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Cetium

(158 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Today St. Pölten. A town in  Noricum, situated at the intersection of ancient roads frequented from early times; etymologically probably linked to Celtic * keto -- ‘wood, forest’ (cf.   Cetius mons ). The municipium Aelium Cetensium of the time of Hadrian (CIL III 5630; 5652; 11799) was destroyed in the wars against the  Marcomanni, but soon recovered [1]. Since 1949 significant excavations on the site of the ancient town, which has been built up in modern times. Some slight evidence of Christianity in what little r…

Aguntum

(311 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia The modern Dölsach and Nußdorf-Debant on the road through the Drau valley (unknown etymology); when the Celtic Laianci came into contact with the Romans at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC, the municipium Claudium A. (Plin. HN 3,146) with   forum ,   capitolium ,   basilica and  thermae [1] developed about 2 km east of the original town. Mining and processing of metal ensured the economic prosperity of A. and its territory -- from the Felber Tauern to the Kärntner Tor, from the Lie…

Alta Ripa

(100 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Today Altrip near Speyer. ‘Bell-shaped’, fort with its long side facing the Rhine from the Valentinian period (Cod. Theod. 11,31,4, AD 369) part of the fortress system of the Neckar confluence (Not. Dign. occ. 39; cf. the fortifications providing safe shipping, Symm. Or. 2,20 [1]). Destroyed in the New Year's night of AD 406/7 by  Alani,  Suebi and  Vands.  Castellum Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 A. Pabst, 1989, 147 f., 332 ff. S. V. Schnurbein, H.-J. Köhler, Der neue Plan des valentinianischen Kastells A. (Altrip), in: BRGK 70, 1989, 507-526 S. von…

Langobardi

(572 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (etym. Lang(a/o)-bardoz, ‘the long beards’ [9]). Germanic tribe which Tacitus (Germ. 40,1) and Ptolemy (2,11,9) count among the Suebi; according to tribal mythology [1], they wandered out of southern Sweden as the Winniler into territories south of the Baltic Sea around 100 BC and fused with other peoples. The L. are archaeologically confirmed on the lower course of the Elbe (in the Bardengau) from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Briefly driven back to the east bank by Tiberius in AD 5 (…

Dieburg

(45 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Roman civilian settlement, main settlement of the civitas Auderiensium with good infrastructure (archaeological finds: e.g., a Mithraeum). Heyday about AD 300, but victim of Alamannic raids. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography E. Schallmayer, D., in: D. Baatz, F.-R. Herrmann (ed.), Die Römer in Hessen, 21989, 250-255.

Aviones

(46 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A Germanic people who according to Tac. Germ. 40,2 worshipped  Nerthus with the Reudigni, Angli, Varini, Eudoses, Suardones and Nuithones; it is not possible to work out their exact location in spite of the etymology ‘water dwellers, island inhabitants’ Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Cannenefates

(101 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe, also known as Can(n)anefates, in their ‘extraction, dialect and bravery equal to the Batavi’ (Tac. Hist. 4,15,1; cf. Plin. HN 4,101), in the western part of the insula Batavorum, between Oude Rijn and Mosa (Helinium); cf. ‘Kennemerland’. Possibly subjugated by Tiberius (Vell. Pat. 2,105,1), they provided at the least one ala and one cohors (Tac. Ann. 4,73,2; Hist. 4,19,1). Their capital of Voorburg-Arentsburg became Forum Hadriani and municipium. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 31, 59 B. H. Stolte, s.v. Cananefaten, RGA 4, 329f. W. W…

Genauni

(99 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Alpine tribe in Raetia (Hor. Carm. 4,14,10), subjugated by Drusus in 15 BC, which, like the Breuni, was thought of as Illyrian (Str. 4,6,8); Plin. HN 3,137 has Caenauni, Ptol. 2,12,4 Βένλαυνοι ( Bénlaunoi). It is thought that their dwelling places were, e.g., in the eastern Inn Valley in the Tyrol. Allocation by Paus. 8,43,4 (Britannia) is uncertain [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 J. G. F. Hind, The ‘Genounian’ part of Britain, in: Britannia 8, 1977, 229-234. R. Frei-Stolba, Die Räter in den ant. Quellen, in: B. Frei (ed.), Das Räterproblem in ge…

Nahanarvali

(89 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (variant Naharvali). Powerful subtribe of the Vandals/Lugii, which is mentioned in Tac. Germ. 43, 3f. along with the Harii, Helvecones, Manimi and Halisones (Helisii?). The Romans reached these tribes via the ‘Amber Road’ (Amber), which had been open since the time of Nero (AD 54-68). In a holy grove belonging to the N., the Alcis, who were comparable with the Dioscuri, were worshipped in an all-Lugian cult. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 33,63  G. Perl, Tacitus, Germania, 1990, 247f.  D. Timpe, Romano-Germanica, 1995, 107f., 127-131.

