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Greece

(12,206 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Tsakmakis, Antonis (Nicosia ) | Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG)
Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) I. General (CT) [German version] A. Chronology and Delineation (CT) 'Greece' (G.) can be understood in a dual sense: on the one hand, the term is used to refer to the modern Greek state since its foundation (1830); however, 'G.' can also – without immediate reference to questions of statehood - describe the territories of the former Byzantine empire in which the Greek-speaking culture found expression after 1204 or 1453, whether in the context of the Ottoman Empire (OE) or within…

Cyprus

(1,764 words)

Author(s): Peña, P. Bádenas De La | Tsakmakis, Antonis (Nicosia )
Peña, P. Bádenas De La [German version] Cyprus (CT) Because of its strategic position, the island of Cyprus (C.) has always been a place where the claims of the various powers of the eastern Mediterranean for supremacy clashed. From the 12th cent. BC on the Greeks increasingly left their mark; added to this in Antiquity were Phoenicians, Assyrians, Egyptians, Persians and Romans; in the Middle Ages Franks and Venetians; and in the modern period Turks and Britons, all of whom, to varying degrees, left tra…