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Corstopitum

(109 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Settlement in the valley of the North Tyne, modern Corbridge. During the conquest by Agricola (AD 77-84) a large base was erected here, subsequently replaced by a camp further to the east (destroyed by fire c. 125). After Hadrian's Wall was erected 7 km to the north, C. was extended to become a supply base. In the early 3rd cent. C. played a decisive role in connection with the campaigns of Septimius Severus. An important city adjoining the base arose here in the 3rd and 4th cents. [1].  Limes;  Britannia Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 M. Bishop, J. N. Dore, Corbridg…

Sutton Hoo

(77 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] In one of the burial mounds at SH near Woodbridge in Suffolk a wooden ship was found with a rich treasure (Gaulish, Scandinavian and Eastern English goods, Byzantine silver bowls, including one with the stamp of Anastasius [1] I, also Frankish coins of the period around AD 625). It is presumably the tomb of Rædwald (6th/7th cent. AD), a king of East Anglia. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography R. Bruce-Mitford, The S. H. Ship-Burial, 3 vols., 1975-1983.

Hibernia

(678 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
(Ireland). [German version] A. Ancient knowledge Ancient geographers report little of the north-west coasts of Europe and the islands off this coast. The first knowledge regarding the island of Ireland, Ierne or H. was probably only obtained during the exploratory journey of Pytheas ( c. 320 BC [1; 2]). Pytheas probably did not visit H. himself and his reports were only second-hand, but Strabo, Diodorus and Mela probably had access to his information (Str. 4,5,4; Diod. Sic. 5,32; Mela 3,6). Some elements of this tradition are pure fantasy…

Silures

(131 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Celtic tribe in Southeast Wales from the coast to the Wye, especially in the coastal plain of present-day Glamorgan. The S. resisted the Romans from AD 44, at first under Caratacus (Tac. Ann. 12,32 f.; 12,38-40; 14,29), but were finally subdued in AD 74-76 by Frontinus (Tac. Agr. 17). In the 2nd cent., possibly under Hadrian, the S. were organised as civitas Silurum with the capital of Venta Silurum (present-day Caerwent). Modest villae were built in the coastal plain. In the end, the S. came to be the most Romanised tribe in Wales. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography V. E. …

Glevum

(216 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Britannia The region around Gloucester, located at the lowest lying crossing-point over the Severn, was first occupied by the Roman army in c. AD 50. A legion base was erected in Kingsholm, probably by the legio XX Valeria Victrix [1]; this was abandoned in c. AD 60 and replaced towards the end of the rulership of Nero by a fortress on the ground of modern Gloucester, which itself was abandoned in c. AD 74/5. On the grounds of the fortress, the colonia Glevum was founded using the fortress' building materials, appa…

Trinovantes

(79 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Celtic people, settled in the region of modern Essex in the late Iron Age. In the middle of the 1st cent. BC they were under pressure from the neighbouring Catuvellauni (Caes. Gall. 5,20) and for some time were dependent on them. Under their king Cunobellinus ( c. 10-40 AD) they were again independent and dominant in southern Britain. Their largest oppidum was Camulodunum. Britannia (with map) Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography R. Dunnett, The T., 1975  S. S. Frere, Britannia, 31987.

Catuvellauni

(83 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Powerful tribe in Britannia north of the lower Thames, who most likely had links with the Gallic Catualauni. Their most influential rulers were Tasciovanus and his son  Cunobellinus [1]. Following the conquest of Britannia by Claudius (Cass. Dio 60,20,2), the C. were organized as a civitas with  Verulamium as its centre (Tac. Ann. 14,33). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 S. S. Frere, Britannia, 31987, 44f. S. S. Frere, Verulamium Excavations 1, 1972 R. E. M. and T. V. Wheeler, Verulamium, 1936 K. Branigan, The C., 1985.

Sabrina

(60 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] River rising in Mid-Wales and flowing into the Bristol Channel (Tac. Ann. 12,31; Ptol. 2,3,3), modern Severn. Its valley played an important role in the period of the Roman conquest, with legionary bases at Glevum and Viroconium (modern Wroxeter). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 450 f.

Camulodunum

(222 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | | Coloniae | Limes | Pertinax | Britannia | Britannia The largest iron age oppidum in Britannia was situated on the lower reaches of the river Colne in Essex; under the rule of kings Dubnovellaunus and  Cunobellinus [1]. C., modern Colchester, developed. In its heyday (from about AD 10 to 40), the oppidum comprised 30 km2 within a system of protective dykes. As an important centre of power, C. attracted the import of luxury goods from Gaul and Italy. A richly decorated r…

Caledonii

(196 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Ancient authors applied the name C. variously: either to the inhabitants of Scotland north of a line from the Forth to the Clyde (Tac. Agr. 25), or to a tribe in the region of the Great Glen (Ptol. 2,3,8), or to a group of tribes in northern Scotland (Cass. Dio 76,12). The reference to Caledonia in Tac. Agr. 27 and to silvae Caledoniae in Plin. HN 4,102 suggests that the C. settled across a large area of eastern Scotland. Almost unknown prior to the Roman invasion, they offered fierce resistance to it, before they were decisively defeated by…

Britannia

(1,099 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] A. Name Originally the island was known as Albion (Avien. Ora maritima 108f. probably goes back to Pytheas, c. 325 BC). In the oldest Greek sources, B. appears as Βρεταννικαὶ νῆσοι ( Bretannikaì nêsoi) and the inhabitants as Βρεττανοί ( Brettanoí, Str. 2,1,18; 2,5,12). In Latin authors the form B. is common from the 1st cent. BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,7ff.; 4,20ff.; 5,2ff.; Cic. Fam. 7,6ff.). The general term for the island was coined by classical authors [1]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) [German version] B. Rome and Britannia The first contacts between B. and the Mediterra…

South Cadbury

(53 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Iron Age hill fort in Somerset, used for a short time in the middle of the 1st century AD by the Roman army. Resettled and fortified in the late 5th century. Ceramics were imported from the Mediterranean, other goods from Gaul. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography L. Alcock, Cadbury Castle, 1995.