Cherusci

(199 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe (first mentioned in Caes. B Gall. 6,10,5; etymology uncertain, possibly connected with * herut, German ‘Hirsch’ [deer]?). They settled south of the Angrivarii and west of the Langobardi, between Weser and Elbe, and north of the Harz mountains. In a state of permanent internal dispute, they were subjugated by Claudius Drusus (in 12 and 9 BC), and by Tiberius (AD 4). However, in AD 9,  Arminius, who was in Roman service, led a successful uprising against Quinctilius  Varus by parts …

Bodobrica

(80 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] now Boppard. About 1 km east of a vicus from the 1st-3rd cents. AD, the late Roman castle B. of the milites balistarii (Not. Dign. occ. 41,23), with 28 round towers, was developed in the middle of the 4th cent.; in places the walls still reach up to 9 m in height. Early Christian church. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography H.-H. Wegner, in: H. Cüppers(ed.), Die Römer in Rheinland-Pfalz, 1990, 344-346 E. Dassmann, Die Anf. der Kirche in Deutschland, 1993, 62-65.

Asciburgium

(146 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Modern Asberg near Moers (etymologically ‘Eschenberg’ -- ash mountain; cf. Old High German ask). In this location opposite the mouth of the river Ruhr (CIL XIII 2,2,8588-8597), five phases of an auxiliary fort, from 12/11 BC to its abandonment in AD 83/85, with an area of 1.6 to 2.3 ha. have been verified, as well as an Augustan   vicus , and a harbour which was silting up at the end of the 1st cent. AD. After the withdrawal of the military, A. remained an important staging post between Castra Vetera and Novaesium with   be…

Baiovarii

(121 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Mixed Romano-Germanic tribe (Bavarians), first recorded in Iord. Get. 55,280 as living in southern Germany east of the river Lech (cf. Venantius Fortunatus, Vita Martini 4,640-645). Etymologically most likely the ‘descendants of those living in Bai(a)-haim (= Bohemia)’; the foederati, archaeologically evident in the Friedenhain-Přeštovice pottery, were most likely -- initially independently, later tolerated by the Ostrogoths (Theoderic the Great) -- to have formed the military core, around which, with Regensburg at its…

Noricum

(1,975 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
Roman province, essentially the eastern Alpine region, to the south of the Danube, east of Raetia and west of Pannonia. [German version] A. From the beginning until incorporation into the Imperium Romanum There are various hypotheses [2] on the formation of the Celtic Norici people, who probably gained strength through the amalgamation of individual peoples (dedications from Mt Magdalen in Corinthia mention eight Norican tribes [1. 280-284, 294]), especially regarding their relationship to the postulated pre-Celtic Nori (Norei…

Ingaevones

(63 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A mythological Germanic tribal group attested probably as early as in Pytheas of Massilia (Plin. HN 37,35 Detlefsen with conjecture) (Plin. HN 4,96; 99; Tac. Germ. 2,2;  Herminones), which, although the closest to reality of the three Mannus groups, merely functioned as a fictitious blanket term for Cimbri, Teutoni, and Chauci. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography D. Timpe, Romano-Germanica, 1995, esp. 20-24.

Biriciana

(78 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Modern Weißenburg in Bavaria. Large fort (5.1 ha.) of the ala I Hispanorum Auriana; nearby the fort ‘Breitung’ (3.5 ha.), possibly of the cohors IX Batavorum. Civilian settlement of more than 30 ha. in size, with restored thermae; magnificent treasure trove of the 3rd cent. AD. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography H.-J. Kellner, in: W. Czsyz, K. Dietz, Th. Fischer, Id. (ed.), Die Römer in Bayern, 1995, 534-536.

Licca

(27 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Λικίας; Likías). Righthand tributary of the Danube (Ptol. 2,12,1; 4; Venantius Fortunatus Carm. praef. 4, Vita Martini 4,642), modern Lech. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Bürgle

(75 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Late Roman fortification (0,16 ha.) on a hill crest at the foot of the steep terrace at Gundremmingen, possibly Pinianis, a fort of the cohors V Valeria Frygum (Not. Dign. Occ. 35,29), or -- assuming a shift in name to Febian(i)s -- that of a part of the equites stablesiani iuniores (ibid. 35,15). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography W. Czysz, B., in: Id., K. Dietz, Th. Fischer, H.-J. Kellner (ed.), Die Römer in Bayern, 1995, 430f.

Aduatuci

(100 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Descending from the  Cimbri and  Teutoni (Caes. B Gall. 2,29,4 f.), the A. lived among the Germani Cisrhenani, without being part of them, between the Nervii and the Eburones in Gallia Belgica on both banks of the Maas river between Liège/Namur and Limbourg. The main town was Aduatuca (Tungrorum), modern Tongeren, with an early Roman garrison [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 A. Vanderhoeven (et al.), Tongern, Tongres, Tongeren, in: Spurensicherung, 1992, 387-402, 579. J. R. Marichal, Les frontières des Aduatiques et des Germains cisrhé…

Breuni

(120 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Breones). Tribe living in the inner Alps in  Raetia, subjugated by Drusus in 15 BC; often mentioned in connection with the Genauni (e.g. Hor. Carm. 4,14,11: veloces; Plin. HN 3,137), they were wrongly associated with the Brenner Pass. Under the name of Breones, they were still active as a group in late antiquity (Cassiod. Var. 1,11,2; Venetius Fortunatus, Vita Martini 4,645; Carm. praef. 4), and gave their name to a diocese (Acta Conc. Oec. IV 2,135 § 18 v. 591). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR L 32,39 H. Wolfram, Tiroler Randgruppen, in: FS A. Betz, …
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