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Iovianus

(269 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Flavius I. (Jovian), Roman emperor AD 363-364, born in Singidunum in 331, the son of the Comes Domesticorum Varronianus. His father-in-law was the Magister Militum Lucillianus, his wife was possibly called Charito (cf. Zon. 13,14). He served as Protector Domesticus under Constantius [2] II (Amm. Marc. 21,16,20), and under Julian [11] as Primicerius Domesticorum (Amm. Marc. 25,5,4). The day after Julian's death in battle against the Persians, I. was proclaimed emperor on 27 June 363, while still on Persian territory. He ended the P…

Andragathius

(68 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] From AD 383-388 A. was mag. equitum of the usurper Maximus. He murdered the emperor Gratian in 383 (Ambr. Commentarius in psalmis 61,23-25; Zos. 4,35,6). In 388 he prepared the defence of Maximus against Theodosius I and placed himself at the head of the fleet in the Adriatic. After Theodosius' victory he plunged himself into the sea (Oros. 7,35; Zos. 4,46 f.). Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Clematius

(214 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] From Alexandria, consularis Palaestinae c. 352/3 AD C. of Alexandria was the consularis Palaestinae (Lib. Ep. 693) in c. AD 352/3. In the winter of 353/4 he became the victim of an intrigue in Antioch [1] and was executed without trial (Amm. Marc. 14,1,3). PLRE 1,213 (Clematius 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Consularis Palaestinae 357-358 AD C. held a high office in Antioch [1] at the time of the caesar Gallus ( Constantius [5]), probably as an agens in rebus (Lib. Ep. 405, 435); in AD 357-358 consularis Palaestinae (Lib. Ep. 317). He was in clo…

Equitius

(272 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Relatively rare Roman family name (for derivation: Varro, Rust. 2,1,10). [German version] [1] E., L. Represented himself as son of Ti. Sempronius Gracchus Adventurer of uncertain origins, who in 102 BC represented himself as the son of the people's tribune Ti.  Sempronius Gracchus, killed in 133. He was acknowledged neither by the censor, Q. Caecilius [I 30] Metellus Numidicus, nor by the sister of Gracchus. As a follower of L. Ap(p)uleius [I 11] Saturninus, in 100 he stood for the post of people's tribune for 99, but was himself killed during the unrest that led to the death of Appuleius. E…

Eutychianus

(141 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Rom. officer from Cappadocia, eyewitness of the Persian campaign of AD 363 According to Malalas (p. 332,9ff.) a Roman officer from Cappadocia, who recorded his eyewitness account of Julian's Persian campaign of AD 363 in an annalistic history (FHG 4,6). Both the character and his work may well be fictitious (cf. FGrH II B 226, p. 638f.). PLRE 1, 319 E. (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Praef. praet. AD 396/7 Praef. praet. ( Illyrici?) in AD 396/7.; praef. praet. Orientis between 397 and 399; II in 404/5; cos. in 398. His identification with Typhu…

Ecdicius

(201 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Ĕκδίκιος; Ekdíkios) [German version] [2] Son of the Emperor Avitus, 5th cent. AD Arvernian from a senator's family, son of the emperor  Avitus [1], brother-in-law of Sidonius Apollinaris, received an excellent education (in Clermont). Around AD 469, he was probably at the court of  Anthemius [2]; probably in 471 he organized the defence of Clermont against the Visigoths using his own means. During a famine in Burgundy in 473, he supplied the (suffering) population with food. In 474, Iulius Nepos awarded the patricius title to him for his achievements and probably made him a magister utr…

Titianus

(300 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Iulius T. Tutor of princes, teacher of rhetoric, late 2nd cent. Active probably in the late 2nd cent. AD as a tutor of princes and later in Vesontio (modern Besançon) and Lugdunum (modern Lyon) as a teacher of rhetoric, T. was the author of numerous (non-surviving) works. He was famous for his prose ' Letters of Famous Women' written on the model of Ovidius' Heroides (on the choice of the letters of Cicero as a stylistic model: Sid. Apoll. Epist. 1,1,2). Furthermore, there is evidence of a collection of themata from Vergil for teaching rhetoric, a prose paraphrase …

Limenius

(167 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Choral lyric poet from Athens, 2nd cent. BC (Λιμήνιος; Limḗnios) from Athens. Choral lyric poet, composer of a paean to Apollo (127 BC), which is preserved in an inscription on the treasury of the Athenians at Delphi. Besides the text itself, the notes of the tune for the kithara accompaniment are also provided: Paeonic-Cretan rhythm, the word accent taken up by the melody, highest variability in the use of keys. Metre; Athenaeus [7] Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography E. Pöhlmann, Denkmäler altgriech. Musik, 1970, 68-76 M. L. West, Ancient Greek Music, 1992, 293-301 L. …

Bonosus

(199 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Appointed emperor in AD 280 Appointed emperor in Cologne, together with Proculus, in AD 280, soon thereafter defeated by  Probus (Eutr. 9,17,1; Aur. Vict. Caes. 37,3; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 37,2). His vita in the  Historia Augusta (Probus), is largely fictitious; no genuine coins of his are known. PIR2 B 146; PLRE 1, 163 no.1. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Consul in AD 344 Flavius B. was consul in AD 344 but was acknowledged only in the West and even there he is attested only until April/May. According to [1], however, he …

Dracontius

(636 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Christian, murdered in 361 AD by the heathen mob Praepositus monetae in Alexandria. On 24 December AD 361 he was murdered as a Christian by the heathen mob because he had knocked over an altar (Amm. Marc. 22,11,9f.; Historia acephala 8). PLRE 1, 271 D. (1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Antonius D. Vicarius Africae 364-367 AD Attested only epigraphically (ILS 758; 763 et al.) and as a recipient of laws (Cod. Theod. 11,7,9; 11,30,33), vicarius Africae from AD 364 to 367 PLRE 1, 271f. D (3). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [3] Blossius Aemiliu…

