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Clodius

(2,871 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Glock, Andreas (Bremen) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
In the 1st cent. BC, vernacular form of the gentilicium  Claudius (C. [I 4] and  Clodia), since late Republican period also an independent family name. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., C. Praefect of M. Brutus in 43/42 BC In 43/42 BC follower and prefect of M. Brutus; he murdered C. Antonius [I 3]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] C., Sex. Henchman of P. Clodius [I 4] Pulcher, Sex. Cloelius [2] Henchman of P. Clodius [I 4] Pulcher, Sex.  Cloelius [2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 3] C. Aesopus Tragic actor, 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC Tragic …

Capito

(156 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Roman cognomen; see also Ateius, Fonteius. [German version] [1] Orator of the Augustan period Orator of the Augustan period, praised by  Seneca the Elder because of his ability -- in contrast with  Cassius [III 2] Severus -- to distinguish clearly between the demands of declamations as opposed to those of legal speeches, with regards to their tone and presentation. According to Seneca's assessment, C.'s best orations were in no way inferior to those of the tetrad of the great declamators  Latro,  Fuscus,  Alb…

Iulianus

(4,648 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
Epithet of many gentilicia [1]. Famous persons: the jurist Salvius I. [1]; the doctor I. [2]; the emperor I. [11], called ‘Apostata’; the bishops I. [16] of Aeclanum and I. [21] of Toledo. [German version] [1] L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius I. Aemilianus Roman jurist, 2nd cent. AD Jurist, born about AD 100 in North Africa, died about AD 170; he was a student of  Iavolenus [2] Priscus (Dig. 40,2,5) and the last head of the Sabinian law school (Dig. 1,2,2,53). I., whose succession of offices is preserved in the inscription from Pupput, provi…

Eros

(805 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
(Ἔρως; Érōs). [German version] [1] Personification of sexual desire Greek personification of love as sexual desire (Latin Amor, Cupido). Usually, E. is regarded as being the son of  Aphrodite, in whose sphere of influence he represents a central figure.  Ares is named as his father (Simon. fr. 43B). Not mentioned in Homer, E.'s image in archaic poetry is developed into an expression of the complex and contradictory experience of individual love [1]: ‘limb-loosening’ conquerer of gods and men (Hes. Theog.…

Numerianus

(193 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Follower of Septimius Severus N. was a schoolteacher in Rome who, as a senator on commission from  Septimius Severus pretended to raise for him an army in Gaul. In fact he achieved considerable success in battle against the troops of  Clodius [II 1] Albinus. N. allegedly seized 70 million sesterces for Severus, after whose victory in AD 97 N. renounced all his privileges and was content with only a small maintenance pension (Cass. Dio 75,5). PIR2 N 198. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [German version] [2] Imp. Caes. M. Aurelius Numerius N. Augustus 3rd cent. AD emperor Roman e…

Capellianus

(62 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] As praetorian governor of Numidia in AD 238 (perhaps identical with the epigraphically attested legatus Augusti pro praetore L. Ovinius Pudens Capella, PIR2 O 189), with the legio III Augusta, he quelled the revolt in Gordiane (Herodian. 7,9,11; SHA Maximin. 19,20, Gord. 15-16; ILS 8499). PIR2 C 404. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) Bibliography K.-H. Dietz, Senatus contra principem, 1980, 109ff.

Carus [1]

(428 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Rottler, Christoph (Tübingen) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
(Κάρος, Κάκυρος; Káros, Kákyros). Celtiberian from Segeda, general of several Iberian tribes and towns that defeated the army of the consul Q.  Fulvius [I 17] Nobilior on 23/ 8/153 BC. The Roman prohibition of building a wall around Segeda caused the confrontation. C. was killed while pursuing the enemy (App. Ib. 45; Diod. Sic. 31,39; Flor. Epit. 1,34 [Megaravicus]).  Hispania Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] [2] Poet friend of Ovid A poet friend of  Ovid (Pont. 4,13 is addressed to him; 3,5 in the Tristiae, where the identity of the respective addressees is con…

Decius

(1,555 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
Plebeian nomen gentile, documented in the literary tradition since the 5th cent.; the most important family were the Decii Mures (D. [I 1-3]), possibly from Campania [1], whose self-sacrifice (partly unhistorical) in battle made them much quoted examples in the tradition. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] D. Mus, P. (Origin of the cognomen not known), in 352 BC, committee member dealing with a debt crisis in Rome (Liv. 7,21,6); as war tribune in 343, he is said to have saved the army of the consul A. Cornelius [I 22] Cossus Arvina from…

Dacicus

(114 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] The victor's name D. was not assumed by Domitian, contrary to the report at Mart. 8 pr. Trajan was officially called D. only after 102; in 236 Maximinus assumed the name D. Maximus for himself and his son Maximus. In the case of later emperors the title was probably unofficial: Decius (D. maximus from 250, but only on Spanish milestones), Gallienus (D. max. only in ILS 552, from 257), Aurelian [3] (ILS 581, from 275). Constantine [1] I named himself D. Maximus in 336 (AE 1934, 158…

Carausius

(207 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] M. Aurelius Maus(aeus?), AD 286-293.A Menapian by birth, and by profession a former helmsman, C. excelled himself in the Bagaudian War under  Maximianus. Subsequently, as commander of a fleet based in Bononia (Boulogne-sur-Mer), he was given the task of fighting the piratical Franks and Saxons. Based on suspicions that he had withheld war booty, the order was given to kill C.; in consequence, C. had himself proclaimed emperor in 286, and assumed the rule of Britannia. He was also …

