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Hescanas

(25 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[English version] Etruskisches Gent. aristokratischer Familien, bes. in Volsinii, bekannt durch die dort gelegene, figürlich ausgemalte Tomba Hescanas. Etrusci, Etruria Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)

Pulena

(99 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[English version] Etr. Gentilname, inschr. auf Sarkophagen des hell. P.-Grabes in Tarquinia überl., darunter die Deckelfigur eines Laris P. mit beschrifteter Buchrolle (Buch B.). Sie enthält das curriculum vitae des Verstorbenen mit Nennung der Ahnen bis ins 4. Glied zurück, eines Laris Pule Creice (“des Griechen”). Aufgrund der Textformulierung ancn zich nethsrac wird Laris P. meist als Verf. eines Buches über die etr. Haruspizin angesehen (Haruspices II. C.). Divination Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography R. Herbig, Die jünger-etr. Steinsarkophage, 1952, 53 Nr. 111  J…

Atrium

(292 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] 1. Central room in the ancient Italian and Roman house with lateral cubicula (sleeping chambers) and rear tablinum (room serving as passage between the atrium and the peristylion) flanked by the   alae which had no door. Early forms of the atrium are reproduced in Etruscan chamber tombs (Cerveteri), the oldest evidence is represented by Etruscan domestic architecture at the end of the 6th cent. BC in Rome (the Palatine) and in the Etruscan Marzabotto. The early Roman atrium served as a reception room for the clientes whom the patron received while sitting on the solium. In …

Altar

(1,994 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Definition and function The Graeco-Roman altar (ἐσχάρα, βωμός; eschára, bōmós; Lat. ara, ‘fireplace’) is defined by its function and not as an object of a certain type. An altar can be an ephemeral natural or artificial elevation, hearth or building for sacrifices involving fire, drink or other elements (in contrast to the sacrificial pit dug into the ground, the βόθρος [ bóthros], Hom. Od. 10, 517; Lucian Char. 22) and marks the centre of a sacrificial act. There are sanctuaries without a  temple, but never without an altar ([23. 150]; a…

Atrium

(241 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[English version] 1. Zentraler Raum im altital. und röm. Haus, mit seitlichen cubicula (Schlafgemächer) und rückwärtigem, von den türlosen alae flankiertem tablinum (Vorbau). Frühformen des A. sind in etr. Kammergräbern (Cerveteri) nachgebildet, die ältesten Belege in der Hausarchitektur E. des 6.Jh. v.Chr. in Rom (Palatin) und im etr. Marzabotto. Das frühröm. a. diente als Empfangsraum für die Klientel, die der Patron im solium sitzend empfing. Im zentralen impluvium mit Zisterne wurde das Regenwasser gesammelt. Vitruv (6,3,1ff.) unterscheidet fünf Typen, das a. testudinat…

Altar

(1,755 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[English version] A. Definition und Funktion Der gr.-röm. A. (ἐσχάρα, βωμός; lat. ara, “Brandstätte”) ist funktional und nicht als typisierter Gegenstand definiert; ein A. kann eine ephemere natürliche oder künstliche Erhebung, Herdstelle oder Bauwerk für Brand-, Trank- oder sonstige Opfer sein (im Gegensatz zur in den Boden eingetieften Opfergrube, dem βόθρος, Hom. Od. 10, 517; Lukian. Char. 22) und markiert das Zentrum einer Opferhandlung; es gibt Heiligtümer ohne Tempel, jedoch nie ohne A. ([23. 150]; ei…

Town planning

(3,963 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] I. General Town planning is the designing of urban settlements (Town, city) on an organizational basis, with the central and particular functions of the town, e.g. as a port or a political centre, having an effect on its external and internal form. Most towns and cities in the Middle East and Egypt arose in the earliest times (in the Middle East from the 5th millennium onwards) at economically or strategically important points (trade routes, river crossings, anchorages). Towns and c…

