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Autophradates

(155 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Αὐτοφραδάτης; Autophradátēs). [German version] [1] Persian naval commander against Philippus II and Alexander the Great Identical or related to the satrap of Lydia at the time of the Satraps' Revolt. As naval commander under  Memmon and then Pharnabazus against  Philippus II and  Alexander [4], he carried out successful actions in the Aegean and supported  Agis [3] both in terms of money and ships. His fleet was disbanded after the battle of  Issus. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 188. [German version] [2] Satrap of a Caspian province; fought at Gauga…

Metron

(62 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Μήτρων; Mḗtrōn). One of the basilikoi paides , responsible for the arsenal of Alexander [4] the Great in 330 BC. He heard of the conspiracy of Dimnus from Cebalinus, and reported it to Alexander (Curt. 6,7; Diod. 17,79,4-5). He is not to be identified with a trierarch of the Hydaspes fleet (Arr. Ind. 18,5). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)

Peucestas

(257 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Πευκέστας; Peukéstas). [German version] [1] Commander of the occupation of Egypt under Alexander the Great Son of Macartatus, he and Balacrus [2] were commanders of the garrison in Egypt under Alexander [4] the Great (Arr. An. 3,5,5, 331 BC). In the  Saqqara necropolis a decree by P. for the protection of a priestly estate has been found. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography E.G. Turner, A Commander-in-Chief's Order from Saqqâra, in: JEA 60, 1974, 239-342. [German version] [2] Trierarch of Alexander the Great's Hydaspes fleet Son of Alexander from Mieza, in 326 BC triera…

Alexander historians

(302 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] Collective name for the ancient authors, who wrote about the history and biography of  Alexander [4] (the Great).  Callisthenes was his court historian and fulfilled the duties expected of him until their quarrel. Many of the later histories are based on his, which was published right away (until 330 BC?). Of the eyewitnesses, only  Ptolemaeus and  Aristoboulus [7] seem to have described all campaigns; both praised Alexander. They wrote many years later, used Callisthenes and prob…

Mazarus

(67 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Μάζαρος; Mázaros). Hetaîros ( hetaîroi ) of Alexander [4] the Great. According to Arrian (Arr. Anab. 3,16,9), he was appointed fortress commander in Susa in 331/30 BC. Curtius (5,2,16) names Xenophilus instead. Since the name M. is Iranian, Arrian probably confused him with the Persian predecessor. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography A. B. Bosworth, A Historical Commentary on Arrian's History, vol. 1, 1980, 319.

Bucephalus, Bucephalas

(115 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Βουκεφάλας; Boukephálas). Thessalian warhorse, a gift to  Alexander [4] as a boy. He was allegedly the only person capable of breaking him in. He never rode any other and it is illustrated with him in heroic style on the  Alexander Mosaic and the  Alexander Sarcophagus. B. died at a great age after the battle on the Hydaspes and Alexander founded a city,  Bucephala in his honour. The life and death of B. are richly embellished in the ‘Vulgate’ ( Alexander historians) and in the  Alexander Romance. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography A. R. Anderson, Bucephalas an…

Gorgus

(126 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Γόργος; Górgos). In 324 BC, G. of Iasos ─ in the role of the ‘keeper of weapons’ ( hoplophýlax, ὁπλοφύλαξ) ─ interceded with  Alexander [4] the Great on behalf of the Samians expelled by the Athenians and tried to persuade Alexander to start a campaign against Athens (Ath. 12,538b). After the latter's death, G. had Iasos allow the return of Samians to Athens at the city's expense. The newly created community of Samos honoured him and his brother  Minnion for their merits by granting them citizenship among other things (Syll.3 312). The brothers had succeeded in obtai…

Thersippus

(102 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Θέρσιππος; Thérsippos). Participant in Alexander [4] the Great's campaign. Alexander sent him from Marathus to Darius [3] in 333/2 with a reply to his first offer of peace (Arr. An. 2,14,4; Curt. 4,1,14); perhaps identical with the T. who after Alexander's death is honoured in a decree by the Nesiotae [2] (OGIS 4) (see [1. vol. 1,369; vol. 2.2,376]). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography 1 G. A. Droysen, Gesch. des Hellenismus, 3 vols., 21877/8 (reprint of this ed. 1952/3, ed. by E. Bayer, 1980) 2 Berve, No. 368 3 E. Poddighe, Il decreto dell'isola di Nes…

Peithon

(377 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Πείθων; Peíthōn). [German version] [1] Indo- Greek satrap In 325 BC, P., son of Agenor, was appointed by Alexander [4] the Great as the satrap for the coast of India and the banks of the Indus as far as the mouth of the Acesines. He took Musicanus prisoner and brought him before the king, manned the new fortresses on the left bank of the Indus and met up with Alexander at Pattala. When Alexander had to give up a large part of India in 323 BC, he transferred P. to Gandhara (Gandaritis), a move which was…

