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Capellianus

(62 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] As praetorian governor of Numidia in AD 238 (perhaps identical with the epigraphically attested legatus Augusti pro praetore L. Ovinius Pudens Capella, PIR2 O 189), with the legio III Augusta, he quelled the revolt in Gordiane (Herodian. 7,9,11; SHA Maximin. 19,20, Gord. 15-16; ILS 8499). PIR2 C 404. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) Bibliography K.-H. Dietz, Senatus contra principem, 1980, 109ff.

Dacicus

(114 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] The victor's name D. was not assumed by Domitian, contrary to the report at Mart. 8 pr. Trajan was officially called D. only after 102; in 236 Maximinus assumed the name D. Maximus for himself and his son Maximus. In the case of later emperors the title was probably unofficial: Decius (D. maximus from 250, but only on Spanish milestones), Gallienus (D. max. only in ILS 552, from 257), Aurelian [3] (ILS 581, from 275). Constantine [1] I named himself D. Maxi…

Carausius

(207 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] M. Aurelius Maus(aeus?), AD 286-293.A Menapian by birth, and by profession a former helmsman, C. excelled himself in the Bagaudian War under  Maximianus. Subsequently, as commander of a fleet based in Bononia (Boulogne-sur-Mer), he was given the task of fighting the pi…

Aureolus

(92 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] …

Anullinus

(25 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Senator, whose freedman Diocletian is said to have been (Eutr. 9,19,2; Aur. Vict. Caes.…

Quintillus

(69 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Imp. Caes. M. Aurelius Claudius Q. Aug., brother of Claudius [III 2] II Gothicus. After the latter's death in August of AD 270, Q. was proclaimed emperor, but killed after a few weeks by the soldiers in Aquileia (Eutr. 9,12; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 34,5; Jer. Chron. p. 222 Helm; Zos. 1,47). Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) Bibliography Kienast 2, 233  PIR2 A 1480  PLRE 1, 759 (no. 1). …

Pupienus

(263 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] M. Clodius P. Maximus, emperor in AD 238. According to Zon. 12,17, P. was as old as 74 at this time, but this can hardly be correct. Information on his origin and career in the Historia Augusta is largely fictional; his ancestors were probably from Volaterrae  (CIL IX 5765, cf. [1. 170 ff.]). P. was consular governor of a German province (Hdn. 8,6,6; 7,8), proconsul of Asia (ILS 8839; AE 1975, 791), cos. ord. II in 234 and praef. urbi

Caracalla

(889 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] (Nickname based on his Celtic robe; originally, he was called Bassianus, Cass. Dio 78,9,3) = M. Aurelius Antoninus Caesar (from AD 195, ILS 8805; RIU 3,840) = M. Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus (from AD 198, cf. [1]). Born on 4 April AD 188 in Lyons as the eldest son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna (Cass. Dio 78,6,5; cf. 77,10,2; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 21,1; SHA Sept. Sev. 3,9; differing information elsewhere). He accompanied his father to the east from the middle of 19…

Celerinus

(40 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Prefect of Egypt. In AD 283 after the death of  Carus he turned down the imperial rank offered to him by his soldiers (Claudian. Epithal. Palladii et Celerinae 25,70-82). PIR2 C 635. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)

Esuvius

(360 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Imperator Caesar C. Pius E. Tetricus Augustus Augustus in Gaul and Britannia AD 271-274 He came from a noble (Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,14), certainly (because of the name E.) Gallic family and, even before his elevation to Augustus, was senator and governor of Aquitania, when Victorinus ruled over the rebel Gallic empire (Eutr. 9,10). After Victorinus was murdered, he was proclaimed emperor by the military, probably in the spring of AD 271, and clothed in the purple in Bordeaux (Eutr. ibid.; [Aur…

Constitutio Antoniniana

(190 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Decree of  Caracalla (AD 212), by which he extended Roman citizenship to almost all members of the empire (Cass. Dio 77,9,5; Dig. 1,5,17); cf. Aur. Vict., Caesares 16,12, who mistakenly attributes that action to  Marcus Aurelius instead of M. Aur. Antoninus Caracalla. Whether the much-discussed PGiss. 40 I contained the edict is questioned by [1]. The problem of the [de]diticii, who in the papyrus were apparently excluded from  citizenship or from the rights and privileges that it entailed, is possibly explained by the so-called Tabula Ba…

