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Rufius

(105 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. R. Festus Laelius Firmus Senator, son of procurator C.R. Festus Senator, son of the procurator C. R. Festus; the family hailed from Volsinii in Etruria. He is probably mentioned in CIL XV 7525 along with his sons Marcellinus and Proculus, as well as in CIL XI 2698. The family did not rise to great importance until the end of the 3rd cent. AD. The most prominent member was C. Ceionius R. Volusianus, cos. ord. II in AD 314. PIR2 R 157; cf. 156; 159; 161. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Author of a historical brevarium s. Festus [4]

Macedo

(166 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Indebted Roman under Vespasian, 1st cent. AD According to the Digesta (14,6,1), under Vespasian a M. who was being pressured by his creditors is said to have killed his father so that he could settle his debts. A senatus consultum was therefore enacted stating that there was no option - even after the death of the father - for a creditor to bring a suit against sons who are under the authority of their father and have taken up a loan [1.; 2. 443f.]. Naming a senatus consultum after a person affected instead of after the magistrate putting in an application nevert…

Saoterus

(106 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Cubicularius of Commodus, so a slave. When Commodus returned to Rome as in triumph in AD 180, S. stood behind the emperor on the chariot. According to HA Comm. 3,6, he was his lover. For his home town Nicomedia, S. obtained the Senate's permission to build a temple for Commodus and to establish an agon (Cass. Dio 72,12,2). He is supposed to have been hated by the people of Rome because of his influence; that is why he was killed by frumentarii of the praetorian praefects (HA Comm. 4,5). The evidence on his person, however, is probably considerably distorted. Eck, Werner (Cologn…

Septicius

(91 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] C. S. Clarus, equestrian. Plinius [2] the Younger dedicated the first book of his letters (Plin. Ep. 1,1) and Suetonius his book De vita Caesarum (cf. Lydus, Mag. 2,6) to him. C. AD 120-122 praef. praet. of Hadrian beside Marcius [II 14] Turbo. According to an account in Historia Augusta (SHA Hadr. 11,3), he and Suetonius overstepped the boundaries of court etiquette with respect to the emperor's wife Sabina. Dismissed, therefore, from his post, presumably while he and Hadrian were staying in Britain. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Syme, RP 3, 1283-1285.

Iuncus

(83 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Widespread Roman cognomen and family name (‘rush’) [1. 729; 2. 334]. [German version] [1] I., M. Praetor 76 BC Praetor in 76 BC see  Iunius [I 22] I., M. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Walde/Hofmann 1 2 Kajanto, Cognomina. [German version] [2] I. Vergilianus Senator, one of the circle of Messalina and Silius Senator, who was one of the circle of Messalina and Silius and knew of their marriage; executed in AD 48. His name was perhaps Iunius I. Vergilianus, PIR2 J 712. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Got(h)icus

(48 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Cognomen ex virtute given to the victorious general deriving from the Goths; the Roman emperors from Claudius II (AD 268-270) onwards bore it ─ last used by Justinian and Mauricius (without maximus). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography P. Kneißl, Die Siegestitulatur der röm. Kaiser, 1969, passim; 247.

Ceionia

(110 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. Fabia Betrothed to Marcus Aurelius, 2nd cent. AD Daughter of Ceionius [3], sister of L. Verus, betrothed to  Marcus Aurelius. The betrothal was dissolved (SHA Aur. 4,5; 6,2) after the death of Hadrian. She was married to Plautius Quintillus, cos. ord. 159. After the death of Faustina she tried in vain to marry Marcus Aurelius (SHA Aur. 29,10; PIR2 C 612; [1; 2. 246]). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Plautia Wife of Q. Servilius Prudens, 2nd cent. AD Sister of C. [1]; wife of Q. Servilius Pudens, cos. ord. 166 (PIR2 C 614). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography…

Nicanor

(1,649 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Νικάνωρ; Nikánōr). [German version] [1] Military official under Alexander the Great, died 330 BC Second son of Parmenion. Under Alexander [4] the Great he led the hypaspistaí of the hetaîroi in the major battles. During the pursuit of Darius [3], Alexander commanded him to pursue the Persian king with a group of riders who had given up their horses and the Agrianes under Attalus [2] as fast as possible (Arr. Anab. 3,21,7-8). He died soon after (330 BC). His brother Philotas stayed behind with an escort for his funeral. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 554. …

Traulus Montanus

(36 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Sex. T. M. Young Roman equestrian, whom Messalina [2] made her lover for one night. After her death (AD 48), he was executed (Tac. Ann. 11,36,3; Sen. Apocol. 13,4). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Acilius

(1,410 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Gentilicium of a plebeian gens, verifiable from the 3rd cent. BC. The most important branches are the Aviolae (imperial era), Balbi and especially the Glabriones, who are documented from the 3rd cent. BC to the end of the 5th cent. AD [1]. In Rome there was a compitum Acilium, on which the first Greek doctor in Rome was settled in 219 (Plin. HN 29,12 [2. 98]), on the Pincio the horti Aciliorum, in the imperial era the most famous gardens of Rome [2. 195 f.; 3. 488 ff.]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] Soldier in Caesar's tenth legion Brave soldier in Ca…

Voconius

(439 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V. Naso, Q. In 66 BC, V. was the judge in a lawsuit against A. Cluentius [2] Habitus (Cic. Clu. 147 f.), hence presumably an aedile in 67. Before 60, V. was a praetor (Cic. Flac. 50). His relationships to a certain V., who was governor in 49 (Cic. Att. 8,15,3) and to Naso, augur presumably in 45 ( ibid. 12,17) are unclear. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V. Saxa, Q. As people's tribune ( tribunus [7] plebis) in 169 BC, with the support of M. Porcius Cato [1] he had a plebiscitum passed ( lex Voconia ) according to whi…

Rationibus, a

(342 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Head of the central financial administration of the Roman Emperor and his subordinates. In the financial administration of the princeps, at first privately organised and evolving already under Augustus, the entire system of revenues and expenditures was initially managed by a single freedman. His title a rationibus is first attested for the reign of Tiberius; but the freedmen who managed the breviarium totius imperii for Augustus (Suet. Aug. 101,4) were probably already called like this. The functional importance of the department lent consid…

Coiedius Maximus

(50 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Presidential procurator of Mauretania Tingitana under Marcus Aurelius and Verus, no later than the middle of 168; he took part in the conferring of civil rights of citizenship which is described in the tabula Banasitana (AE 1971, 534 = ILMar. 2, 94). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Claudia