Pythionice

(90 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Πυθιονίκη/ Pythioníkē). Famous hetaera (Hetaerae), probably Athenian, mocked by comedians (Ath. 8,339). Called c. 329 BC by Harpalus to Babylon, where she bore him a daughter (Plut. Phocion 22,1), he showered her with plundered treasures (Diod. Sic. 17, 108,5). After her death, Harpalus had her deified as Aphrodite P. Her grave monuments in Babylon and Athens are often mentioned (mostly with indignation) (as in Ath. 13,594d-595c; Paus. 1,37,5; Plut. Phocion 22, 1-2). They allegedly cost more than 200 talents (Theopomp. apud Ath. ibid.). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge…

Atropates

(106 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Ἀτροπάτης; Atropátēs). Median ruler and satrap of Darius, fought at  Gaugamela and accompanied him in flight. After Darius' death he joined  Alexander [4] and received his satrapy once again. He took a vanquished Median pretender to the throne to the king in 324 BC. As a reward, his daughter was married to  Perdiccas at the weddings of Susa. He is supposed to have given Alexander 100  Amazons (Arr. Anab. 7,13). Perdiccas assigned him the satrapy of west Media in 323, where he settled himself as ruler. The land (Atropatene, today Azerbaijan) eternalized his name. Badian, E…

Cyn(n)ane

(85 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Κυν(ν)άνη; Kyn(n)ánē). Daughter of  Philippus II and an Illyrian, born around 357 BC. Brought up in a martial way, she is said to have participated in Philip's battles. In 338/7 C. married Amyntas [4] and bore Eurydice [3] with whom she lived in Macedonia after the death of Amyntas. In 322 C. accompanied Eurydice to Asia with an army as a bride for Arridaeus [4]. C. was murdered by Alcetas [4] and given a royal burial by  Cassander. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve, no. 456.

Myllenas

(59 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Μυλλένας; Myllénas). Scribe of Alexander [4] the Great, was to lead lightly armed infantry along by-ways to the summit of the Aornus [2] (Curt. 8,11,5: Mullinus). The enterprise failed. He is probably the Macedonian M., son of Asander, who was accorded the proxenía with privileges in Eretria (IG XII 9, 197). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)

Bagoas

(192 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Βαγώας; Bagṓas), Greek name for Persian eunuchs (Plin. HN 13,41). [German version] [1] Commander of Artaxerxes Ochus, 338 BC ‘An extremely impudent and sacrilegious man’ (Diod. Sic. 16,47,4) who took part in the renewed conquest of Egypt led by  Artaxerxes Ochus, became commander-in-chief of the Upper Satrapies, then  chiliarchos (‘lord of the realm’ Diod. Sic. 16,50,8). In 338 BC, he poisoned the king, in 336, he poisoned the king's son and successor  Arses, and installed a courtier on the throne, who then adopt…

Barsaentes

(69 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Βαρσαέντης; Barsaéntēs). Under  Darius satrap of Arachosia and Drangiana; commanded the Arachotes and the neighbouring Indians in the battle of Gaugamela. He murdered Darius in mid 330 BC together with  Bessus and  Nabarzanes, then fled to his satrapy and from there to India. When  Alexander [4] reached the Indus, B. was handed over to him and executed. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 205.

Lanice

(73 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Λανίκη/ Laníkē; probably a short form of Ἑλλανίκη, Hellaníkē, Curt. 8,1,21). Sister of Cleitus [6], wet-nurse of Alexander [4], who allegedly plaintively called on her after Cleitus' death (Arr. Anab. 4,9,3f.; Curt. 8,2,8f.). L.'s husband is unknown. Two of her sons fell at Miletus, one - Proteas - became famous as a drinking-companion of Alexander (Ath. 4,129a; Ael. VH 12,26). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve, no. 462, cf. no. 664.

Balacrus

(208 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Βάλακρος; Bálakros). Various men with this name served as officers under Alexander [4] the Great. [German version] [1] Satrap of Cilicia, after 333 BC Son of a certain Nicanor, married Phila, daughter of  Antipater [1], who bore him a son. First   somatophýlax , after the battle of Issus, was appointed satrap of Cilicia, where he fought with great success against the mountain tribes, but fell in battle shortly before Alexander's death. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 200 Heckel 260. [German version] [2] Commander of the Greek allied infantry from 334/33 BC Son of …

Aristus

(28 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] From Salamis, Late Hellenistic  Alexander historian, invented a Roman delegation to which  Alexander [4] prophesied Rome's future greatness (FGrH 143). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)

Erigyius

(116 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Ἐρίγυιος; Erígyios). From Mytilene, resident of Amphipolis together with his brother  Laomedon, older than Alexander [4] and was banished in 337/6 BC together with others of his friends from younger days. As the only one of this group he was quickly given a command over troops, led the Greek cavalry near  Issus and  Gaugamela, and later appears as a trusted adviser of the king. He also took on special military tasks, thus e.g. against  Satibarzanes, whom he killed in single combat…

Amicitia

(392 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] Amicitia and amicus include also in the Latin personal, philosophical and social-political aspects of friendship. The use of amicitia as an expression of social and political relationships between individuals or states and their introduction under Greek influence ( philia,  Friendship) occurred in philosophy through Cicero, which also allows familiaris to become an unforced designation for a ‘friend’. Amicus and amicitia express within Rome the relationship between high-ranking people of the same rank as well as the connection between the…
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