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Leon

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Λέων; Léōn). Cf. also Leo. Byzantine emperor Leo [4-9]. Sicilian place name L. [13]. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 6th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), grandfather of Cleomenes [3] I (Hdt. 5,39); is said to have been successful in war together with his fellow king Agasicles in the early 6th cent. BC, but to have been defeated by Tegea (Hdt. 1,65). Sparta is said to have already achieved eunomía (‘good order’) before his time [1. 45ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Phlius, 6th cent. BC Tyran…

Melon

(118 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Μέλων; Mélōn). A Theban. Together with Pelopidas and other conspirators, he prepared from Athens for the overthrow of the oligarchy at Thebes in 379 BC. Having secretly returned, they killed the polémarchoi and Leontiades [2], one of the leading figures among the oligarchs (Xen. Hell. 5,4,2-9; Plut. Pelopidas 8-12; Plut. de genio Socratis 576a; 587d; 596d; 597a). They freed the political prisoners and proclaimed freedom, were honoured in the people's assembly and elected as boeotarchs (Plut.…

Pheidon

(487 words)

Author(s): Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φείδων; Pheídōn). [German version] [1] Ph. the Corinthian From Corinth, legislator, early 7th cent. BC According to Aristot. Pol. 1265b 12-16, he was one of the 'oldest legislators' who is said to have been the originator of a law in which the number of houses had to equal the number of citizens; it appears therefore to have served to protect the owners of plots of land and to maintain the balance of land ownership ratios ( klḗros ). Like the similar law of Philolaus [1], the law is probably authentic; it was possibly still in use in the time of the Bacchiadae regime (early 7th cent. BC). Hölkeskamp…

Athenodoros

(368 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Hülser, Karl-Heinz (Constance)
(Ἀθηνόδωρος; Athēnódōros). [German version] [1] Mercenary commander, in Persian service around 360 BC Mercenary commander, from the Athenian cleruchy Imbrus. In Persian service around 360 BC, then in the service of the Thracian king  Berisades, to whom he became related by marriage. In the battle for the rulership in Thrace, A. won for the allied Berisades and  Amadocus the Athenians as symmachoi against  Cersebleptes. Because of this, the Athenian strategos Chares was able to secure the division of the rulership in Thrace as well as the Athenian possessions on th…

Charixenus

(231 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Χαρίξενος; Charíxenos). [German version] [1] Strategos of the Aetolian League in 281/0 and 270/69 BC C. from Trichonium (Aetolia). In 288/7 BC, 281/0 and 270/69 strategos of the Aetolian League (IG IX2 5, 14, 54) [1. 267 note 4]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Strategos of the Aetolian League, 3rd cent. BC Aetolian; son of Cydrion. In 260 BC hipparch (IG IX2 18,18); 255/4, 246/5, 241/0 and 234/3 strategos of the Aetolian League (IG IX2 3 B). In the latter role, in 246/5 he invited Greek cities to celebrate the newly organized festival of the  Sote…

Nicostratus

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Νικόστρατος; Nikóstratos). [German version] [1] Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen [1]. According to  Hom. Il. 3,175 and Hom. Od. 4,12, Menelaus and Helen had only a daughter (Hermione, cf. Eur. Andr. 898; Lycoph. 851), but in another tradition they also had a son (Hes. Fr. 175,2 M.-W.; Soph. El. 539). Later authors tried to resolve this discrepancy by making N. the son of a slave (Paus. 2,18,6). In Amyclae, N. and Megapenthes [2] were portrayed on horseback, as a counterpart to t…

Conon

(985 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κόνων; Kónōn). [German version] [1] Athenian, after 411/10 BC repeatedly stratēgós Athenian, in 413 BC commander in Naupactus, after 411/10 repeatedly stratēgós. C. was bottled up in 406 by the Peloponnesian fleet in the port of Mytilene and lost 30 ships (Xen. Hell. 1,6,14-23; Diod. Sic. 13,77-79). After Athens' victory at the  Arginusae he was freed. Since he did not participate in the battle, he was not deposed and sentenced to death like the other generals (Xen. Hell. 1,6,38-7,1). He escaped the destruction of …