(907 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] A daughter of Ap. Claudius Caecus, 3rd cent. BC A daughter of Ap. Claudius Caecus. Her wish, which she loudly expressed in a crowd, that her brother P. Claudius Pulcher ( cos. 249 BC) should live and lose another battle at sea so that the mob would be decreased, was heavily fined (Ateius Capito in Gell. NA 10,6; Liv. per. 19; Suet. Tib. 2,3). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography R. A. Bauman, Women and Politics in Ancient Rome, 1992, 19-20. [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Ap. Claudius Pulcher, wife of Ti. Gracchus Daughter of Ap. Claudius Pul…

Albinius

(163 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentilicium. [German version] [1] see Albanius A. see  Albanius, C. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] L. (1st half 4th cent BC) A., L., at the invasion of the Gauls in 387 BC brought the Vestals safely to Caere (Liv. 5,40,9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] M. (L. ?) consular tribune 379 BC. A., M. (L. ?) consular tribune 379 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [4] Paterculus, L., tribune of the people 494 and 493 BC A. Paterculus, L., one of the first tribunes of the people 494 and 493 BC. He is not named in all sou…

Appius

(457 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Rare Latin family name (cf. [1]) and Latin praenomen (abbreviated Ap., in the Imperial period also App.), whose ancient derivation from Sabinian (Lib. praen. 6) is not undisputed; mainly documented for the patrician families of the Claudii Pulchri, rarer among the Claudii Nerones, etc. First documented name-bearer was Ap. Claudius Sabinus Inregillensis (Attus Clausus), the founder of the gens Claudia in Rome about 500 BC (Liv. 2,16,4). Because of its almost exclusive occurrence among the gens Cl…

Ennius

(2,729 words)

Author(s): Suerbaum, Werner (Munich) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] E., Q. Latin writer of the pre-classical period Latin writer of the pre-classical period. E. (239-169 BC) is the most important and versatile Latin writer (Fronto p. 134,1 H.2) of the pre-classical period. Although ‘a foreigner in Rome’ [21] (sociologically a dependent poet, poeta cliens [33]) and representative of Hellenistic education, he contributed to shaping the Roman national consciousness through sentences such as moribus antiquis res stat Romana virisque (Ann. 500 V.; see Cic. Rep. 5,1). Suerbaum, Werner (Munich) [German version] A. Life Most of the …

Paccius

(264 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] [1] C.P. Africanus Senator Senator. In probably 67 he became a suffect consul. In 70 he was expelled from the Senate for being found guilty of informing on the Scribonii brothers under Nero [1] (Tac. Hist. 4,41,3). But he must have been readmitted soon after, because in 77/8 he served as proconsul of Africa; there are numerous testimonies to his activities there. PIR2 P 14. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Thomasson, Fasti Africani, 44. [German version] [2] P. Antiochus Pharmacologist in Rome, 1st cent. Pharmacologist, active in Rome, who had great therapeutic…

Calpurnius

(5,197 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Fey-Wickert, Beate (Hagen)
Name of a plebeian gens in Rome, probably of Etruscan origin (ThlL, Onom. 101-104) [1. 138]; attested from the 3rd cent. BC. The most important family into the 1st cent. AD was that of the Calpurnii Pisones (I 13ff.). Family connections and the identification of individual members in the Republican period have not been completely clarified. Late Republican pseudo-genealogy declared Calpus, one of the sons of king Numa, the progenitor of the gens (Hor. Ars P. 292; Laus. Pis. 3f.; 14f.; Plut. Numa 21,2 et al.; portraits of Numa on coins of the Calpurnii). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Repu…

Mantennius

(170 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] L. M. Sabinus Cos. suff. around AD 225 Senator. In AD 214 known as m agister tertium of the sodales Augustales Claudiales (CIL XIV 2391). He must therefore already have been a senior member of the sodality. After a suffect consulship he became legate of Moesia inferior, where he is attested from 227 to 229 (AE 1972, 526 = [1. 13]). PIR2 M 172. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 V. Božiloa, J. Kolendo, L. Mrozewicz, Inscriptions latines de Novae, 1992. [German version] [2] L. M. Sabinus Praefect under Commodus, AD 194 Equestrian. Father of M. [1] and M. [3]. Praetor…

Vitorius

(201 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. V. Hosidius Geta Son of V. [2], born before AD 95; recorded from AD 118 among the fratres Arvales. Praefectus urbi feriarum Latinarum causa, 'quaestor Traiani' (CIL VI 370079 = 41116). Praetor before 120 [1. 35, n. 22]; suffect consul under Hadrian (before 139 since he is mentioned in ILS 7190) [2. 53, 379-384]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, Senatoren von Vespasian bis Hadrian, 1970 2 Scheid, Collège. [German version] [2] M. V. Marcellus Senator, from Teate Marrucinorum, born shortly after AD 60. One of his fellow pupils was a C. …

Cocceius

(616 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. Auctus, L. Architect, late 1st cent. BC Freedman of C. Postumius (Pollio). Architect (CIL X 1614), who constructed the road tunnels between Lake Avernus and Cumae and between Puteoli and Naples for M. Vipsanius  Agrippa [1] (Str. 5,5,245). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography H. Benario, C. and Cumae, in: CB 35, 1959, 40-41 D. Kienast, Augustus, 1982, 347 fn. 148, 348 fn. 153. [German version] [2] C.C. Balbus Cos. suff. 39 BC Cos. suff. in 39 BC (InscrIt 13,1, p. 282; 291; 278; 135; 506; MRR 2, 386). As a supporter of M.  Antonius he was …

Pontius

(1,397 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
Oscan praenomen and Oscan/Lat. gentilic. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] Pontius, Gavius Samnite general, delivered Rome its defeat 321 BC at Caudium Samnite general who in 321 BC famously defeated the Romans at Caudium and sent them 'under the yoke' (Liv. 9,2,6-6,4). The fact that the Samnite leader in the Social War (Social Wars [3]), P. [I 4], had the same name is no proof that P.' name entered the tradition only later. The annalistic tradition (in Liv. 9, 15,8), however, of P.'…

Patrobius

(53 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] A rich freedman of Nero who enjoyed the latter's confidence. In AD 66, P. organised the gladiatorial games in Puteoli in honour of the Armenian king Tiridates [5]. Their lavishness surpassed everything that the people were used to. Galba [2] had him executed. PIR2 P 161. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Annia

(257 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Wife of L. Cornelius Cinna (1st half of 1st cent. BC) Wife of L. Cornelius Cinna († 84), then of M. Pupius Piso Frugi, cos. 61 BC (Vell. Pat. 2,41,2). Perhaps sister of A. [I 12] and daughter of C.  Annius [I 15] Rufus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A. Aurelia Galeria Lucilla see Lucilla Aug. Spouse of L. Verus  Lucilla Aug. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2a] A. Fundania Faustina daughter of M. Annius [II 9] Libo, married to T. Pomponius Proculus Vitrasius [4] Pollio; executed under Commodus (AD 180-192, HA Comm. 7,7). PIR2 A 713. Eck, Werner…

