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Vita patrum Iurensium

(131 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] ('Lives of the Jura Fathers'). A Latin biographical series describing the lives of the abbots Romanus, Lupicinus and Eugendus, founders of the monasteries of Condat (= St. Oyend, St. Claude), St. Lupicin and Romainmôtier in Burgundian Jura mountains (Ed.: [1; 2]). They lived at the turn of the 5/6th cent. and were part of the Rhône monasticism influenced by the monastery of Lérins [3]. [1] considered the trilogy to be a 9th cent. forgery; more recent scholarship has argued for a date around 520 [2.53-57]. Hagiography; Vitae Sanctorum Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg) Biblio…

Autobiographie

(2,047 words)

Author(s): Pongratz-Leisten, Beate (Tübingen) | Görgemanns, Herwig (Heidelberg) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[English version] I. Alter Orient Im Alten Orient existiert eine heterogene Gruppe von Texten, denen aufgrund formaler (1. Person Singular) und semantischer Kategorien (Reflektion auf vergangenes Handeln im Hinblick auf eine gegenwärtige oder zukünftige Sinnstiftung) autobiographischer Charakter zuzuschreiben ist. Dazu gehören in Mesopotamien zum einen Texte, die mehr oder weniger fiktiv zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt über einen Ausschnitt des Lebens großer Herrscher der Vergangenheit berichten, so über…

Griechisch

(6,953 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg i. Br.) RWG | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg) RWG
Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg i. Br.) RWG I. Byzantinisches Mittelalter und Neuzeit (RWG) [English version] A. Methodische Vorbemerkungen (RWG) Die Termini “mittel- und ngriech.” sind lediglich als konventionell übernommen; ihre Verwendung in der Lit. beruht auf einer unzulässigen Übertragung westeurop. Einteilungen auf die gänzlich anderen Verhältnisse im byz. Osten [1]. Grundlegend für den folgenden Abriß sind dagegen die Dichotomien “schriftlich” vs. “mündlich” sowie “äußere” vs. “innere” Sprachgeschichte. Währ…

Antonius

(5,913 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
[German version] A. Greek (Ἀντώνιος; Antṓnios). [German version] [1] Thallus Epigrammatic poet, 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC Epigrammatic poet from Miletus (according to [2] he had received Roman citizenship, through the patronage of Antonia Minor) lived in the 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC (in Anth. Pal. 6,235 the birth of a Καῖσαρ [ Kaîsar] is celebrated, who is to be equated with either C. Julius Caesar, the grandson of Augustus, or with Germanicus). His five epigrams, which derive from the ‘Garland’ of Philippus, are certainly conventional in their…

Medieval Latin

(7,973 words)

Author(s): Klopsch, Paul | Laureys, Marc | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
Klopsch, Paul I. Language (CT) [German version] A. Vulgar Latin and Late Latin (CT) After the fall of the Classical world, the Latin language followed paths on two levels into the Middle Ages. The spoken language of ordinary people continued to be passed on from person to person, with regional differences and partly influenced by substrata, as a kind of mother tongue. Its features can be seen from time to time as intentional characterisation in the written language, as in Petronius' novel and, more frequentl…

Eucherius

(333 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Uncle of emperor Theodosius I Flavius E. was an uncle of emperor Theodosius I (Them. Or. 16,203d). He is possibly identical with the comes sacrarum largitionum of AD 377-379 (Cod. Theod. 1,32,3; 10,20,9). In 381 he was consul (Them. ibid.). He was still alive in 395 (Zos. 5,2,3). PLRE 1, 288 E. (2). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Son of Stilicho, about AD 390 Flavius E., the son of  Stilicho and Serena, born AD 389 in Rome. He first lived in Constantinople, then at the court of  Honorius, where he became tribunus et notarius. In 400 he became engaged wi…

Passio

(633 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] (martyrdom account). The oldest surviving Latin example of this extraordinarily fruitful Christian literary genre [3; 5; 6; 7; 8; 11; 12], which developed in the milieu of 'Hellenistic popular literature' [9; 10], is the Passio Sanctorum Scillitanorum, in which, in AD 180, a Christian from Carthage gives an account of the execution of a group of fellow believers from Scili in Numidia [4]. While the oldest form of the Greek acts of the martyrs is the epistle (martyrdom, literature of; also on the theology and historicity of the texts), the passio initially appeared in t…

Eugippius

(161 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] As abbot of Castellum Lucullanum (now San Severino) near Naples, around 511 E. wrote the Commemoratorium vitae S. Severini [1; 3; 4], in which the prophetic appearance of the ascetic Severin († 482) in the Roman Danube provinces is described. Using classical stylistic elements [6. 174-181], E. recounts one exemplum after another; the number of chapters ─ 46 ─ is perhaps intended symbolically. This is supported by the remarkably full presentation of a corresponding exegesis of the name Adam (A=1; Δ=4; A=1; M=40: total 46) in the Excerpta ex operibus S. Augustini [6. 182…

Biography

(3,557 words)

Author(s): Görgemanns, Herwig (Heidelberg) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
I. Greek [German version] A. Definition and prehistory Biography as a literary genre is the account of the life events of an individual human being; it gives voice to the tendency to respect lifetime achievements and personal individuality as a meaningful unity. Biography has existed in this mould in Greek literature since Hellenism; the term for that is bíos (βίος; βιογραφία, biographía is first used in Damascius, Vita Isidori = Phot. Bibl. Cod. 242, § 8, as nomen actionis: ‘biographical writing’, then Phot. Bibl. Cod. 181 for the text itself). The search for its origins leads fur…
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