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Bonorum possessio

(105 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] In Roman law of succession the right to possession of a bequest, granted by the praetor. The bonorum possessor was not the heir by ius civile ( heres), but in certain cases could defend himself against inheritance actions by the heir (Gai. Inst. 3,35ff.). According to whether the praetor's opinion as to succession was based on statute, on the will itself or on special circumstances, distinctions were made between bonorum possessio intestati, secundum tabulas and contra tabulas.  Bona;  Succession, law of Manthe, Ulrich (Passau) Bibliography 1 H. Honsell, Th. Mayer…

Executor

(149 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] In the mancipation will of Roman law ( Testament) the testator assigned his property by   mancipatio to a ‘purchaser of the family’ ( familiae emptor). The latter may possibly have acted as an executor in the archaic period but there is no reference to it in any of the sources [1. 108, 679; 3. 1014]. In Classical Roman law of the 1st-3rd cents. AD, execution of wills existed as a separate institution only in embryonic form: by   fideicommissum an heir or legatee might be obligated to release the estate or a portion of it to another party, or by instruction (  mandatum

Postumus

(1,067 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Manthe, Ulrich (Passau) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Roman praenomen Roman praenomen , like other numerical praenomina (Quintus) given to a child according to the order of his birth; the adjective postumus ('last') refers to the birth 'after the father's death' (cf. P. [2]). The use of the name as a praenomen is evident in Rome up to the 3rd cent. BC, after that only as a cognomen . The wider geographical spread of * Postumo- as an Italic personal name can be concluded from its Etruscan derivative, where it led to the formation of a nomen gentile, Pustmi-na- (CIE 8715), the equivalent to the Roman Postumius. Steinbauer, Dieter…

Wills and testaments

(3,807 words)

Author(s): Hengstl, Joachim (Marburg/Lahn) | Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) | Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] [1] (Religion) see Bible; Christianity; New Testament Apocrypha; Septuagint; Testamentary literature; Vulgate (Religion) see Bible; Christianity; New Testament Apocrypha; Septuagint; Testamentary literature; Vulgate Hengstl, Joachim (Marburg/Lahn) [German version] [2] History of law (History of law) Hengstl, Joachim (Marburg/Lahn) [German version] I. General Testament (from the Latin testamentum in the sense of the final will made before witnesses; see below IV.) denotes a unilateral 'last will and testament' (or, in common E…

Erbrecht

(1,539 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz) | Manthe, Ulrich (Passau) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[English version] I. Alter Orient Keilschriftrechte Thür, Gerhard (Graz) [English version] II. Griechisch In Griechenland entsprach das E. vor allem dem Gedanken der Familienerbfolge. Daher enthält das griech. Recht mehrere Einrichtungen, um die Erbfolge im Familienverband auch dann zu sichern, wenn keine Haussöhne ( gnḗsioi) vorhanden waren. So diente die eispoíēsis der adoptionsähnlichen Bestimmung eines nicht testamentarischen Erben. War auch kein solcher Ersatzerbe vorhanden, fiel der Nachlaß ( klḗros ) entweder an die Seitenverwandten ( anchisteía

Postumus

(964 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Manthe, Ulrich (Passau) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Röm. Praenomen Röm. Praenomen, das wie andere der sog. “Numeralpraenomina” (Quintus) Kindern nach der Reihenfolge der Geburt gegeben wurde: das Adj. p., “letzter”, meint hier “(weil) nach (dem Tod des Vaters) geboren” (vgl. P. [2]). Bei den Römern war P. bis ins 3. Jh. v. Chr. als Vorname in Gebrauch, dann nur noch als Cognomen. Die weitere Verbreitung eines ital. Individualnamens * Postumo- läßt sich aus der Entlehnung ins Etr. erschließen, wo daraus ein Gent. Pustmi-na- (CIE 8715) gebildet wurde; dies entspricht dem röm. Gent. Postumius. Steinbauer, Dieter (…

Succession, laws of

(1,791 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz) | Manthe, Ulrich (Passau) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East see Cuneiform, legal texts in Thür, Gerhard (Graz) [German version] II. Greek Succession laws in Greece primarily followed the concept of family succession. Greek law therefore contained several provisions to secure succession within the family group even where there were no legitimate sons ( gnesioi). For example, eispoíēsis allowed the nomination of a non-testamentary heir, a process akin to adoption. Where such a replacement heir was also absent, the inheritance ( klḗros ) either passed to lateral kin ( anchisteía ) o…
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