Murena

(128 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman third name or nickname (‘Moray’) in the Licinii family (Licinius [I 32-35]) which passed by adoption from there to A. Terentius Varro M. and his son of the same name ( cos. 23 BC). It was adopted by more families in the Imperial era. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] People's tribune in 97 AD The tribunus plebis, who in AD 97 made the right of speech possible for Fabricius [II 2] Veiento in a dispute in the Senate (Plin. Ep. 9,13,19); probably he and Q. Roscius Coelius Murena ... Pompeius Falco are one and the same person. PIR2 M 746. It is, however, surprising why Pli…

Valerius

(11,988 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, which was said to have immigrated to Rome under King T. Tatius with V. [I 10] (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,46). The name, derived from the old personal name Valesus/ Valerus, was originally Valesios (cf. V. [I 7]; CIL XII p. 298g: Valesies; Fest. 22; Varro, Rerum divinarum fr. 66 Cardauns [4; 5]); the censor App. Claudius [I 2] introduced the new spelling in 312 BC (cf. Dig. 1,2, 2,36). Because in Antiquity the name was derived (etymologically correctly) from valere, 'to be strong', it was considered to be a good omen ( boni ominis nomen, Cic. Div. 1,102; Cic. Sca…

Political administration

(4,328 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] I. General The states of antiquity had no executive PA independent of government and legislature in the sense of the modern separation of powers. The triple division of constitutions, indicated in Aristot. Pol. 1297b 35-1301a 15 ( tría mória, 1297b 37), into a decision-making, legislating organ ( tò bouleuómenon), an executive element ('on the offices': tò perì tàs archás) and judicature ( tò dikázon) owes more to the schematically working mind of the author than to a political concept as such, especially since the fields defined show conside…

Rubrius

(561 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Common nomen gentile in the late Republic and early Principate; its bearers are generally of little political importance (Schulze, 221; 462). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] R., C. (?) People's tribune, 122 BC As people's tribune in 122 BC, he laid down a law concerning the foundation of the colony of Carthage by C. Sempronius Gracchus (Plut. C. Gracchus 10,2; mentioned as lex Rubria CIL I2 585, ch. 59; perhaps also mentioned in Sherk 16, l. 12). MRR 1,517; 3,182. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] R. Propraetor of Macedonia i…

Lysanias

(197 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Λυσανίας; Lysanías). [German version] [1] Tetrarch of Abilene, 1st half of the 1st cent. AD Tetrarch of Abilene who was introduced by the evangelist Luke (Lc 3:1) for the purpose of synchronization, in the 15th year of the emperor Tiberius = October 27 - September AD 28. He must have died before 37, since Caligula gave his territory to Herodes [8] Agrippa I at that time. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography L. Boffo, Iscrizioni Greche e Latine per lo studio della Bibbia, 1994, 171ff. PIR2 L 467. [German version] [2] Greek Grammarian, 3rd cent. BC Greek grammarian from Cyrene who lived in …

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Marcus

(4,055 words)

Author(s): Wick, Peter (Basle) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Μάρκος; Márkos). I. Greek [German version] [I 1] The Evangelist, [1] (Lat. Marcus). The author of the second Gospel (Mk) could be a missionary (Iohannes) M. who is often mentioned in the NT especially in close association with Paulus (Acts 12:12:25; Phm 24 among others) (for example, for the first time Papias around AD 130, see Euseb. Hist. eccl. 3,39,15). The fact that evidence of a closeness to Paul's theology can barely be found [3] is an argument against this identification, while the straightforwardn…

Papius

(506 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic family name, most common among the Samnites, also encountered as an Oscan praenomen. The author of the lex Papia Poppaea in AD 9 was P. [II 1]. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P. People's tribune c. 80 BC People's tribune, probably before 80 BC and therefore not identical with P. [I 2]; author of a lex Papia, stipulating the supplementation of the number of Vestal virgins by means of election by lot (Gell. NA 1,12,10-12). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] P., C. People's tribune in 65 BC, author of a lex Papia People's tribune in 65 BC, author of a lex Papia

Tusidius Campester

(98 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] L. (?) T. Campester. Roman senator; suffect consul under Antoninus [1] Pius in the September/October of  AD 142 together with Q. Cornelius [II 54] Senecio Annianus (see also RMD 106, fr. 37 of the Fasti Ostienses = FO2, fr. S and a new fragment of a diploma in [1]). He is without doubt identical to L. Tusidius Campester (CIL XI 5632 = ILS 2735), the son of the procurator M. Maenius [II 1] Agrippa, whose career was in the time of Hadrian. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, P. Weiß, T. C., in: ZPE 134, 2001, 251-260.

Titius

(1,112 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name, derived from the praenomen Titus II., recorded only in the 1st cent. BC; the bearers of the name are usually not related to each other. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] T., C. Equestrian, orator and poet, 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC Roman equestrian of the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC, orator (Cic. Brut. 167) and poet (Fronto p. 15,13 ff. v.d. Hout). Although T. lacked theoretical education and frequent practice of delivering speeches, his own speeches distinguished themselves by their…

Cosconius

(57 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [II 0] C. Celsus Presiding procurator in Raetia until AD 139 when he was replaced by Sempronius Liberalis [1]; his name should probably also be added to RMD II 94 = AE 1984,706. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 K. Dietz, Ein neues Militärdiplom aus Alteglofsheim, Lkr. Regensburg, in: Beiträge zur Arch. in der Oberpfalz 3, 1999, 225-256.

Tattius

(48 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] C. T. Maximus. Eques. Tribune of the equites singulares in Rome, attested 142-145 AD. Recorded from 156 until 158 as praefectus [16] vigilum; in 158 he became praefectus praetorio succeeding Gavius [II 6] Maximus until his death in 160. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography R. Sablayrolles, Libertinus miles, 1996, 487 f.