Ballista

(105 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Called ‘Callistus’ by Greek authors, because of an orthographical error [1], Praetorian praefect of  Valerianus, then of  Macrianus (SHA Valer. 4,4; SHA Gall. 3,2). After Valerian was taken prisoner, he had the sons of Macrianus proclaimed emperors (SHA Gall. 1,3). As cavalry commander for Macrianus, he triumphed over the Persians (Zon. 12,24). He stayed in the east with Quietus, the younger son of Macrianus, but …

Aiacius

(51 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] A. Modestus Crescentianus, Q. Participated as XV vir sacris faciundis in AD 204 in the ludi saeculares; he was praetorian imperial legate in Arabia. Cos. suff., legate of Germania superi…

Carinus

(218 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Imperator Caesar M.A. Carinus Augustus, the eldest son of  Carus, a brother of  Numerianus; around November AD 282, he was made Caesar and princeps iuventutis by his father, and in spring 283, when his father marched against the Persians, C. was elevated to Augustus. After his campaign against the Quadi (F. Gnecchi, I Medaglioni Romani 2, 1912, pl. 123, no. 8), he called himself Germanicus maximus, adding to that Persicus maximus after Carus' victory in the east, and also, for unknown reasons, Britannicus maximus (CIL XIV 126 = ILS 608). After the death of Carus, M.A. Iulianus assumed the imperial title, but was defeated near Verona by Carinus, and killed (Zos. 1,73). However, when Numerianus had d…

Numerianus

(193 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Follower of Septimius Severus N. was a schoolteacher in Rome who, as a senator on commission from  Septimius Severus pretended to raise for him an army in Gaul. In fact he achieved considerable success in battle against the troops of  Clodius [II 1] Albinus. N. allegedly seized 70 million sesterces for Severus, after whose victory in AD 97 N. renounced all his privileges and was content with only a small maintenance pension (Cass. Dio 75,5). PIR2 N 198. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [German version] [2] Imp. Caes. M. Aurelius Numerius N. Augustus 3rd cent. AD emperor Roman e…

Aper

(152 words)

Author(s): Rottler, Christoph (Tübingen) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1], M. Homo novus, 1st cent. AD, dialogue partner in Tacitus's Dialogus Lived from about AD 23 until the last quarter of 1st cent. A Roman orator from Gallia (Tac. Dial. 10,2; presumably Tres Galliae [4. 799 f.]), possibly father of Flavius A. (PIR2 F 206). Was probably awarded during the campaign in Britain 43 (Tac. Dial. 17,4) the latus clavus, which for the homo novus opened a career as quaestor, tribune of the people and praetor (7,1). In Tacitus' Dialogus he appears as a dialogue partner, the only source for the famous orator (14,3). Rottler, Christoph (Tübingen) Bibli…

Aurelianus

(953 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Aurelius A. Cos. suff. 180/182 AD Praetorian legate of Arabia under two Augusti (AE 1965, 23); cos. suff. between AD 180 and 182 (CIL VIII 10570=ILS 6870). PIR2 A 1424. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] …

Bonosus

(199 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Appointed emperor in AD 280 Appointed emperor in Cologne, together with Proculus, in AD 280, soon thereafter defeated by  Probus (Eutr. 9,17,1; Aur. Vict. Caes. 37,3; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 37,2). His vita in the  Historia Augu…

Elagabalus

(1,151 words)

Author(s): Niehr, Herbert (Tübingen) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Name of a deity Name of a deity, based on its earliest attestation (Palmyrene stele of Nazala, 1st cent. AD), it can be etymologically derived from lhbl (Hdn. 5,3,4: Elaiagabalos). Since lh is present in the status emphaticus, E. must be read as the ‘God Mountain’ [8. 503f.]. The image on the stele also speaks for this [1. 707]. The mountain signifies the citadel mountain of  Emesa (Ḥimṣ) with the temple of E. [6. 257f.; 8. 509f.], which is indicated in ancient descriptions (Avien. Descriptio orbis 1083-1093) and an altar find with the dedication ‘To the god Helios Elagabalus’ [6. 257-259; 9]. Because the elite of Emesa has been Arabic since the pre-Christian period, an Arabic origin of E. has been considered. Howev…

Capito

(156 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Roman cognomen; see also Ateius, Fonteius. [German version] [1] Orator of the Augustan period Orator of the Augustan period, praised by  Seneca the Elder because of his ability -- in contrast with  Cassius [III 2] Severus -- to distinguish clearly between the demands of declamations as opposed to those of legal speeches, with regards to their tone and presentation. According to Seneca's assessment, C.'s best orations were in no way inferior to those of the tetrad of the great declamators  Latro,  Fuscus,  Alb…
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