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Herculanean papyri

(884 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] A. Definition Papyri with Latin and Greek texts found during the Bourbon excavations in the middle of the 18th cent. in a villa near  Herculaneum (with site map). These were part of the library of the poet and philosopher  Philodemus of Gadara, who had gone from Athens to Italia during the period 80-70 BC and maintained a friendly relati…

Philiscus

(934 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Et al.
(Φιλίσκος; Philískos). [German version] [1] Poet of Middle Comedy Poet of Middle Comedy, to whom the Suda attributes 7 play titles: Ἄδωνις (Á dōnis), Διὸς γοναί ( Diòs gonaí/ 'The Birth of Zeus

Scheda

(204 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] ( schida, scida) has various meanings in Latin authors: (1) a sheet or piece of papyrus or parchment (Pugillares) for notes or short messages (Cic. Att. 1,20,7; Quint. Inst. 1,8,19; Mart. 4,89,4; CGL IV 422,52; V 243,10 and 482,57;  cf. [1. 4920]). (2) In Late Antiquity s./ schedula is the term for a 'rough draft' of a literary work; cf. Isid. Etym. 6,14,8 “scheda est quod adhuc emendatur, et necdum in libris redactum est” ("scheda describes a text which still has to be corrected and is not yet finished"; the interpretation i…

Herodotus

(3,277 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἡρόδοτος; Heródotos). [German version] [1] The historian Herodotus, approx. 485-424 BC The historian Herodotus. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] A. Life Sources on the life of H., …

Phaedrus

(2,008 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] I. Greek (Φαῖδρος; Phaîdros). [German version] …

Polystratus

(387 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πολύστρατος/ Polýstratos). [German version] [1] Wealthy Athenian, councillor 411 BC Wealthy Athenian, frequent office-holder, member of the boulḗ in 411 BC. After the oligarchic coup, he took part in the selection of the 5,000 citizens to whom political rights would in future be restricted. He was wounded in the naval battles against the Spartans off …

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Metrodorus

(1,340 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Μητρόδωρος/ Metródōros). [German version] [1] M. of Chios Democritan philosopher, 5th/4th cent. BC …

Autograph

(557 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] The existence in antiquity of MSS of literary texts written ‘in the author's own handwriting’ is still a controversial subject in current times and is closely connected with the individual authors' ways of working ( Copy). The MSS under consideration are those which were claimed to be a copy in the author's own hand, as well as the evidence of indirect tradition which lead to the conclusion that a literary work was written in the author's own hand. The only texts which can be said with absolute certainty to have been written in the author's own hand are th…

Correction marks

(412 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] An ancient text could be corrected in at least two ways: a) a διορθωτής ( diorthōtḗs), a professional c orrector, collated the copy with the original. This intervention was sometimes indicated by the monogram δι = δι(ώρθωται), ‘corrected’ [1. 15. n. 85,13] ( Publication). b) A reader (not necessarily a professional corrector, but often a lay man) collated the copy with another sample. Two or more correctors could work on the same copy [3]. A wrong correction was indicated as ἀποδιόρθωμα ( apodiórthōma) (PSI 12, 1287,11-14). The intervention of an ancient correcto…

Timocrates

(593 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Τιμοκράτης/ Timokrátēs). [German version] [1] From Sparta, advisor of Cnemus, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC Spartan, one of the three advisors of the nauarchos Cnemus who, following the defeat off the Acarnanian coast in 429 BC, were supposed to make strategic and logistical preparations for a new naval battle (Thuc. 2,85,1). T. committed suicide after the devastating defeat in 429 against the Athenian fleet near Naupactus (Thuc. 2,92,3). Peloponnesian War Beck, Hans (Cologne) …

Themista

(100 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Θεμίστα; Themísta). One of the women philosophers of the Epicurean School; at the beginning of the 4th cent. BC the wife of Leonteus [2] (Diog. Laert. 10,5,25); they had a son called Epicurus (Diog. Laert. 10,26). Cicero praises T.'s 'wisdom' ( sapientia) and names her as the author of numerous writings ( tanta volumina, Cic.…

Polyaenus

(604 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύαινος/ Polýainos). [German version] [1] Epicurean, c. 300 BC One of the four 'masters' (καθηγεμόνες; kathēgemón…

Anaxarchus

(169 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (᾿Ανάξαρχος, Anáxarchos) of Abdera. Democritean philosopher ( Democriteans, c. 380-320 BC). He accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaign to the East. After Alexander's death, A. was taken prisoner and then pounded to death in a mortar by Nicocreon, the tyrant of…

Leonteus

(206 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Λεοντεύς; Leonteús, ‘lion’). [German version] [1] Leader of the Lapiths' contingent at Troy Son of Coronus. With Polypoetes he leads the contingent of the Lapithae at Troy. Together, they also defend the Greek camp and participate in the funerary games for Patroclus (Hom. Il. 2,745ff.; 12,128ff.; 23,837ff.). Michel, Raphael (Basle) Bibliography H. W. Stoll, s.v. L., Roscher 2, 1944-1945. [German version] [2] Of Lampsacus, student of Epicurus L. of Lampsacus, one of the most important students of Epicurus. L. and his wife Themista got to know Epicurus during …

Basileides

(316 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Βασιλείδης; Basileídēs). [German version] [1] Leader of the  Epicurean School (since 201/0) Epicurean (c . 245-175 BC.), fourth leader of the  Epicurean School (since 201/0) who taught Philonides of Laodicea on the Pontus. He studied mathematics and is known for his discussions in Alexandria with the father of the mathematician Hypsicles about a writing by Apollonius [13] of Perge. He is also known for a debate together with Thespis, another Epicurean, about anger, held against Nicasicrates and Timasagoras.…

Papyrus

(2,017 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
I. Material [German version] A. Term and manufacture The term papyrus was adopted into the European languages via the Greek πάπυρος/ pápyros, lat. papyrus, and ultimately is the source of the modern terms for paper, Papier, papier, etc.  Papyrus is hypothetically derived from an (unattested) Egyptian * pa-prro ('that of the king'). Papyrus, an aquatic plant with a long stem and a triangular cross-section ( Cyperus papyrus L.), was in its processed form a widespread writing material ('paper') in the ancient cultures of the Mediterranean. Papyrus is produced by peeling off the bark of the plant in order to obtain the fibres of the pith (βύβλος/

Patron

(113 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)

Protarchus

(265 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Πρώταρχος/ Prṓtarchos). [German version] [1] Comic poet from Thespiae, 1st cent. BC Comic poet from Thespiae, victorious on one occasion in the 1st cent. BC at the Soteria of Acraephia, and son or father of the epic poet Protogenes; otherwise, nothing is known of him. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 583. [German version] [2] Epicurean from Bargilia, 2nd cent. BC P. of Bargilia. Teacher of Demetrius [21] Lacon (Str. 14,20; 2nd cent. BC), perhaps in Miletus. It is unlikely that he was the head of the Epicurean 'Garden' ( kḗpos ). Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography W. Aly, s.v. Protarchos (5), RE 23, 924  M. Erler, in: GGPh2 4.1, 256-257. [German version] [3] Tragedian from Thebes, 1st cent. BC Tragedian from Thebes, successful after 85 BC at the Amphiaraea and Romaea at Oropus (DID A 6). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [4] Syngenes, dioiketes in Egypt, 51/0 BC Attested for 51/50 BC as syngenḗs (Court titles) and dioikētḗs
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