Lucretius

(3,448 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Italian surname (on its Etruscan connection cf. [1. 182f.]). In the 5th and 4th cents. BC we encounter the patrician family of the Lucretii Tricipitini (among others with the rare praenomen Hostus) which later died out; from the 3rd cent. BC onwards several plebeian families are known (Gallus, Ofella, Trio, Vespillo). The most important bearers of the name are Lucretia [2] from early Roman history and the poet L. [III 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L. Prosecutor of M. Livius Drusus [I 5] Claudianus In 54 BC he prosecuted M. Livius Drusus …

Otacilius

(584 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Originally an Oscan nomen gentile. The family belonged to the urban nobility of Benventum; the sources show it gaining kinship with one of the leading Roman noble families through the marriage, probably c. 300 BC, of one of its daughters, Otacilia, to a relative of the gens Fabia (Fabius) (Liber de praenominibus 6; Fest. 174 L). This no doubt contributed to the rapid rise of family members O. [I 2] and O. [I 3] to the consulship. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] O. Crassus Prefect of Pompeius at Lissus, 48 BC Prefect of Cn. Pompeius at Lissus in 4…

Publicius

(869 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(also Poblicius, Poplicius, Populicius). Name of a Roman plebeian family, known from the 3rd cent. BC onwards, but not politically significant. During the Late Republic the name was often assumed by public slaves ( servi publici) after manumission as a token of their former status. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Q. Praetor between 69 and 66 BC; after that, presumably governor in Asia Praetor between 69 and 66 BC; after that, presumably governor of the province of Asia (Cic. Clu. 126; Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 1,2,14?; MRR 2,143; 150). Bartels, Jens (Bon…

Epponina

(58 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Wife of the Lingonian Iulius Sabinus, whom, following his participation in the Gallic uprising against Rome in AD 69/70, she kept hidden in a cave for nine years, during which time she bore him two sons. Following their discovery, Vespasian had her and Sabinus executed in AD 79. PIR2 E 81. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Mussius

(158 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] L. Mussius Aemilianus, rival emperor AD 261/2. He was of equestrian rank and his career is known partly from CIL XIV 170 = ILS 1433. After the quattuor militiae he became praefectus vehiculorum in the three Gallic provinces, procurator in Alexandria [1] and procurator of the two ports in Ostia (documented in AD 247). From 257-259 he held office in Egypt in place of the prefect of the province; at the same time correctores were operating there. From 259, M. was himself then praefectus Aegypti until 261. Since 257 he had been taking brutal action against Dionysius …

Montanus

(306 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
Roman cognomen, probably originally referring to an origin ‘in the mountains’; in the Republican period it was found in the family of the Tarpeii, in the Imperial period also among the Iulii and Venuleii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] One of the proceres of Domitian One of the proceres (‘leading men’), whom Domitianus [1], according to Juvenal (4,107; 131f.), gathered at his farm in the Alban Hills. He was certainly a senator; as a number of senators of this period bore the cognomen M., identification is uncertain, but he is most likely to have been T. Iunius M., cos. suff…

Rufrius

(270 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] (P.?) R. Crispinus Praetorian prefect, AD 47-51 Roman equestrian, of whose activities prior to AD 47 nothing is known. At that date, emperor Claudius [III 1] made him Praetorian prefect, possibly prompted by Messalina [2]. As a reward for his commitment to Claudius, he was granted the rank of a praetor and 1.5 million HS by the Senate. When R. was dismissed as Praetorian prefect in 51 at the urging of Agrippina, he additionally received the insignia of a consul. Married to Poppaea [2]…

Mucius

(2,116 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name of a Roman gens (in inscriptions also Muucius, CIL I2, 584, Greek Μούκιος/ Moúkios). Tradition tells us of the legendary C.M. [I 2] Cordus Scaevola; the great age of the family is perhaps demonstrated by the name Mucia Prata of a place to the east of the Tiber [1]. In the historical period (from the 3rd century BC) the family was plebeian and provided a series of significant lawyers (M. [I 5; I 8-9]). One of M. [I 4]'s sons was adopted by a P. Licinius Crassus and as P. Licinius [I 19] Crassus Dives Mucianus founded the reputation of this branch of the family of Licinii Crassi. I. Republican …

Pedanius

(1,688 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Pedanius Dioscorides Author on medicines, 1st cent. AD (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης; Pedánios Dioskourídēs). [German version] I. Life The author of the treatise Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς/ Perì hýlēs iatrikês ( De materia medica, 'On Materia Medica') hailed from Anazarbus (Cilicia) and dates to the 1st. cent. AD: in his preface (§ 4), he refers to a certain Laikanios Bassos, whom he describes as krátistos (‘the highest’), now assumed to be C. Laecanius Bassus, senator and consul of AD 64. Pliny makes no reference to this work in his Naturalis historia (completed in AD 77 acc…

Munatius

(2,051 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne)
[German version] A. (Roman) Name of a Roman plebeian family, of which the branch of the Planci acquired political significance in the 1st century BC. Its most prominent member is M. [I 4], cos. in 42 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] M. Flaccus, L. Took part in an attempt on the life of Cassius Longinus in 48 BC From Hispania Baetica; he escaped after a failed attempt on the life of the Q. Cassius [I 16] Longinus, a follower of Caesar's, in Corduba in 48 BC (Bell. Alex. 52,3f.). In 46/5 as a follower of the younger…

Corrector (Italiae)

(225 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] At the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD there is evidence for the senator C. Octavius Appius  Suetrius Sabinus as corrector Italiae ( CI) while iuridiciiuridicus ) still held office simultaneously: CIL X 5178 and 5398 = ILS 1159 (under Caracalla); possibly T. Pomponius [II 5] Bassus was also CI: CIL VI 3836 = 31747 = 41237 (probably in 268/9). [3. 221 ff.]. So they had not replaced the iuridici as occurred from the late 3rd cent. These correctores were special authorized representatives, as the description in CIL X 5398 = ILS 1159 for Octavius Appius Sue…

Eprius

(244 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] T. Clodius E. Marcellus. Descendant of a socially unimportant family from Capua (where the province of Cyprus later had a monument erected in his honour, ILS 992); homo novus. He probably entered the Senate under Claudius, and became praetor in AD 48. After commanding a legion, he was posted to Lycia as praetorian governor ( c. 53-56); he was charged with extortion by the province, but acquitted. Under Nero, he became proconsul of Cyprus (SEG 18, 587 [1]), and cos. suff. in 62 [2]. He excelled as an orator, and under Nero publicly accused several senators, a…

Pollenius

(343 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(also Pollienus). [German version] [1] Tib. P. Armenius Peregrinus Consul ord. AD 244 Cos. ord. in AD 244. He may have been both praetorian proconsul of Lycia-Pamphylia as well as proconsul of Asia after the consulate. The genealogical relationships are not completely clear; probably the adopted son of P. [2]. PIR2 P 536. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] P. Auspex Consul suff., XV sacris faciundis AD 204 Cos. suff. Consular legate of Dalmatia, judge commissioned by the emperor, praefectus alimentorum viae Appiae et Flaminiae ter, proconsul of Africa. It is uncertain wh…