Xenocleides

(307 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ξενοκλείδης/ Xenokleídēs). [German version] [1] Corinthian naval commander, 5th cent. BC Corinthian. One of five naval commanders sent by Corinth against Corcyra in 433 BC (Thuc. 1,46,2). The fleet achieved a partial victory near the Sybota islands (Thuc. 1,47-54; Diod. 12,33,3 f.). On the return voyage X. captured Anactorium on the Gulf of Ambracia and occupied the town with Corinthian settlers (Thuc. 1,55,1). In 426/5 BC X. led 300 hoplites in defence of Ambracia (Thuc. 3,114,4). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. B. Salmon, Wealthy Corinth, 1984, 318 K.-W. Wel…

Iatrocles

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(Ἰατροκλῆς; Iatroklês). [German version] [1] Athenian, oligarch, 4th cent. BC Athenian, fled in 411 BC after the pro-democratic uprising of the Athenian fleet off Samos with the trierarch  Eratosthenes [1] and others, when the fleet was operating in the Hellespont, to Athens, where he supported the oligarchy (Lys. 12,42). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 531050. [German version] [2] Son of Pasiphon, approx. 350 BC Son of Pasiphon, in 348 BC captured by  Philippus II during the conquest of  Olynthus but then released (Aeschin. Leg. 15-16…

Euryptolemus

(129 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Εὐρυπτόλεμος; Euryptólemos). Cousin and close friend of Alcibiades [3] and related to the younger Pericles. In 408 BC, E. and  Diotimus [1] were sworn witnesses to the contract in Chrysopolis between Pharnabazus and Alcibiades and were members of an Athenian delegation to Susa. As a result of a shift in the Persian court in favour of the Spartans, the delegation was detained for quite some time (Xen. Hell. 1,3,12f.; 1,4,1-7). In the Arginusae trial E. argued, first by   paranómōn graphḗ , which he was obliged to withdraw, and then in a publ…

Leogoras

(365 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Λεωγόρας; Leōgóras). [German version] [1] Father of the orator Andocides [1], 5th cent. BC Father of the orator Andocides [1], member of an old Athenian noble family, tracing its roots back to Telemachus and Hermes and linked by marriage to the Alcmaeonids (Hellanicus FGrH 323a F 24a-c; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 109). L. was mocked by Aristophanes [3] because of his debauched and profligate way of life. In 426/5 BC he led a legation to the Macedonian king Perdiccas II (IG I3 61, l. 51; [1. 30; 2. 1f.]). In 415, L. successfully used a paranomon graphe to clear himself fr…

Estimation

(294 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] In many ancient political communities, the right of full citizenship, the active or passive right to vote, the assignment to certain arms of service, and the act of splitting the cost of financial services by the state between the citizens, were all contingent upon economical ability and thereby indirectly dependent upon social status. These rights and duties were assigned on the basis of an estimation. Ancient political theory regarded the requirement of meeting certain qualifica…

Lycon

(669 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Sharples, Robert (London) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Λύκων; Lýkōn). [German version] [1] Athenian, late 5th cent. BC Athenian, supported the rebellion of Pissuthnes against the Great King around 420 BC. Bribed by Tissaphernes, L. fell away from Pissuthnes and received several cities as territory under his rule in recompense (Ctesias FGrH 688 F 15,53). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Prosecutor of Socrates Prosecutor of Socrates (Pl. Ap. 23e; 36a); satirized by comedians (Eupolis fr. 61; 232; Metagenes fr. 10 PCG; schol. Aristoph. Vesp. 1169) because of his poverty, foreign origin, …

Ergocles

(88 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐργοκλῆς; Ergoklês). Athenian strategos. In 404/3 BC, he joined the democrats in Phyle. In 390/89, he operated as a strategos together with Thrasybulus in the Hellespont and on the coast of Asia Minor. After his return, he was indicted for embezzlement, bribery and abuse of authority and sentenced to death; his assets were confiscated (Lys. 28). Since the embezzled money was never found, there were suspicions that Philocrates, trierarch and treasurer under E., had taken possession of this money (Lys. 29). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)