Vinovia

(131 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Οὐιννοούιον/ Ouinnooúion). A Roman fort in Binchester on the important Roman road from Eboracum (modern York) to Hadrian's Wall (Ptol. 2,3,16; [1. 1036]; Limes II), where it crossed the Vedra (modern Wear), 12 km to the south of Durham. V. was founded in the Flavian period (AD 69-96) probably under Cn. Iulius [II 3] Agricola, abandoned under Hadrian, but used again in the late Antonine period and then from the 3rd cent. onwards. An extensive vicus developed outside the fort (with long narrow business premises [2. 111, 299; 3. 253]). Stones from V. were used to b…

Deva

(180 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Legio | Limes | Limes | Britannia Modern Chester. Legionary camp, originally set up for the legio II Adiutrix in c. AD 75 [1] as a wooden/earthen fort, with baths (stone); water pipes of lead date the completion to AD 79. The legio XX Valeria Victrix took over the camp in c. AD 86/7. The rebuilding in stone began in c. AD 102. A large amphitheatre situated outside the walls was constructed in the 2nd cent. [2]. West of the camp on the bank of the Dee is a mooring place. The fortress wall was renovated …

Scotti

(80 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] ( Scoti, 'Scots'). A Celtic people - wild and bellicose according to Roman reports - which originally settled in the north of Hibernia (Ireland) (Oros. 1,2,81 f.). In the late 4th cent. AD, groups of them ferried across to Britannia (Amm. 18,2,3; 26,4,5; 27,8,1; 29,4,7). The S. had been Christianised before AD 431 in Hibernia by the deacon Palladius (Prosp. 1301) and came to develop a very active monastery culture. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography G. and A. Ritchie, Scotland, 1985.

Londinium

(806 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Christianity | | Commerce | Limes | Rome | Rome | Britannia (modern London). The Roman city of L. - the name possibly contains the Celtic personal name Londinos - lay, probably without pre-Roman precursors, at the most suitable crossing point of the Tamesis (Thames), which drew the attention of the Romans at the time of the invasion in AD 43. The early settlement was on hills on both sides of the swampy valley of the Walbrook that flows from the nor…

Iceni

(184 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the area of Norfolk and Suffolk (south-eastern England). First mentioned under the name Cenimagni as one of the tribes that submitted to Caesar in AD 54 (Caes. B Gall. 5,21,1). At the time of the conquest of Britain by Claudius (AD 43), they were prepared to accept the alliance with Rome. In AD 47 they rebelled and were subjugated, however, they retained the status of a client kingdom (Tac. Ann. 12,31). After the death of their King Prasutagus c. AD 59, their entire territory was incorporated into the Roman administration, not only the half tha…

Maeatae

(119 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Μαιάται; Maiátai, Lat. Meatae). Tribal group in southern Scotland, late 2nd or early 3rd cent. AD, south of the Caledonii, north of the Antonine Wall. The place names Dumyat and Myot Hill in the vicinity of Stirling could be derived from the M. M. may mean ‘larger people’ or ‘inhabitants of the larger part’. The M. broke their treaty with Rome and revolted at the time of Septimius Severus in AD 210. Gradually fought down, they finally made peace in 212 with Caracalla (Xiphilinus 321; cf. Cass. Dio 76,12; Iord. Get. 2,14). Limes (II. Britannia) Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliogra…

Cambodunum

(212 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] The modern Kempten in the Allgäu region of Bavaria This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Limes | Raeti, Raetia modern Kempten in the Allgäu region of Bavaria. Main settlement of the Estiones (Str. 4,6,7); on the right bank of the Iller, Tiberian wooden houses, from the time of emperor Claudius stone buildings in a rectangular grid of streets centred around a sacred precinct comprising of ‘forum’, basilica, and baths. Possibly the first seat of the governor in  Raetia, probably splendidissima colonia (Tac. Germ. 41,1). Displaced by Augsburg, C…

Uxellodunum

(155 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] Oppidum in the territory of the Cadurci This item can be found on the following maps: Celts | Oppidum Oppidum in the territory of the  Cadurci (Caes. Gall. 8,32,2) in Aquitania, conquered by Caesar in 51 BC (Caes. Gall. 8,39-44). The location of  U. is disputed among the following places: l'Impernal de Luzech [2. 109-111], le Puy d'Issolu near Vayrac [2. 133-136], Murcens-Cras [1], Capdenac. Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy) Bibliography 1 O. Buchsenschutz, G. Mercadier, Recherche sur l'oppidum de Murcens-Cras, in: Aquitania 7, 1989, 25-51 2 M. I. Labrousse…
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