Laberius

(821 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian nomen gentile of Etruscan origin, more frequent references only towards the end of the Republic. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L. Military tribune 258 BC Military tribune during the First Punic War, in 258 BC he secured the retreat of consul A. Atilius [I 14] Calatinus (Claudius Quadrigarius fr. 42 HRR) near Camarina. All 400 legionaries of L. were killed, he himself survived badly wounded, but nevertheless was celebrated as ‘The Leonidas of Rome’ (Gell. NA 3,7,21). Other war heroes mentioned are: Q.…

Sergius

(1,659 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family. The tribus Sergia was named after it. The family is attested to have attained consulship in the 5th cent. BC (S. [I 5]) but did not achieve lasting importance in the historical period. The attempt of its best-known member, L.S. Catilina, to attain the consulship once more failed with the Catilinarian Conspiracy. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] S., M. The brother of L.S. Catilina (?) According to Plutarch (Sulla 32,3; Cicero 10,3), the brother of L.S. Catilina, killed by him in 81 and posthumously put on the proscriptions…

Lucceius

(615 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian family name, expanded from Lucius. Many bearers of the name are known [1. 359; 426], among them also prominent figures from the 1st cent. BC onwards. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., Cn. Visited M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus often in Puteoli 44 BC Visited M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus often in Puteoli during the summer of 44 BC (Cic. Att. 16,5,3); probably came from an aristocratic family in Cumae (CIL X 3685-3690). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L., L. Senator with business interests, intimate of Pompey Senator with business interests in Italy and Cilicia (Cic…

Passenianus

(66 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Senatorial consular governor of the province of Syria Palaestina under the Emperor Probus [1] (cf. [1. no. 13]); the nomen gentile Clod(ius) supposedly read by [2. 192 ff.] = AE 1998, 1440 cannot be confirmed on the stone. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 C. M. Lehmann, K. G. Holum, The Greek and Latin Inscriptions of Caesarea Maritima, 2000 2 F. Chausson, Trois Clodii sénatoriaux, in: Cahiers du Centre Gustave-Glotz 9, 1998, 177-213.

Lucilius

(2,458 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Christes, Johannes (Berlin) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, derived from the first name Lucius [II], widespread from the 2nd cent. BC onwards. The satirical poet L. is the best-known of them. [I 6]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A friend of M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, who wanted to protect the latter in 42 BC at Philippi by pretending to be him (App. B Civ. 4,542-545). After that he followed M. Antonius [I 9] with similar loyalty until they both died in the year 30. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L., Sex. People's tribune 87 BC, thrown from the Tarpeian rock beca…

Iavolenus

(302 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] C.I. Calvinus Geminius Kapito Cornelius Pollio Squilla Q. Vulkacius Scuppidius Verus Senator under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, cos. suff. Senator, who had a prolonged praetorian career under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, ending as governor in Lusitania, proconsul in Baetica and consul suffectus. ILS 1060; PIR2 J 13. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Octavius Tidius Tossianus L.I. Priscus Roman jurist, 2nd cent. AD Jurist, successor of Caelius Sabinus ( Arulenus [1]) and predecessor of  Fulvius [II 2] Aburnius Valens as head of th…

Egnatius

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, maybe originally Samnitic (cf. Schulze, 187f.), epigraphically also attested from central Italy. Name bearers in Rome are known from the 2nd cent. BC onwards. Egnat(i)us is uniquely also transmitted as a praenomen (Val. Max. 6,3,9. Plin. HN 14,89; [1]). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] E., Gellius Leader of the Samnites in the 3rd Samnite War from 296 BC on Leader of the Samnites in the 3rd Samnite War, who brought about a coalition between the Samnites, Etruscans, Umbrians and Celts against Rome in 296. Their united army was de…

Marcellus

(1,746 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκέλλος; Markéllos). [German version] [I 1] From Pergamum, orator, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Rhetor from Pergamum known solely from a brief reference in the Suda; he is said to have written a book (or several books) entitled Ἀδριανὸς ἢ περὶ βασιλείας/ Adrianòs ḕ perì basileías (‘Hadrian, or On Monarchy’). He would thus have lived in the first half of the 2nd cent.; whether Dio's [I 3] speeches perì basileías, addressed to Trajan, served as a model is uncertain. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] [I 2] From Side, physician and poet, 2nd cent. AD M. from …

Nonius

(2,494 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
N. (also Nonnius, Nunnius), Italic nomen gentile derived from the numeral praenomen Nonus (evidence: [3. 229; 424]). Several families are attested since the 1st cent. BC, among which the - probably Picene [1. 925] - Nonii Asprenates stand out. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] N. Asprenas, L. Consul suff. in 36 BC Follower of Caesar during the Civil War, propraetor in Gaul before late 49 BC. (ILS 884; [1. 138-142]), proconsul in Africa in 46 (Bell. Afr. 80,4) and cavalry commander in Spain in 45 (Bell. Hisp. 10,2). In 44 N. was people'…

Cos(s)inius

(244 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic proper name, attested with and without doubling of the s (Schulze, 159; ThlL, Onom. 2.667f.). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., L. Praetor 73 BC, fell in battle against Spartacus Praetor (?) in 73 BC, fell in battle against Spartacus (Sall. Hist. 3,94; Plut. Crassus 9,4f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography F. Ryan, The Praetorship of Varinius, Cossinius and Glaber, in: Klio 78, 1996, 376. [German version] [I 2] C., L. Dialogue partner in Varro and Cicero Speaks as dialogue partner in Varro (Rust. 2) on cattle breeding, probably identical to a…

Plotius

(1,222 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Probably originally the vulgar Latin form of the Roman proper name Plautius, an independent nomen gentile at the latest from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P. Gallus, L. Lat. rhetoric teacher, 1st cent. BC The first teacher of Latin rhetoric attested for Rome at the beginning of the 1st cent. BC who held his classes in Latin and on Roman matters and was very popular (cf. Cic. in Suet. Gram. 26). An edict of the censors of 92 BC, especially Cicero's teacher Licinius [I 10]…

Vespasia Polla

(57 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Daughter of Vespasius Pollio from Nursia. Married to Flavius [II 39] Sabinus, the father of her three children, including T. Flavius [II 40] Sabinus and the later emperor Vespasian (Vespasianus, with stemma). Since her brother had been a senator, she also moved her sons to this career (Suet. Vesp. 1,3; 2,2). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Baebia

(44 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] B. Galla, wife of procurator Q. Licinius Silvanus Granianus, flaminica in Hispania Tarraconensis (AE 1929, 232 = RIT 321); mother of a consular by the same name who served in the year 106 (see PIR2 L 247). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Anicetus