Eikoste

(690 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (εἰκοστή; eikostḗ). Duty or tax at the rate of a twentieth (5%). 1. In Athens, the Peisistratidae presumably were the first to impose tax on agricultural yields in order to finance wars, magnificent buildings, and ceremonial sacrifices, according to Thuc. 6,54,5, at the rate of 5%. In Aristot. Ath. Pol. 16,4; 16,6, tax is called ‘tithe’ (δεκάτη), (cf. Hdt. 1,64,1). 2. In 413/2 BC, the Athenians imposed import and export tax at the rate of 5% on their symmachoi (allies) in the Delian-Athenian League instead of the   phoroi in order to cover the ris…

Banks

(2,042 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Andreau, Jean (Paris)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Banks as institutions whose specific task consists of arranging payment transactions, accepting deposits and granting credits, did not exist in the Ancient Orient. There is evidence of deposit and credit operations in ancient oriental societies of differing quantity and intensity, both in the domain of palace and temple economy and in individual private legal and economic transactions, but they were always subordinate to the respectively dominating redistributive an…

Aeneas

(1,657 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Heckel, Hartwig (Bochum) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] [3] Stratēgos of the Arcadians around 366 BC (Αἰνέας; Ainéas). From Stymphalus. Stratēgos of the Arcadians around 366 BC (Xen. Hell. 7,3,1). Whether identical to  Aeneas [2] Tacticus, cannot be clarified.  Thebae Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography D. Whitehead, Aineias the Tactician, 1990, 10-13 A. Winterling, Polisbegriff und Stasistheorie des Aeneas Tacticus, in: Historia 40, 1991, 191-229, 201. [German version] [1] Myth Mythical figure from Trojan war (Αἰνείας, Αἰνέας [Aineías, Ainéas]; Latin Aeneas). Thraco-Illyrian name [17. 311 f.]. Hecke…

Phormio

(259 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Φορμίων; Phormíōn). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos (middle of the 5th cent. BC) Athenian stratēgós , commanded a fleet against Samos in 440/439 BC (Thuc. 1,117,2). Against the Ambraciotes, who were holding Argos in Amphilochia, he led 30 ships in support of the Amphilochi and the Acarnanes, who settled the city from that time on. The Athenians and the Acarnanes concluded a symmachy (Thuc. 2,68,7f.). In 432, with an Athenian army, P. beseiged Potidaea from the landside (Thuc. 1,6…

Loan

(1,744 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient As a contractual service, in which the recipient of money or other negotiable items undertakes to return them and/or provide a service in recompence, lending is attested in Mesopotamia [4. 189-203] from the middle of the 3rd millennium BC [1. 141-145] into the Hellenistic period [2. 43-45; 3. 119]. As well as private individuals, (representatives of) institutions (temple, palace) are recorded as creditors. The loans involved comprised for the most part silver and ba…

Siteresion

(110 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (σιτηρέσιον/ sitērésion, 'maintenance money'). In Greece from the middle of the 5th cent. BC money was paid out for maintenance to citizens serving as equestrians, foot soldiers or oarsmen on warships. Hence the terms μισθός/ misthós, τροφή/ trophḗ, σῖτος/ sîtos and siteresion were used synonymously in the 5th century BC. From the 4th cent. BC onwards a clearer distinction was made between soldiers' pay and contributions for maintenance (= siteresion) (Xen. An. 6,2,4; Dem. Or. 4,28 f.; 50,53; Aristot. Oec. 1353a 19-23). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1…

Pasion

(382 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Πασίων/ Pasíōn). [German version] [1] Greek mercenary commander (late 5th cent. BC) P. of Megara led a mercenary unit to Cyrus [3] in Sardis (Xen. An. 1,2,3), but later, in Myriandrus and under unexplained circumstances, he broke away from the army of Cyrus, together with the mercenary leader Xenias  (ibid. 1,4,6-9). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Freedman from Athens, 4th cent. BC The example of P. provides a good insight in the business of an Athenian trapezítēs . Originally, P. was the slave of Antisthenes and Archestratus; after his …