Mirror

(1,020 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
(κάτοπτρον/ kátoptron; Lat. speculum). [German version] I. Greek Circular hand mirrors made of bronze with decorated ivory handles were already known in the Mycenaean period. Then mirrors are again evident from the second half of the 8th cent. BC. Greek mirrors can be divided into hand mirrors, standing mirrors and folding mirrors. Silver mirrors from the Mycenaean period have not survived, those from later periods only in exceptional circumstances. Round hand mirrors were developed as a direct imitatio…

Wall paintings

(3,970 words)

Author(s): A.NU. | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Numerous Ancient Oriental temples, palaces and private residences were painted inside, but due to the a secco-technique, only traces of the paintings still remain. Each colour has its own symbolism. Red, the colour of life and strength, was used as early as the 10th millennium BC for painting the walls and floors of houses (e.g. Ain Mallaha, Israel). Clay or lime plaster served as the base [1; 2]. The oldest and best-preserved figural wall paintings (WP) are found in the houses of…

Ivory carvings

(904 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Middle East and Phoenicia Ivory, i.e. tusks of the boar, the hippopotamus and particularly the (African as well as Asian)  elephant, was extremely popular from the Neolithic period onwards as a material in ‘craftwork’. In the Bronze Age and the early Iron Age, the important workshops of the Syrian-Phoenician coastal towns and also of Egypt developed styles that were recognizably their own. Ivory carvings (IC) were widespread through intensive trade and almost always formed part of t…

Etrusci, Etruria

(9,491 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Naso, Alessandro (Udine) | Aigner-Foresti, Luciana (Vienna)
(Tusci), the Etruscans. I. History [German version] A. Name A people in Italy who, between the 9th and 1st cents. BC, created the highest form of civilization in the Western Mediterranean before Roman civilization prevailed over the same territory. Various popular names were applied to the E.: Rasna (or Graecized Rasenna) in Etruscan sources, Tyrrhenoi or Tyrsenoi in Greek sources, Turskus in Umbrian sources and Etrusci, Tusci or Lydii (according to Hdt. 1,94 because of their possible origin in Lydia) in Lat. sources. Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence) [German version] B. History…

Elfenbeinschnitzerei

(786 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom)
[English version] I. Vorderer Orient und Phönikien Elfenbein, d.h. Zähne von Wildschwein, Flußpferd und vor allem (afrikan. sowie asiat.) Elefant, war seit dem Neolithikum in der “Kleinkunst” als Werkstoff hochbeliebt. In der Br.- und frühen Eisenzeit entwickelten sich die bed. Werkstätten der syr.-phönik. Küstenstädte und daneben Ägyptens erkennbar eigene Stile. E.n fanden durch intensiven Handel weiteste Verbreitung und gehören fast regelmäßig zu den Tributen für die assyr. Könige. Das Repertoire umf…

Etrusci, Etruria

(8,650 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florenz) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Naso, Alessandro (Udine) | Aigner-Foresti, Luciana (Wien)
(Tusci), die Etrusker. I. Geschichte [English version] A. Name Volk in It., das zw. dem 9. und dem 1. Jh. v.Chr. die höchste Form der Zivilisation im westl. Mittelmeerbereich hervorgebracht hat, bevor sich im selben Gebiet die röm. Zivilisation durchsetzte. Verschieden sind die Volksnamen, mit welchen die E. bezeichnet werden: Rasna (oder gräzisiert Rasenna) in den etr. Quellen, Tyrrhenoi oder Tyrsenoi in den griech. Quellen, Turskus in den umbr. Quellen und Etrusci, Tusci oder Lydii (nach Hdt. 1,94 wegen ihrer möglichen Herkunft aus Lydia) in den lat. Quellen. Camporeale, Giovann…