(172 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] (Domitius?) A. Freedman of Nero Freedman of Nero (or Agrippina?) and his tutor, who did not stand in Agrippina's favour (Tac. Ann. 14,3,3; Cass. Dio 62,13,2). As praefect of the fleet of Misenum, he tried in 59 at Nero's command to murder Agrippina during a staged shipwreck; after his efforts failed, he had her killed by the soldiers in his fleet (Tac. Ann. 14,7,5; 8,2-5; Cass. Dio 62,13,2-5). At Nero's prompting, he admitted committing adultery with Octavia; therefore he was formal…

Mummius

(1,428 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family of little political significance except for L. M. [I 3], the destroyer of Corinth. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Author of Atellan farces, propably Augustan According to Pomponius Bononiensis and Novius [I 1], who presumably lived about 90 BC, M. revived the atellan farces, which had laid dormant for some time (Macrob. Sat. 1,10,3). His Old Latin metre (use of iambic shortening) and language (abl. testu) suggest that he probably did not write later than the Augustan period, during which other …

Pegasus

(517 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
(Πήγασος/ Pḗgasos, Lat. Pegasus). [German version] [1] A magical winged horse A magical winged horse, associated with the Corinthian hero Bellerophon. When Perseus [1] cuts off the head of Medusa, P. and Chrysaor [4] spring from her carcass (Hes. Theog. 280f.). P.'s father is Poseidon (Hes. Theog. 276). According to Hesiod, Poseidon sends P. to Bellerophon (Hes. fr. 43a,82ff. M.-W.), while according to others the latter receives from Athena a golden bridle that possesses the necessary magical power - only …

Demostratus

(143 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Δημόστρατος; Dēmóstratos). [German version] [1] Athenian, demagogue, 415 BC Athenian, deme uncertain, from the clan of the  Buzygae (Aristoph. Lys. 397 with schol.; Aristid. 3,51). ‘Demagogue’ (Plut. Nic. 12,6) who in 415 BC proposed that the strategoi of the Sicilian expedition be given full powers as   autokrátores (Plut. Alc. 18,3; Aristoph. Lys. 391; unnamed in Thuc. 6,25,1) and also that Zacynthian hoplites be recruited (Aristoph. Lys. 393 with schol.). Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Traill, PAA 319245; Develin, 149; Davies, 3276(B)(4). [German version] [2] D.…

Helvius

(995 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Wiseman, T. P. (Exeter) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Roman proper name, possibly derived from the first name Helvus. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] H., C. Praetor in 198 BC in Gallia Cisalpina In 199 BC plebeian aedile, in 198 praetor in Gallia Cisalpina (Liv. 32,7,13), in 189 legate of Cn.  Manlius Vulso in the campaign against the Galatians of Asia Minor (Pol. 21,34,2-4; Liv. 38,14,4f. etc.). MRR 1,327; 330; 364. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] H., M. Praetor in 197 BC in Hispania Citerior In 198 plebeian aedile, in 197 praetor in Hispania citerior. Kept there until 195 because of an illne…

Velius

(546 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] [1] V. Cerialis Amicus of Pliny the Younger (Plin. Ep. 4,21). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] D. V. Fidus Senatorial cos. suff. in November/December AD 148, together with M. Calpurnius [II 16] Longus (AE 1996, 1384 = [1]); governor of the province of Syria Palaestina in 150 (PSI IX 1026 = [2]). Member of the Pontifices in 155 (CIL VI 2120). IGLS VI 2777 is probably his burial inscription [3]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 J. D'Arms, Memory, Money, and Status at Misenum: Three New Inscriptions from the Collegium of the Augustales, in: JRS 90, 2000, 126-144 2…

Volusius

(944 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens name from Etruria, whose bearers first appear in the 1st cent. BC. With V. [II 2] Saturninus the family was ennobled under the emperor Augustus and in the 1st cent. AD was able to amass considerable wealth (large burial site on the via Appia: CIL VI 7281-7393). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] Haruspex (Haruspices) in the retinue of C. Verres 73-71 BC, several times appointed recuperator in - according to Cicero (Verr. 2,2,75; 2,3,28; 54; 137) - unfair lawsuits. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V., Cn. Travelled with C. Pompt…

Faustina

(799 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Annia Galeria Aurelia F. Daughter of Marcus Arelius, born after AD 151 Daughter of Marcus Aurelius and F. [3]. Born probably AD 151 [1. 108, 247; 2. 161], married to Cn. Claudius [II 62] Severus, cos. II 173. Her son was Ti. Claudius [II 65] Severus Proculus, cos. ord. 200. PIR2 C 1028. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 21988 2 W. Ameling, Die Kinder des Marc Aurel..., in: ZPE 90, 1992, 147-166. [German version] [2] Annia Galeria F. Wife of Antoninus Pius Wife of Emperor  Antoninus [1] Pius. Daughter of  Annius [II 15] Verus, cos. III A…

Cluvius

(336 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic family name (Schulze, 483), attested in Campania from the 3rd cent., in Rome for plebeians from the 2nd cent. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., C. Praetor c. 104 BC Praetor and probably proconsul of Macedonia or Asia around 104 BC (MRR 1,560). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] C. (Clovius), C. Mint master 45 BC Mint master in 45 BC (RRC 476) and at the same time Caesar's prefect, probably responsible for land allotments in Gallia Cisalpina (Cic. Fam. 13,7; MRR 2,313); further identification, especially with the C.C. mentioned in the so-called

Blaesus

(87 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
Common cognomen (‘the lisper’), e.g. in the gens Gellia, Naevia, Iunia, Pedia, Sallustia, Sentia, Sempronia. [German version] [1] Freund of Atedius Melior, Senator, died 90 AD Friend of Atedius Melior, probably a senator; died before AD 90 (Stat. 2,1,189ff.). A link with P. Sallustius Lucullus remains uncertain, cf. [1. 12f., 334ff.]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Scheid, Collège. [German version] [2] Roman jurist Jurist, probably a student with  Labeo of Trebatius (cf. Dig. 33,2,31). Identification with Q. Iunius B. (cos. suff. AD 10) is questionable. Eder, Walter (Ber…

Fronto

(1,010 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman cognomen (‘wide-browed’), first attested in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Rich patron of Martial A rich patron of Martial (1,55,2). He could be identical with Ti. Catius Caesius F., cos. suff. in AD 96. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Praetorian governor of Galatia under Tiberius Praetorian governor of Galatia under Tiberius, perhaps AD 27-31. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography S. Mitchell, in: Chiron 16, 1986, 23ff. PIR2 F 485). [German version] [3] [...]us F. Cos. suff. AD 165 Cos. suff. in AD 165, (Vidman, FO2 52; there a…