Lamachus

(165 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Λάμαχος; Lámachos). Athenian, carried out a successful expedition in c. 436/5 BC against the tyrant of Sinope (Plut. Pericles 20,1). As stratēgós in 424, L. lost ten warships in a storm off Heraclea (Thuc. 4,75,1f.; Diod. Sic. 12,72,4). In early 421, L. was one of the Athenian emissaries who swore to uphold the Peace of Nicias [1] and the Athenian-Spartan symmachía (Thuc. 5,19,2; 24,1). In 416/5, Alcibiades [3], Nicias and L. were elected stratēgoí autokrátores (‘authorized military leaders’) of the Sicilian expedition (Thuc. 6,8,2; And. 1,11; Lys. 13,…

Hieronymus

(2,779 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Et al.
(Ἱερώνυμος; Hierṓnymos). [German version] [1] Athenian, commander of the Persian fleet 395 BC, politician Athenian, one of  Conon's representatives in his command over the Persian fleet in 395 BC (Diod. Sic. 14,81,4), campaigned for more expansive politics in Athens (Aristoph. Eccl. 201; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 73). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 533930. [German version] [2] Statesman in Megalopolis around 350 BC Oecist from Mainalus in Arcadia at the founding of Megalopolis ( Megale Polis) in 370 BC (Paus. 8,27,2), was one of the leading s…

Mnasilochus

(62 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Μνασίλοχος; Mnasílochos). Athenian, in 411 BC árchōn during the oligarchic regime of the 400 ( tetrakósioi ). After two months in office dismissed by the 5000 (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 33,1; IG I3 373,2). Probably identical with the Mnesilochus mentioned by Xenophon (Hell. 2,3,2), one of the 30 tyrants of 404/3. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 10324  Traill, PAA 656955.

Leotrophides

(57 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Λεωτροφίδης; Leōtrophídēs). Athenian stratēgós, who together with Timarchus defeated the Megarans at Mount Cerata on the Attic-Megaran border in 409 BC (Diod. Sic. 13,65,1f.); probably identical with the chorēgós L. mocked for his leanness in Aristophanes (Av. 1406), Theopomp. Com. fr. 25 and Hermippus fr. 36 PCG. Traill, PAA 607065. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)

Agoratus

(121 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀγόρατος; Agóratos). Metic in Piraeus, son of the slave Eumares. In 409 BC, A. was honoured because of his participation in the murder of the oligarch  Phrynichus (GHI2 85; IG I3 102). In 404, he denounced before the council the opponents of the peace treaty with Sparta negotiated by  Theramenes. They were sentenced and executed for treason. Later A. received citizenship. After 400 he was brought before the court by means of   apagoge by a relative of one of the denounced individuals. Lysias wrote his thirteenth speech for the plaintiff. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibl…

Pentekoste

(333 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (πεντηκοστή/ pentēkostḗ, the 'fiftieth') was a duty at the rate of two per cent. There is evidence of pentekostaí in many Greek cities, such as Athens, Epidaurus, Troezen, Cyparissia, Ceos, Delos, Cimolos (SEG 44,710 Z.31), Erythrae, Cnidus, Halicarnassus, in the Hermias region and in the cities of Upper Egypt, as an import and export duty raised ad valorem on all goods. Before ships were loaded or unloaded goods had to be declared to the πεντηκοστολόγοι ( pentēkostológoi). In Athens the tax on foreign trade amounted to one per cent until the Peloponnesia…

Diotimus

(622 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
(Διότιμος; Diótimos). [German version] [1] Strategos in Corcyra 433/2 BC Athenian, son of Strombichides, from Euonymon (his family is known into the 3rd cent.). Strategos in Corcyra in 433/32 BC (Thuc. 1,45,2; IG I3 364,9); 439-32 nauarchos at Neapolis (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 98); he may have led a legation to Susa (Str. 1,3,1). Perhaps identical with D. in Ath. 10,436e. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Fraser/Matthews (1) Davies, 4386. [German version] [2] Athenian strategos c. 390 BC Athenian strategos. Commander of the Athenian mercenary force near Corinth in 390/…