Celerinus

(40 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Prefect of Egypt. In AD 283 after the death of  Carus he turned down the imperial rank offered to him by his soldiers (Claudian. Epithal. Palladii et Celerinae 25,70-82). PIR2 C 635. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)

Bonosus

(199 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Appointed emperor in AD 280 Appointed emperor in Cologne, together with Proculus, in AD 280, soon thereafter defeated by  Probus (Eutr. 9,17,1; Aur. Vict. Caes. 37,3; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 37,2). His vita in the  Historia Augusta (Probus), is largely fictitious; no genuine coins of his are known. PIR2 B 146; PLRE 1, 163 no.1. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Consul in AD 344 Flavius B. was consul in AD 344 but was acknowledged only in the West and even there he is attested only until April/May. According to [1], however, he …

Albinus

(861 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Zanoncelli, Luisa (Milan)
Cognomen of the Clodii, Decii, Iunii, Lucceii, Mummii, Pescennii, Postumii (fictitious name in Mart. 4,37,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Of Smyrna. Platonic philosopher of the 2nd cent. AD (Ἀλβῖνος; Albînos) of Smyrna. Platonic philosopher of the 2nd cent. AD, who was counted among the ‘top Platonists’ by Proclus [2. 18; see 2. 20]. A student of the Platonist  Gaius, he taught in Smyrna in AD 150, where he was heard by the physician Galen (Gal., Scripta minora 2,97,8 ff. Mueller). A. wrote commentaries on Plato's Timaeus, ‘Republic’ and Phaedo [2. 18, 50, 15…

Marius

(5,642 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Roberts, Michael (Middletown, CT) | Et al.
Oscan praenomen ( Egnatius [I 3]). Attested as a Roman nomen gentile from the 2nd cent. BC. The most important holder is the seven-time consul M. [I 1]; the prominent Imperial-period Spanish bearer of the name, M. [II 3], is probably a descendant of family members of that Marius. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] M., C. Seven-time consul, victor over Jugurtha and over the Cimbri and Teutoni, opponent of Sulla The seven-time consul; victor over Jugurtha and over the Cimbri and Teutoni. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] A. The rise to political prominence Born c. 157 BC…

Alfen(i)us

(329 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Avitianus, L., governor under the Severi Avitianus, L., praetoric governor of Arabia and consularian governor of Pannonia inferior in the time of the Severi; frater Arvalis (present in the collegium AD 218 and AD 231). PIR2 A 519. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) Bibliography Leunissen, 256, 262. [German version] [2] Senecio, L., governor (beginning of the 3rd cent. AD) Senecio, L., son of a procurator Aug. by the same name, from Cuicul in Numidia, legatus Aug. pro praetore in Coele Syria under Severus, and governor of Britannia between 205 and 207. PIR2 A 521. Birley, A. R.…

Elagabalus

(1,151 words)

Author(s): Niehr, Herbert (Tübingen) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Name of a deity Name of a deity, based on its earliest attestation (Palmyrene stele of Nazala, 1st cent. AD), it can be etymologically derived from lhbl (Hdn. 5,3,4: Elaiagabalos). Since lh is present in the status emphaticus, E. must be read as the ‘God Mountain’ [8. 503f.]. The image on the stele also speaks for this [1. 707]. The mountain signifies the citadel mountain of  Emesa (Ḥimṣ) with the temple of E. [6. 257f.; 8. 509f.], which is indicated in ancient descriptions (Avien. Descriptio orbis 1083-1093) …

Aiacius

(51 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] A. Modestus Crescentianus, Q. Participated as XV vir sacris faciundis in AD 204 in the ludi saeculares; he was praetorian imperial legate in Arabia. Cos. suff., legate of Germania superior in 209 and cos. II ord. in 228. PIR2 A 470. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) Bibliography Eck, 81-82.

Cassius

(5,432 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name of a plebeian gens (cf. Tac. Ann. 6,15,1), the representatives of whom have been known historically since the middle of the 3rd cent. BC. The most important family, especially in the 1st cent. BC, are the Cassii Longini. A patrician C. (around 500 BC, C. I 19) is rare. I. Republican age [German version] [I 1] C., C. Governor of Asia 89-88 BC Praetor 90 BC (?), in 89-88 governor of the province of Asia whence he, with M'. Aquillius [I 4], induced Nicomedes of Bithynia to attack  Mithridates (MRR 2,34). He then had to retreat from the victorious Mithridat…

Domitianus

(2,341 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor, born AD 51 Roman emperor; original name T. Flavius Domitianus = Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] A. Up to the death of Titus Born on 24 Oct. AD 51 in Rome; his parents were T. Flavius  Vespasianus and Flavia Domitilla. D. spent his childhood in Rome; he did not accompany his father Vespasian to Judaea. His life was first threatened in the 2nd half of 69 during the reign of Vitellius, when D.'s father had already been proclaimed emperor, and fightin…

Carinus

(218 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Imperator Caesar M.A. Carinus Augustus, the eldest son of  Carus, a brother of  Numerianus; around November AD 282, he was made Caesar and princeps iuventutis by his father, and in spring 283, when his father marched against the Persians, C. was elevated to Augustus. After his campaign against the Quadi (F. Gnecchi, I Medaglioni Romani 2, 1912, pl. 123, no. 8), he called himself Germanicus maximus, adding to that Persicus maximus after Carus' victory in the east, and also, for unknown reasons, Britannicu…
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