Eggius

(198 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] L. Eggius Praef. castrorum of Varus in Germania praef. castrorum of Varus in Germania (Vell. Pat. 2,119,4). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C.E. Ambibulus Cos. 126 AD Identical with [C. Eggius] Ambibulus Pom[ponius Lon]ginus Cassianus L. Maecius Pos[tumus] of CIL IX 1123. His career began as a senator's son under Trajan, who admitted him among the patricians, and in 126 he became an ordinary consul. Like all other senatorial Eggii, he was from Aeclanum. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography G. Camodeca, in: EOS 2, 132ff. PIR2 E 5, 6. [German version] [3] C.E…

Novius

(803 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Oscan praenomen, shortened to No., attested for N. Calavius [2], the maker of the Ficoronian cista Novios Plautios (ILS 8562), and in other inscriptions. Probably a particularly frequent gentilicium from the 3rd cent. BC onwards in Campania and spreading from there into the eastern Mediterranean. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] Representative of the literary Atellana, early 1st cent. BC As a representative of the literary atellana, N. appears to have been at work ahead of Pomponius (leading representative of the genr…

Fufius

(762 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a plebeian family [1], perhaps from Cales, politically active from the 3rd cent. BC. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] People's tribune in the mid-2nd cent. BC People's tribune (?) in the mid-2nd cent. BC, otherwise unknown author of a lex Fufia on the fixing of permissible days for public assemblies (usually mentioned together with the lex Aelia,  Aelius [I 1]). MRR 1,452f.; 3,3f. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] F., L. Rom. orator in the 1st cent. BC Known as an orator in the 90s of the 1st cent. BC. Around 97 his speech in the prosecu…

Proculus

(644 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Et al.
Roman praenomen ( P. Iulius, a contemporary of Romulus [1]), and secondarily a cognomen. Depending on the form, a diminutive (older * prokelo-) of the stem * proko- (~ classical procus 'wooer, suitor'), it originally perhaps meant 'the one who demands or claims (the inheritance?)'. Proca (King of Alba Longa) can also be regarded as etymologically connected. The praenomen, which had already become rare at an early time, survived in derivatives, the gentilician names Procilius and Proculeius. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Roman jurist, 1st cent. The jurist fro…

Rutilius

(2,145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Et al.
Name of a widely-branched Roman plebeian family who became well known from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC on, but only achieved the consulate for the first time at the end of the cent. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] R. Lupus, P. Consul in 90 BC Praetor no later than 93 BC; consul in 90. During the Social War [3], he received the command of the northern army; against the advice of his legate C. Marius [I 1], he was lured into an ambush by the Marsi and was killed in the valley of the Tolnus (modern Turano; Liv. Per. 73; App. B Civ. 1,191-194; Oros. 5,18,11 f.). MRR 2,25. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig…

Vinius

(342 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(also Vinnius). Roman gentile , recorded from the 1st cent. BC onwards (Schulze, 380; 425). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V. (Rufus?), T. was proscribed in 43 BC, but was rescued by his wife Tanusia and his freed slave V. [I 2] and then pardoned (App. B Civ. 4,187; Cass. Dio 47,7,4 f.; Suet. Augustus 27,2). He is presumably the grandfather of T. V. [II 1] (Tac. Hist. 1,48,2: incorrectly maternus avus), who attained a praetorship. V. may also be identical to the VIIIvir (Octoviri) T. V. Rufus from Amiternum, which is presumably where the family was then from (ILS 3701). Barte…

Fannius

(762 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian nomen (Schulze 266; 424), attested historically from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] F.M. f., C. Rom. senator and historian, partaker in the storming of Carthage Roman senator and historian (in Cic. Brut. 99 falsely differentiated from a relative). F. distinguished himself in 146 BC with Ti. Gracchus at the storming of Carthage (Plut. Gracchi 4,6), fought in 141 as tribunus militum in Spain (App. Ib. 287), was the son-in-law of C.  Laelius and heard  Panaetius (Cic. Brut. 100f.). In…

Proculeius

(126 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] C. P., friend of Octavian, the future Augustus [1]. P. accompanied Octavian, apparently without official position, in the wars against Sex. Pompeius [I 5] in Sicily and against M. Antonius [I 9] in Egypt. A military commission could, of course, be inferred from the coins struck with his name in Cephallenia (RPC I 1359-1362). P.' siblings were Terentius Murena, Terentia [2] the wife of Maecenas [2], and a Scipio; his mother must therefore have been married more than once. P. was co…

Augurinus

(72 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Proconsul of Creta-Cyrenae under Caligula Proconsul of Creta-Cyrenae under Caligula. PIR2 A 1397. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Person in Senecas Apocolocynthosis Introduced in Seneca Apocol. 3,4 as a worthless person, who was supposed to die in the same year as Claudius. PIR2 A 1398. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] Fictional person Fictional person (cf. in Seneca: Augurinus, Baba, Claudius = ABC). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Canidia

(42 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Frequently mentioned by Horace because of her magic art and mixing of poisons (Epod. 3,8; 5,15; 17,6; sat. 1,8,24; 2,1,48; 8,95). It is assumed that in real life she was Gratidia, a perfume seller from Naples (Porphyrio). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Furnius

(230 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian family name, perhaps connected with Etruscan furnial (Schulze 217, with epigraphical evidence). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] F., C. People's tribune 50 BC, orator Like his son F. [2], a famous Roman orator ( Furnii ... clari oratores; Jer. Chron. ad annum 1980-81). People's tribune in 50 BC, legate in 44-43, praetor in 42 (?), envoy in 40 and 39, promagistrate in Asia in 36-35, c onsul designatus for 29 (MRR 2, 249, 331, 353, 359, 376, 389, 402, 408; 3, 97). At first, an admirer of the orator Cicero, he placed himself politically in …

Cutius

(81 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] T.C. Ciltus Cos. suff. 55 AD Suffect consul probably inAD 55 with L. Junius Gallio (AE 1960, 61f.; [1]). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, RE Suppl. 14, 110. [German version] [2] C. Lupus Quaestor, put down a slave revolt in 24 AD Quaestor who had to supervise the calles in Lower Italy. In AD24 he put down a slave revolt in Apulia (Tac. Ann. 4,27,2; [1]). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, in: Scripta Classica Israelica 13, 1994, 60ff.