Theogenes

(485 words)

Author(s): Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Θεογένης/ Theogénēs). [German version] [1] Athlete from Thasos, 5th cent. BC Famous fighter from the island of Thasos, Olympic champion in 480 BC (against Euthymus of Locri [1. nos. 191; 214; 222]) in fist-fighting [1. no. 201] and in 476 BC in pankration [1. no. 215]. This constellation of victories was first documented for T. on an inscription in Delphi [2. no. 37] dating from the 2nd cent. BC, which attests that the athlete was adored by his home polis for as long as four generations after his death. Pausanias tells of three victories in Delphi, ten in the Isthmia a…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Callimedon

(176 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Καλλιμέδων; Kallimédōn). Athenian, son of Callicrates, pro-oligarchic politician. He was forced to leave Athens before 324 BC because of his pro-Macedonian position. In Megara he participated in the anti-constitutional activities of the Athenian émigrés, which is why Demosthenes [2] had an   eisangelia issued against him (Din. 1,94). During the  Lamian War C. stayed with  Antipater [1], upon whose orders he attempted to prevent the Peloponnesian states from joining the Hellenic League (Plut. Demosthen…

Chabrias

(366 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Χαβρίας; Chabrías). Important Athenian general and mercenary leader. Taking part in  Thrasybulus' campaigns in Thrace during the Corinthian War, at the beginning of 389 BC he succeeded  Iphicrates as general in the Peloponnese. In 388 he set off for Cyprus with Athenian forces to support King Evagoras against Persia. On the way there, victory against the Spartans on Aegina (Xen. Hell. 5,1,10-13). When the King's Peace (386) made it impossible for him to remain in Cyprus, C. entere…

Peloponnesian War

(1,544 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] A. Definition The term PW is primarily used to describe the military confrontation between Athens and its allies on the one hand (Delian League) and Sparta and its confederates on the other (Peloponnesian League) between 431 and 404 BC. The term PW ( Peloponnēsiakòs pólemos) occurs first in Diodorus Siculus [18] (12,37,2; 13,107,5 etc.); it was already familiar to Cicero (Cic. Rep. 3,44: magnum illud Peloponnesiacum bellum), but probably dates back to Ephorus or a Hellenistic chronicler [3. 60 n. 65; 5. 294f.]. Thucydides speaks of the 'War of t…

Apotimema

(178 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἀποτίμημα; apotímēma). In cases of wardship the archont transferred the orphan's wealth after an evaluation to the guardian or tenant, who provided a collateral-like surety, the apotimema, for it. The procedure secured the ward's direct access to the mortgaged items at a later time and by granting the apotimema permitted the guardian or tenant to free himself from further demands by the ward. Likewise, the husband provided an apotimema for the dowry received in endowments, so that he was freed from the obligation of reversal in case of a marriage…

Phratria

(502 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(φρατρία/ phratría, 'brotherhood'). [German version] A. Origin and definition In older research the Greek phratries were thought to be associations of kin dating from the migration period (Doric migration Colonisation II). According to more recent research they supposedly derive from neighbourly organizations, which first took on increasing significance in the Archaic period (after the 8th cent. BC). Yet the fact that the term phrátēr already no longer means 'natural brother' in the epics of the 8th cent. BC suggests that phratries as fictional associatio…

Macartatus

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μακάρτατος; Makártatos). [German version] [1] Athenian, fell in battle in 458/7 or Athenian, fell in battle in 458/7 or c. 410 BC as a cavalryman against the Lacedaemonians The Athenians M. and Melanopus fell in battle in 458/7 or c. 410 BC as cavalrymen in the battle against the Lacedaemonians and Boeotians in the border territory between Tanagra and Eleon. Pausanias (1,29,6) saw a stele dedicated to the two of them in the Kerameikos. A remnant of the base of this stele appears to have been found (IG I3 1288). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9658 Traill, PAA 631475. …