Town, city

(4,219 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Kolb, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Definition 'Town' and 'city' in modern parlance have become general terms to describe settlements of a particular size, with a particular complement of buildings and administrative and legal structure. Owing, however, to the manifold forms assumed by towns and cities, we lack a specific, all-embracing definition: criteria such as a closed built environment, a highly evolved division of labour, and central administrative and economic functions for the surrounding territory, have p…

Dead, cult of the

(3,539 words)

Author(s): S.LU. | von Lieven, Alexandra (Berlin) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia The cult of the dead in Mesopotamia is documented in written as well as archaeological sources. In the written sources, the term kispum is used for the act of supplying the dead with food and drink (monthly or bimonthly). An important part of the ritual was the ‘calling of the name’ [3. 163] ─ kispum thus served to ensure not only the existence but also the identity of the dead in the  Underworld. In the absence of the cult of the dead, the Underworld changed into a dark, inhospitable place. The living also had an inter…

Necropoleis

(7,045 words)

Author(s): Tsochos, Charalampos (Erfurt) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Genz, Hermann (Istanbul) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Introduction The Greek word νεκρόπολις/ nekrópolis, ‘city of the dead’, is attested in Antiquity only in Strabo (17,1,10,14) as the name of a suburb of Alexandria [1] (Necropolis). Modern scholarship transfers the term necropolis to cemeteries of various cultures and time periods. General definitions as to shape and size do not exist. In this article, necropolis refers only to sites of a certain size and usually lying outside the settlements themselves. The size of a necropolis, the …

Temple

(5,554 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia The Sumerian term é and the Akkadian term bītu, meaning 'temple' or 'house (of the deity)', were not restricted to 'dwellings' of deities of a particular size or importance. They applied to sanctuaries from small neighbourhood shrines in residential areas to large, freestanding, tall buildings, from one-room cult sites to temple complexes with extensive auxiliary buildings, and they could be used for temples where one or many deities were worshipped. Prehistoric structures are often classified as temples only because apparently they nei…

Pins

(3,978 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Giesen, Katharina (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Steimle, Christopher (Erfurt) | Et al.
[German version] I. General Pins and needles (βελόνη/ belónē, περόνη/ perónē, ῥαφίς/ rhaphís, Latin acus) were put to a variety of uses in the ancient household: they were used for hair, garments and sewing. They were also a utensil, for example, in the work of doctors (Surgical instruments), sailmakers etc. Tattoos were also done using special needles. The shape of the pin, long and thin with one sharp end, has not changed since prehistoric times. In sewing needles, the head is generally unadorned and flat; …

Funerary architecture

(5,482 words)

Author(s): Kammerer-Grothaus, Helke (Bremen) | Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Hauser, Stefan R. (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Definition Funerary architecture (FA) refers to architectonically designed structures built above the contemporary ground level for the purpose of  burial, as opposed to underground hypogea, which have rooms for the cult of the dead and hero cult. Columbaria can combine both types. Hypogea with a ground level cult room influenced the early Christian martyria above the graves. Regarding further aspects of FA, cf.  Hypogaeum;  Maussolleum;  Necropoleis. Kammerer-Grothaus, Helke (Bremen) II. Egypt and the Near East [German version] A. Egypt The Egyptian buria…

Nadel

(3,489 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Giesen, Katharina (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Steimle, Christopher (Erfurt) | Et al.
[English version] I. Allgemein N. (βελόνη/ belónē, περόνη/ perónē, ῥαφίς/ rhaphís, lat. acus) wurden auch im ant. Haushalt unterschiedlich verwendet: als Haar-, Gewand- oder Näh-N. Daneben waren sie Arbeitsutensil z.B. bei Ärzten (Medizinische Instrumente), Segelmachern u.a.; ebenfalls sind Tätowierungen mit bes. N. ausgeführt worden. Die lange, zu einem Ende spitz auslaufende Stabform der N. hat sich seit der Frühzeit nicht geändert. Bei der Näh-N. ist der Kopf meist unverziert und flach; darunter sitzt da…
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