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Helenopolis

(65 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] Place at the exit of the Gulf of Astacus in Bithynia, originally Drepanon, modern Altinova. Birthplace of  Helena [2], elevated to a city in her honour by Constantine [1] and extended by Justinian (Amm. Marc. 26,8,1; Procop. Aed. 5,2). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography R. Janin, Les églises et les monastères des grands centres byzantins, 1975, 97f. W. Ruge, s.v. Drepanon (4), RE 5, 1687.

Tembris

(57 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Τέμβρις/ Témbris, also Témbros, Thýmbris, Tembrógius; modern River Porsuk). Left bank tributary of the Sangarius (Liv. 38,18,8; Plin. HN 6,4; HN 681). It rises in the Dindymum to the south of modern Kütahya, flows first to the north and then turns eastwards past Dorylaeum. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 232  W. Ruge, s. v. T., RE 5 A, 433.

Kerkenes Dağı

(219 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] Mountain massif south of Sorgun, in the Hittite period probably the cult mountain Daḫa near Zippalanda (Kuşaklı Höyük). After 600 BC building of the city of Pteria, the largest prehistoric city of Anatolia ( c. 2.5 km2 densely built up): layout to plan with grand administrative and military complexes, later condensing of the existing area; clay brick superstructure of the city wall ( c. 7.5 km long) probably not completed for political reasons; numerous tumuli. New centre of the Phrygian empire - that was restricted because of the Lydian expa…

Melaina Akra

(35 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Μέλαινα Ἄκρα/ Mélaina Akra). Bithynian foothills to the east of the northern end of the Bosporus, modern Kara Burun. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. Melaina Akra (2), RE 15, 387.

Mons Magaba

(83 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] Mountain massif near Ancyra, onto which the Tectosages and Trocmi retreated from the Romans in 189 BC; the Galatae were defeated with their Paphlagonian and Cappadocian allies in the foothills (Liv. 38,24-27); today a lush outcrop (Kale/Doğandere Tepe) of the Elma Dağı-Massif (incorrect [1. 53f.]; reference to the mons Modiacus west of Ancyra at Fest. 11 cannot be correct). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 Mitchell 1. W. Ruge, s.v. M., RE 14, 287  K. Strobel, Die Galater 2, 1999  Belke, 207.

Faustinupolis

(105 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Φαυστινούπολις; Phaustinoúpolis, colonia Faustinopolitanorum). Originally the village of Halala, 24 km south-east of Tyana; the modern Başmakcı. Here died in AD 176  Faustina the Younger [3] (SHA Aur. 26,4; 9), for which M. Aurelius elevated F. to the status of colonia. Attested since 431 as a bishopric. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography M. H. Ballance, Derbe and F., in: AS 14, 1964, 139-145 R. P. Harper, s.v. F., PE, 326 Hild/Restle, 258f. T. Drew-Bear, Inscriptions de Cappadoce, in: J. DesCourtils (…

Mnizus

(47 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Μνίζος/ Mnízos). Way station, later a town, on the road from Nicaea to Ancyra (Cod. Theod. 9,40,16; 9,45,3), 8 km to the west of modern-day Ayaş. It was a suffragan bishopric from AD 451 until sometime in the 12th cent. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 207.

Peium

(84 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Πήιον/ Pḗion, Latin Peium; Πεῶν χωρίον/ Peôn chōríon), Deiotarus' treasure fortress (Str. 12,5,2; Cic. Deiot. 17). Hellenistic and Byzantine castle, built in a meander of the river Siberis (Kirmir Çayi) on a steep-sided rock plateau, modern Tabanoğlu Kalesi. Strong entrenchment fortification, cisterns, traces of a palace and a tunnel stairway in the northern part of the site. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 212f.  S. Mitchell, Blucium and Peium, in: AS 24, 1974, 61-74  K. Strobel, Galatica II, in: Orbis Terrarum 6, 2000

Podanala

(68 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Πωδανάλα/ Pōdanála). Fortified settlement of the northeastern tetrarchy of the Trocmi on the upper city of the Hittite cult city of Zippalanda (Kuşaklı Hüyük) near Sorgun; it was here that Pompeius [I 3] and Licinius [I 26] Lucullus met in 66 BC (Str. 12,5,2). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography K. Strobel, Galatica I, in: Orbis Terrarum 3, 1997, 131-153.

Aspona

(80 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Ἄσπονα, Ἄσπωνα; Áspona, Áspōna). Border town of  Galatia north of the Tuz Gölü, modern Sarıhüyük. Statio on the pilgrim route, in the 4th cent. AD civitas; documented as a suffragan diocese from AD 342/343. Fortified hill with evidence of settlement as early as prehistoric times. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography K. Belke, Galatien und Lykaonien, TIB 4, 1984, 135 S. Mitchell, Regional Epigraphic Catalogues of Asia Minor 2, 1982, 403-405.