Monopoly

(579 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] I. Greece Although the terms μονοπωλία/ monopōlía and μονοπώλιον/ monopṓlion are documented only since the late 4th cent. BC (Aristot. Pol. 1259a 21-23; Hyp. fr. 43 Jensen), monopolies existed much earlier. According to Aristotle, the poleis set up monopolies for certain goods, especially in times of financial difficulty; such measures belonged to the art of acquiring ( chrēmatistikḗ ). We know of monopolies on sales and exports: private individuals, cities or rulers controlled the trade in certain goods in order to…

Boeotarchs

(170 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] The most important office in the Boeotian League. The College of Boeotarchs, elected by the 11 districts for one year's service, consisted of 11 Boeotarchs before 386 BC, of seven after 364 and of eight at times in 338. Larger cities nominated two boeotarchs, and Thebes, after the capture of Plataea (427 and 373), four. Their extensive powers included, i.a., probouleutic functions for the League's assembly and services as emissaries, but the most important was military command of …

Euthydemus

(540 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Cassin, Barbara (Paris) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Εὐθύδημος; Euthýdemos). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos 418/7 BC Athenian strategos of 418/17 BC. He took part in the Sicilian campaign, during which in 414/13 both he and Menander became commanders to serve alongside Nicias. They were defeated before  Demosthenes [1] even arrived. They failed in their attempt to force their departure out of Syracuse's great harbour (Thuc. 7,16,1; 69,4; Diod. Sic. 13,13,2-4; Plut. Nicias 20). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography D. Kagan, The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition, 1981. [German version] [2] E. I. Greek ki…

Gryllus

(113 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Γρύλλος; Grýllos). [German version] [1] Father of Xenophon Athenian; father of  Xenophon. Traill, PAA 281935. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Xenophon, 4th cent. BC Son of  Xenophon, born after 399 BC. G. was brought up with his brother Diodorus in Sparta. In 362 both fought in the Athenian army as allies of Sparta; G. died fighting on horseback in a skirmish before the battle of Mantinea and was greatly honoured for this (Xen. Hell. 7,5,15-17; Diog. Laert. 2,52-55; Paus. 8,9,5). In Athens a pai…

Theramenes

(497 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Θηραμένης/ Thēraménēs). Important Athenian politician and commander in the late 5th cent. BC; son of Hagnon [1]; teacher of Isocrates. T. participated in the oligarchic overthrow of Athens in 411, was a member of the council of 400 ( T etrakósioi ) and stratēgós . He opposed efforts to end the war against the Peloponnesian Alliance through granting serious concessions and played an essential role in tearing down the fortification of Eetionia which had been built under the oligarchs and which was suppose…

Phanosthenes

(95 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Φανοσθένης; Phanosthénēs) of Andros. He was named próxenos ( proxenía ) and euergétēs of the Athenians, probably because of his services in introducing shipbuilding timber; he was later granted Athenian citizenship and was selected as stratēgós for 407/6 BC. After the defeat at Notion, Ph. succeeded Conon [1] at the siege of Andros, intercepting two ships from Thurii which were attempting to join the Spartan fleet (Plat. Ion 541d; Xen. Hell. 1,5,18f.; IG I3 182). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography H.A. Reiter, Athen und die Poleis des Delisch-Attisch…

Menexenus

(101 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μενέξενος; Menéxenos). [German version] [1] Son of Socrates A son of Socrates, still a child when his father died (Plat. Apo. 34d; Phd. 116b; Diog. Laert. 2,26). See Socratics. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography A.-H. Chroust, A Comment On Aristotle's On Noble Birth, in: WS 85 N.F. 6, 1972, 19-32 PA 9975 Traill, PAA 644865. [German version] [2] Pupil of Socrates Pupil of the Sophist Ctesippus, a relative, and of Socrates, at whose death he was present (Plat. Lys. 206d; 211c; Plat. Phd. 59b). Plato named his dialogue ‘M.’ after him. See Socratics. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bib…