Iulia

(3,365 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto)
[German version] [1] Aunt of C. Iulius Caesar, wife of C. Marius, 2nd/1st cent. BC Paternal aunt of C. Iulius  Caesar; between 115 and 109 BC, she married C. Marius, with whom she had a son named C. Marius ( cos. 82; Plut. Marius 6,3; Plut. Caesar 1,1; Sall. Hist. 1,35 Maur). There is almost no information regarding I.'s life. On the occasion of her death in 68, Caesar held a large funeral ceremony (Suet. Iul. 6,1; Plut. Caesar 5,1). Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) [German version] [2] Daughter of L. Iunius [I 5] Caesar, mother of triumvir M. Antonius Daughter of L. Iulius [I 5] Caesar and Fulvia (d…

Ummidius

(490 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. U. Durmius Quadratus From a senatorial family; possibly adopted by a U. from Casinum. His career was transmitted in CIL X 5182 = ILS 972. After a quick rise (quaestor in AD 14, praetor as early as in AD 18), his advancement slowed down. Following his office as proconsul on the island of Cyprus and a governorship in Lusitania (attested for the year 37, ILS 190), he did not become suffect consul until c. 40. Under Claudius [III 1], he became consular governor in Illyricum (either Dalmatia or Pannonia), then, from no later than 51, governor in Sy…

Sallius

(209 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] S. Aristaenetus Senator, governor of Thracia between AD 253 and 260 Senator; governor of Thracia between AD 253 and 260 (AE 1978, 724); descendant of S. [2]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. S. Aristaenetus Senator, imperial legate of Moesia inferior under Caracalla or Elagabalus Senator, possibly from Byzantium. There are records of his career in CIL VI 1511 = ILS 2934 up to his office as iuridicus of Picenum and Apulia; later, he became a consul [1. 163]. Probably he was governor of Pontus-Bithynia, and afterwards probably imperial legate…

Attius

(775 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentilicium, verifiable since the 2nd cent. BC, in the older form Atius, in the MSS often confused with Accius (on the origin and spread, Schulze 68; 423; 551; ThlL 2,1169-71). The gens first achieved prominence with  Atia, the mother of the emperor Augustus. Early imperial pseudo-genealogy therefore invented an ancestor Atys (Verg. Aen. 5,568 Atys, genus unde Atii duxere Latini). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A. Balbus, M. Grandfather of Augustus Brother-in-law of Caesar ( Iulia) and grandfather of Augustus ( Atia [1]). …

Servaeus

(273 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Q. S. Senator, who as a praetorian accompanied Germanicus [2] to the East. There he converted Commagene into a province (Tac. Ann. 2,56,4). In 20 AD he took part in a lawsuit against Calpurnius [II 16] Piso in the Senate (Tac. Ann. 3,13). Later in alliance with Aelius [II 19] Seianus, in 32 after the latter's overthrow he was convicted, to the regret of many in the Senate (Tac. Ann. 6,7,2). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Q. S. Fuscus Cornelianus Senator from Gightis in Africa. After being a praetor dealing with the cura viae Salariae ('care for the Salarian …

Pompusius Mettius

(37 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Praefectus aerarii Saturni for four years, AD 80-83 (InscrIt 13,1 p. 307). He is not identical to the Mettius Pompusianus mentioned in Suet. Vesp. 14. PIR2 M 570; P 783. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Bruttia

(43 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] B. Crispina = Crispina Augusta, daughter of Bruttius [II 5], wife of Commodus from AD 178; exiled to Capri after an alleged adultery, and later killed (Cass. Dio 72,4,6) [1. no. 149]. PIR2 B 170. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Raepsaet-Charlier.

Turranius

(198 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens name (Schulze, 429), sometimes confused with T(h)oranius. [German version] [1] T., C. Praetor in 44 BC (Cic. Phil. 3,25). He was presumably proscribed and killed at his son's instigation (Val. Max. 9,11,5; App. B Civ. 4,71). Not identical with the also outlawed (Suet. Aug. 27; App. B Civ. 4,47) guardian of Augustus, C. Toranius. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] C. T. Gracilis Eques from Gades (modern Cadiz) (Plin. HN 3,3). He had the confidence of Augustus, who made him praef. Aegypti, recorded between 7 and 4 BC [1. 475]. In AD 14, at the time of Aug…

Tettienus

(177 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Galeo T. Petronianus Senator from Asisium. Cos. suff. in AD 76. Brother of T. [2]. Probably the adoptive father of T. [3]; [1. 263]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 M. Gaggiotti, L. Sensi, Italia: regio VI (Umbria), in: EOS 2, 263. [German version] [2] T. T. Serenus Brother of T. [1]. Praetorian governor of Lugdunensis in c. AD 78-80 [1. 300]; cos. suff. probably in 81. Member of the pontifices [2. 8 f.; 3. 449 f.]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, Jahres- und Provinzialfasten der senatorischen Statthalter, in: Chiron 12, 1982, 281-362 2 L. Sc…

Princeps iuventutis

(537 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] (Greek πρόκριτος τῆς νεότητος/ prókritos tês neótētos, Cass. Dio 55,9,9; 78,17,1; 'the first/most select among the youth'; the English word 'prince' derives from it). In the Republic, the term was used in the plural for the patrician equestrians organized in special units ( t urma ); as only the younger patricians served actively in the cavalry, the principes iuventutis could be described as the seminarium senatus ('nursery of the Senate') (Liv. 42,61,5). Cicero was already applying the term to individuals, already employing the distinction respective of the princep…

Fabulla

(97 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Wife of a certain Asiaticus, mentioned in the will of Domitius [II 25] Tullus as the recipient of a legacy (AE 1976, 77); she is presumably identical to the F. mentioned in Apollonius [14] of Tyana as the wife of Valerius, proconsul of Asia (Epist. 58). The latter is perhaps identical to Valerius Asiaticus, cos. in AD 94, proconsul of Asia 108/9 [1. 292ff.]. In this case the Letter of Apollonius would be fictitious. Cf. PIR2 F 92. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, Zum neuen Fr. des sog. Testamentum Dasumii, in: ZPE 30, 1978, 277-295.

Livineius

(338 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens name (probably Etruscan root), encountered in the late Republic and early Imperial period, it is however rather rare. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L. Regulus, L. Acquaintance of Cicero, who probably shared Cicero's banishment to Greece in 58 BC Acquaintance of Cicero, of about the same age, who around 58 BC probably shared Cicero's banishment to Greece (Cic. Att. 3,17,1; Cic. Fam. 13,60,1). The year of his service as praetor, deduced from coinage of his son L. [I 2], remains unclear. MRR 2,464. Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L. Regulus, L. Partici…

Curtia Flavia Archelais Valentilla

(29 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Woman of consular rank, a member of the landed gentry of Lydia [1]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. Petzl, in: EA 26, 1996, 9ff.
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