paus.: Τελέδαμος/ Telédamos, schol. Hom. Od.: Τελέδημος/ Telé…

Themison

(339 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Θεμίσων; Themísōn). [German version] [1] Tyrant from Eretria [1], 4th cent. BC Tyrant of Eretria [1], who occupied Oropus in 366 BC with some of the town’s exiles. The people controlling the operation were based in Thebes, and assistance also came from there in order to fend off an Athenian counter-attack. After an arbitration tribunal the pólis went to the Thebans, who maintained T.’s regime (Diod. Sic. 15,76,1; Dem. Or. 18,99; Xen. Hell. 7,4,1). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Buckler, The Theban Hegemony, 1980, 193 f. [German version] [2] Th. from Laodicea Greek doctor, …

Pammenes

(478 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Παμμένης; Pamménēs). [German version] [1] Close friend of Epaminondas Theban, close friend of Epaminondas. On his second Peloponnesian campaign, Epaminondas entrusted the still young P. with garrisoning Sicyon (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,16,3), and in 368 BC with a mission to protect Megalopolis (Paus. 8,27,2). From 368 to 365, Philippus [4] II, who was about the same age as P., stayed as a hostage in the house of P.' parents ([1. 118] with bibliography). After the death of Epaminondas at Mantinea, P. became a…

Synodos

(1,618 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Gerber, Simon (Kiel)
(ἡ σύνοδος/ hē sýnodos; literally 'meeting', 'the synod'). Greek name for assemblies and meetings of various kinds; see Associations. [German version] I. Greek public law As a term in Greek public law, synodos means in general the meeting in rotation of representatives or citizens as a whole to exercise political powers in a body of federal states [1.1318f.]. In the Achaean Confederacy (Achaeans, Achaea) of the Hellenistic Period, synodos was the customary term for the central decision organ: initially the full assembly of citizens, which convened four times a ye…

Maeandrius

(177 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μαιάνδριος; Maiándrios). [German version] [1] M. of Samos Tyrant of Samos, 6th cent. BC Confidant of the tyrant Polycrates, conducted negotiations with the Persian satrap Oroetes (Hdt. 3,123; cf. Lucian. Charidemus 14) for him. After the death of Polycrates, M. himself managed to become tyrant in about 521 BC but soon had to give way to Syloson, who was appointed by the Persians (Hdt. 3,142-6). He fled to Sparta but was expelled from the country by the ephors because of his wealth (Hdt. 3,148; Plut. Mor. 224a-b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Roisman, M. of Samos, in: Historia …

Poliarchos

(148 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(πολίαρχος/ políarchos). [German version] [1] Senior official in Thessalian cities (3rd cent. BC) ('High city official'). In the 3rd cent. BC, the cities of Thessaly had councils of five políarchoi, cf. IG IX 2,459 (Crannon); IG IX 2,1233 (Larisa [1]). The etymology suggests that their duties probably encompassed the military and civil interests of the polis. The division of powers with the other city council, the tagoí, is unclear (cf. [2]). The archipolíarchos served as chair (IG IX 2,1233). Tagos; Thessalians, Thessalia Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 B. Helly, L'état Thess…

Mnaseas

(244 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale)
(Μνασέας; Mnaséas). [German version] [1] Politician Phocian, father of Aristotélous hetaíros (‘companion of Aristoteles [6]’) Mnason (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 11; Aristot. Pol. 1304a 10-14). Aristotle says the cause of the Third “Sacred War” was a dispute between M. and Euthycratus over an heiress, but this explanation (probably originating from Mnason) is considered inadequate. After the death of Onomarchus, in 352/1 BC Phayllus appointed M. guardian of Phalaecus and stratēgós, but he was killed shortly afterwards during a nocturnal attack by the Boeotians (Diod. 16,38,6f.). Beck, Ha…