Meidias

(508 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μειδίας/ Meidías). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue, 420-400 BC Athenian demagogue. Nothing certain is known about his role in politics (Pl. Alc. 1,120a-b). Between 420 and 400 BC he was mocked by comedians for embezzlement of public funds, as a sycophant and braggart, and for his breeding of quails and cockerels (Aristoph. Av. 1297f.; Metagenes fr. 12; Phryn. fr. 4; 43; Pl. fr. 85; 116 PCG). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9714 Traill, PAA 637170. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, c. 400-330 BC Athenian rhetor, son of Cephisodorus of Anagyrus, born c…

Clearchus

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Κλέαρχος; Kléarchos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Rhegion Bronze sculptor from Rhegion. Because of his statue of Zeus Hypatus in Sparta, a   sphyrelaton according to the description, C. was wrongly considered the inventor of bronze statues by Pausanias. According to tradition he was a student of  Dipoenus and Scyllis or of  Daedalus as well as the teacher of  Pythagoras and, therefore, was active in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck No. 332f., 491 P. Romanelli, in: EAA 4, 365f. J. Papadopoulos, Xoana e sphyrelata, 1980, 82 F…

Philocrates

(338 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Φιλοκράτης; Philokrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian who advised the Athenians at the negotiations in 392/1 BC to reject a peace treaty with Sparta (Dem. Or. 23,116f.). As stratēgós, P. in the summer of 390 BC commanded ten ships that were sent to Cyprus to help Evagoras [1] but were captured by the Spartan Nauarch Teleutias (Xen. Hell. 4,8,24). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography P. Funke, Homónoia und Arché, 1980, 95; 144f.; 150. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor and envoy, 4th cent. BC Son of Pythodorus from the de…

Demaenetus

(285 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Δημαίνετος; Dēmaínetos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Asclepius in Elis Epithet of  Asclepius in Elis, from the name of the cult founder (Paus. 6,21,4). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] From Parrhasia, allegedly transformed into a wolf D. from Parrhasia, a town in Arcadia. He is said to have been transformed into a wolf after he ate the flesh of a boy whom the Arcadians had sacrificed to Jupiter Lycaeus. After 10 years he became human again and was victorious in boxing at Olympia (Scopas FGrH 413 F 1; Varro in Aug. Civ. 18,17). In Paus. 6,8,2 he is called Damarchos. Bloch, René (Ber…

Cleophon

(216 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Κλεοφῶν; Kleophôn). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue in the period after 411 BC Athenian demagogue in the period after 411 BC, lyre-maker, apparently not very wealthy (Lys. 19.48). In 410 C. introduced the   diobelía , a maintenance payment to needy citizens ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 28,3). According to Diodorus (13,53,2) he brought about in 410/409, according to [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 34,1 in 406/5, the rejection of peace negotiations with Sparta, though these could have been duplicates of his measures in…

Callixenus

(112 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Καλλίξενος; Kallíxenos). Athenian, successfully pleaded in the Council in 406 BC for a sentencing of the generals because they failed to rescue shipwreck victims after the battle of the Arginusae; his request to have the generals executed when found guilty was submitted to the popular assembly. After  Euryptolemus was forced to drop a suit of unlawfulness ( Paranomon graphe), the generals were sentenced to death. Later when proceedings were initiated against the accusers, C. fled …

Pythodorus

(519 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
(Πυθόδωρος/ Pythódōros). [German version] [1] Athenian, paved the way (in 411BC) for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 Athenian who, according to [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 29,1-2 (cf. Thuc. 8,67,1), in 411 BC made a motion in the public assembly to elect a further 20 'preliminary counselors' ( próbouloi) to draw up proposals for saving the state. He thus paved the way for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 ( tetrakósioi ). Diog. Laert. 9,54 (= Diels/Kranz 80 A 1) names him as the prosecutor of Protagoras [1]. P. may be identical with the …
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