Rhebas

(153 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Ῥήβας/ Rhḗbas). [German version] [1] River in Bithynia, present-day Riva Deresi River in Bithynia (Apoll. Rhod. 2,343; 650; Tab. Peut. 9,2 written incorrectly as ad herbas), present-day Riva Deresi; it discharges on the north coast of the Bithynian peninsula east of where the Bosporus flows into the Pontos Euxeinos. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography IK 10,3, 1987, 141 f. [German version] [2] Left-hand tributary of the Lower Sangarius, present-day Gökcesu Left-hand tributary of the Lower Sangarius, which rises on Olympus [13], present-day Gökçesu. Its valle…

Archelais

(102 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Town in south-western  Cappadocia; the modern Aksaray. Founded after 36 BC by the last Cappadocian king  Archelaus [7] in place of the old centre Garsau(i)ra (as κωμόπολις, komópolis: Str. 12,2,6 with 14,2,29). Elevated by the emperor  Claudius to the status of Colonia Claudia Archelais; from the 4th cent. AD governed as a colonia or civitas Colonia. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography D. French, Latin Inscr. from Aksaray (Colonia Archelais in Cappadocia), in: ZPE 27, 1977, 247-249 F. Hild, M. Restle, Kapp…

Mariandyni

(262 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Μαριανδυνοί; Mariandynoí). Originally a Plāïc-speaking (Paphlagonian) population in northern Anatolia, overlayered by groups of Thracian descent. Area of settlement: to the east of the watershed between the lower Sangarius and Hypius [1], to the south of the coastal area Thyni(a)s (up to Kales), to the west of the Caucones in the area of the lower Billaeus and the Paphlagonian area on the middle Ladon, to the north of Abant and Köroğlu Dağları (Str. 8,3,17; 12,3,4). Subjugated by …

Pant(e)ichium

(67 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Παντ(ε)ίχιον; Pant(e)íchion). Harbour town and fortress south-east of Calchedon in the border region of Nicomedeia, the modern Pendik; already inhabited in Early History. According to Procop. Goth. 3,35,4, Belisarius owned a country estate there. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography F.K. Dörner, s.v. P., RE 18, 779f.  R. Janin, Constantinople Byzantine, 21964, 502  Id., Les églises et les monastères des grands centres byzantins, 1975, 8, 52ff., 62.

Proseilemmenitae

(100 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Προσειλημμενῖται; Proseilēmmenîtai). Inhabitants of the territory of Proseilemmene in the frontier region between Lycaonia and Galatia, originally part of Phrygia Megale, between Karaca Dağ, Paşa Dağı and Tuz Gölü (Tatta Limne); assigned in 25/4 BC as a regio attributa ('associated region') to the urban area of Ancyra, in the Antonine period (late 2nd/early 3rd cents. AD) organized into the urban community of Cinna (Ptol. 5,4,10; [1. 56 f., 59 f.], pace [2. 55, 148]). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 K. Strobel, Galatien und seine Grenzregionen, in: E.…

Nazianzus

(71 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Ναζιανζός/ Nazianzós, orig. Nadiandós). Settlement in Cappadocia, later in the province of Cappadocia II (Hierocles, Synekdemos 700,5), modern Bekârlar, 30 km east of Aksaray; from AD 325 it is recorded as a bishopric, in the 11th century a metropolitan seat and in the 14th cent. it is described as deserted. Gregorius [3] was bishop here in 382-3. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 244f.  W. Ruge, s.v. Nazianzos, RE 16, 2099-2101.

Nakida

(61 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Hittite Naḫita). Important pre- and early historical settlement and Byzantine fortified city [1], modern Niğde. After the destruction of Tyana in AD 833 it took on the function of capital of southern Cappadocia. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography F. Prayon, Kleinasien vom 12.-6. Jahrhundert v.Chr. (TAVO Beiheft B 82), s.v. N. Hild/Restle, 243f.  B. Radt, Anatolien, vol. 1, 1993, 140-143.

Arabissus

(68 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity (Ἀραβισ(σ)ός; Arabis(s)ós). Town in  Cappadocia; the modern Afşin (formerly Yarpuz), near the confluence of three tributary sources of the Pyramus (It. Ant. 210,11). At the end of the 4th cent. headquarters of the legio XII Moderatiana. Mentioned from AD 381 as a suffragan bishopric. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography F. Hild, M. Restle, Kappadokien (TIB 2), 1981, 144 f.

Askania Limne

(62 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Ἀσκανία λίμνη; Askanía límnē). Ascanian Lake, also known as Lake  Nicaea in  Bithynia (modern İznik Gölü); the name was applied to the lake and the surrounding region, the western part of which was taken as belonging to Mysia, the eastern one to Phrygia (Str. 12,4,5; Plin. HN 5,40,8). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. A., RE 2, 1610.

Cappadocia, II.

(639 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] Roman province in central and eastern Asia Minor, with Caesarea [3] as its capital. After the death of  Archealus [7] I in AD 17, the kingdom of  Cappadocia was annexed in 18/19 under the command of Q. Veranius, a legate of Germanicus (Tac. Ann. 2,42,4). The province with an auxiliary garrison was under the administration of a procurator (Tac. Ann. 12,49; Cass. Dio 57,17,7); under Cn. Domitius Corbulo (55-61 and 63-65/66) and L. Iunius Caesennius Paetus (61-63), it was united with  Galatia. In 70/71, the Legio XII Fulminata was transferred to Melitene (Joseph BJ 7,1…
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