Phalaecus

(335 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Φάλαικος; Phálaikos). [German version] [1] Phocian army officer Son of Onomarchus. P., while a minor, was deployed in 352 BC by his uncle Phayllus [1] as fourth stratēgòs autokrátōr ('general or executive with special powers of authority') of the Phocians in the 3rd Sacred War. Mnaseas [1] was appointed as his guardian but died as early as 351 (Diod. Sic. 16,38,6f.). After an inconclusive series of battles against Thebes, P. was deposed in 347, apparently because of his opposition to the Phocians' attempts to make peace (…

Timosthenes

(347 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Τιμοσθένης/ Timosthénēs). [German version] [1] Of Euboea, c. 300 BC Son of Demophanes from Carystus [1] in Euboea. After his homeland had joined the anti-Macedonian alliance, he was actively involved in fighting in the Lamian War. In 306/5 BC he was honoured in Athens for his services (Syll.3 327). A commendation of his grandson as late as the year 229/28 recalls his commitment (Syll.3 496,23-24). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] From Rhodes, naval commander and geographical author, 3rd cent. BC T. from Rhodes, naval commander of Ptolemaeus [3] II, author of a wor…

Leocrates

(258 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λεωκράτης; Leōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Strategos in 479 and 459/8 BC Son of Stroebus, one of the Athenian stratēgoí in the battle of Plataea in 479 BC, is said to have prevented the conflict between the Athenians and Spartans over the erection of the tropaion (Plut. Aristides 20,1). Afterwards he dedicated a votive offering at Athens (epigram of Simonides [1. no. 312]; IG I3 983). Again elected stratēgós in 459/8, L. defeated the Aeginetes in a naval battle, establishing a blockade around the island (Thuc. 1,105,2-3; Diod. Sic. 11,78,3-4) [2]. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 P. …

Thessali, Thessalia

(2,219 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | COR.SCH.
(Θεσσαλία/ Thessalía 'Thessaly'; Θεσσαλοί/ Thessaloí 'Thessalians', also Θεθαλοί/ Thethaloí and Φεταλοί/ Phetaloí or Πετθαλοί/ Petthaloí: [6]). [German version] I. Geography Northern Greek tribe/territory between Macedonia, Epirus and central Greece. At 9,790 km2, the region of the tetrads of Thessaliotis, Hestiaiotis, Pelasgiotis and Phthiotis (1) was the largest Greek tribal region (Str. 9,4,18). Surrounded by high mountain chains: to the north Olympus [1] (2,918 m), to the west the Pindus [1], to the south the Othrys and t…

Pherenicus

(207 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Φερένικος; Pherénikos). [German version] [1] Theban politician Theban, son of Cephisodotus, who had taken in Athenians who had fled from the Thirty Tyrants ( Triákonta ) into Thebes (Lys. fr. 78). After the occupation of the Cadmeia in 382 BC P., a follower of Ismenias' [1] faction, had to escape to Athens (Plut. Pelopidas 5,3). During the emigrant's attack on Thebes in December 379 P. waited with his people in the Thriasian Plain until a group led by Pelopidas had eliminated the polemarchs in Thebes (Plut. Pelopidas 8,1; see also Plut. Mor. 576c; 577a). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography R.…

Procles

(448 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Προκλῆς/ Proklês). [German version] [1] Legendary Spartan king The legendary Spartan king. P. was considered to be a son of Aristodemus [1] - and hence a direct descendant of Heracles [1] - and the ancestor of the Eurypontids, named after Eurypon, his son (Hdt. 8,131) or grandson (Plut. Lycurgus 1). As late as the 5th cent. BC, P. and his twin brother Eurysthenes [1] and not, e.g., Lycurgus [4], appear in Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 116) as the framers of the Spartan constitution. Ephorus (FGrH 70 F 117) also…

Hegesistratus

(274 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἡγησίστρατος; Hēgēsístratos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Sigeum, around 530 BC Son of  Peisistratus and the Argive Timonassa (Hdt. 5,94; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 17,3). Installed as tyrant of Sigeum by his father around 530 BC, he defended the city as a colony of the Peisistratids against the Mytilenaeans (Hdt. loc. cit.).  Tyrannis Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies 11793,VI (B) M. Stahl, Aristokraten und Tyrannen, 1987, 220f. Traill, PAA 481600. [German version] [2] Seer in the army of Mardonius, 5th cent. BC H. of Elis, son of Tellias. Fled from Spartan captivity an…

Medius

(333 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] [1] Dynast of Larisa, conqueror of Pharsalus 395 BC (Μήδιος/ Mḗdios in MSS; better Μήδειος/ Mḗdeios, in epigraphy). Dynast of Larisa [3], of the Aleuadae family, successor of Aristippus; in 395 BC he joined the newly formed anti-Spartan alliance in the fight against the tyrant Lycophron [2] of Pherae and captured Pharsalus, which housed a Spartan garrison (Diod. Sic. 14,82,5f.; cf. Aristot. Hist. an. 618b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography H.-J. Gehrke, Stasis, 1985, 191. [German version] [2] Hetairos of Alexander the Great and author of a work about him Son of Oxyth…

Neocles

(460 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Νεοκλῆς; Neoklȇs). [German version] [1] Father of the Athenian politician Themistocles The politically inactive father of the Athenian politician and commander Themistocles (Plut. Themistocles 1; [1. 60-66; 69f.]; therefore Themistocles is called a ‘newcomer ’in Hdt. 7,143) ; aristocrat (Nep. Themistocles 1), a member of the Lycomidae family. N.'s wife was possibly non-Athenian. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography 1 F.J. Frost, Plutarch's Themistocles, 1980. Davies, 212ff.  Traill, PAA 706445. [German version] [2] Probable son of Themistocles Probably eldest s…

Timocrates

(593 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Τιμοκράτης/ Timokrátēs). [German version] [1] From Sparta, advisor of Cnemus, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC Spartan, one of the three advisors of the nauarchos Cnemus who, following the defeat off the Acarnanian coast in 429 BC, were supposed to make strategic and logistical preparations for a new naval battle (Thuc. 2,85,1). T. committed suicide after the devastating defeat in 429 against the Athenian fleet near Naupactus (Thuc. 2,92,3). Peloponnesian War Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] From Rhodos, legate of Pharnabazus [2], c. 400 BC Rhodian. In the winter of 396/5 BC…

Olympiodorus

(850 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Brisson, Luc (Paris)
(Ὀλυμπιόδωρος; Olympiódōros). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (end of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian, managed between 307 and 301 BC to induce Aetolia to enter into an alliance against Cassander and to relieve Elatea (Paus. 1,26,3; 10,18,7; 34,3). Although Demetrius [2] Poliorketes twice illegally appointed him (in 294/3 and 293/2) as eponymous árchōn (Dion. Hal. De Dinarcho 9; IG II2 378 = [1. D 70]; IG II2 389 and SEG 21,354; IG II2 649 = [2. 7f.]; Agora 16, 167; [3. 124 No. 9]; cf. in general Plut. Demetrius 34), O., when Athens seceded from Demetrius in 2…

Peisander

(929 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Πείσανδρος/ Peísandros). [German version] [1] Son of Maimalus Son of Maimalus, general under Achilles [1], best spear-fighter of the Myrmidones after Patroclus [1] (Hom. Il. 16,193ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Antimachus Son of Antimachus [1], brother of Hippolochus, killed by Agamemnon because his father had advised killing  Menelaus [1] in Troy when he had been sent into the city on embassy (Hom. Il. 11,122ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan killed by Menelaus in single combat Trojan, killed by Menelaus [1] in single…

Timolaus

(536 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Τιμόλαος/ Timólaos). [German version] [1] From Corinth, politician, c. 400 BC Leading politician of Corinth. At first on the side of the Spartans, he managed to convince Thasos in 411/10 BC to secede from Athens [1. 216-231]. Later, he changed course for personal reasons [2. 83 against 3. 73 f.]: in 395 BC, he advocated an alliance with Argos and due to his expertise [4. 411] became a moving force in the Corinthian Alliance (Stv 2, 225), for which he is claimed to have received plenty of funds from Timocr…
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