Alypius

(331 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
(Ἀλύπιος; Alýpios). [German version] [1] Vicarius of Britain under Iulianus Possibly from Cilicia, absolved a study programme in Antiochia (Lib. Ep. 324). Under emperor  Julian he administered Britain as vicarius (Lib. loc.cit; n. 23,1,2). AD 363 Julian passed on the rebuilding of the temple of Jerusalem to the educated pagan (cf. Julian Ep. 29 and 30), this failed in the end (Philostorgius Hist. eccl. 7,9; Rufin. hist. 10,38; note 23,1,2). 371 A. was embroiled in a lawsuit concerning murder by poison and was exiled (n. 29,1,44). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Faltoniu…

Gaiso

(110 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] AD 350 possibly magister militum of the usurper Magnentius In AD 350, possibly as magister militum of the usurper Magnentius, he pursued the fleeing emperor Constans, and killed him during his arrest in the Pyrenean town of Helena ([Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 41,23; Zos. 2,42,5). In 351, he was consul together with Magnentius (Chron. min. 1, 69 Mommsen). PLRE 1, 380. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Official under Honorius AD 409 Comes sacrarum largitionum under Honorius probably in AD 409, and comes et magister officiorum in 410 (Cod. lust. 4,61,12…

Florentius

(359 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius F. Praefectus praetorio Galliarum AD 357-360 Was praefectus praetorio Galliarum from AD 357 to 360. At his instigation, Constantius [2] II had his auxiliary troops withdrawn from Gaul, which resulted in Julian's elevation (Julian. Ep. 282c; Amm. Marc. 20,4,2). In 360 Constantius appointed him praefectus praetorio Illyrici and in 361 honoured him with the consulate (Amm. Marc. 21,6,5). After Julian's victory he was sentenced to death in absentia by the Commission of Calchedon (Amm. Marc. 22,3,6). He is probably identical to the homonymous comes of Const…

Aedesius

(208 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Neoplatonist from Cappadocia Neoplatonist from Cappadocia († before AD 355), pupil of  Iamblichus. Only source: Eunapius, Vitae philosophorum et sophistarum. After the death of Iamblichus, he apparently took over Iamblichus' pupils and then retired back to Cappadocia, and finally ended up teaching in Pergamum together with the philosopher Sosipatra. As he considered himself too old, after a short time he transferred the responsibility of the philosophical education of Julian, the future emperor, …

Lucillianus

(230 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Father-in-law and military commander of the emperor Iovianus, 4th cent. AD Father-in-law of the emperor Iovianus (Amm. Marc. 25,8,9). In AD 350 L., probably as comes rei militaris, was successful against the Persians in the third siege of Nisibis (Zos. 2,45,2; 3,8,2). In 354 he was comes domesticorum of Constantius [5] Gallus (Amm. Marc. 14,11,14). In 361, as magister equitum, he unsuccessfully fought back Iulianus' advance [11] to Constantinople in Illyria (Amm. Marc. 21,9,5-10). Iovianus elevated him to the rank of magister equitum et peditum in 363 (Amm. Ma…

Nemesianus

(583 words)

Author(s): Küppers, Jochem (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] M. Aurelius N. Author of bucolic writings, before AD 284? As the name Carthagin(i)ensis appended in some MSS indicates, N. came from Africa. He wrote four bucolic poems ( Bucolica, Buc.) and a didactic poem about hunting ( Cynegetica, Cyn.), of which verses 1-325 are extant. The dedication of the Cyn. to the emperors Carinus and Numerianus [2] enables dating to shortly before AD 284. Whether N. also wrote Halieutica and Nautica, as maintained by SHA Car. 11,2, is doubtful, as is the authenticity of two fragments of a didactic poem on catching birds ( De aucipio) [11. 313f…

Aradius Rufinus

(196 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Praef. urbi 304-5, 312-13 AD Q. (?). Member of the African family of the Aradii Rufini, which had arisen to Senate membership early in the 3rd cent. AD. Presumably praef. urbi. already from 4.1.304 - 12.2.305 A. R. held this office again under Maxentius (9.2. - 27.10.312), after he had been consul together with  Ceionius in the last months of 311. After the victory of Constantine over Maxentius, A. was again praefectus urbi from 29.11.312 to 8.12.313. His proving himself under the various emperors was praised by Avianius Symmachus (Symmachus, Ep. 1; 2; 3). Bleckmann, Br…

Anastasia

(140 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Half-sister of Constantine the Great Half-sister of Constantine the Great and wife of  Bassianus. She must have still been alive during the founding of Constantinople; the Thermae Anastasianae are named after her (Amm. Marc. 26,6,14). From time to time, her name, which refers to belief in the Resurrection, was regarded as circumstantial evidence of the fundamentally Christian convictions of her father  Constantius (PLRE 1, 58, A.1). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Daughter of the emperor Valens Daughter of the emperor Valens. She and…

Korynephoroi

(157 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(κορυνηφόροι; korynēphóroi, ‘mace-bearers’). [German version] [1] Bodyguards of Peistratus Bodyguards who were to protect Peisistratus against an alleged threat from his opponents. They were granted to him by the Athenian people. He used them to occupy the acropolis (Hdt. 1,59). Solon supposedly recognized this striving for tyranny and he was the only one to declare himself against the bodyguards ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 14,2; Plut. Solon 30). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Bodyguards of the tyrant of Sicyon According to a later tradition, bodyguards of the…

Constantianus

(133 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Brother-in-law of Valentinian I, died c. 370 AD Brother-in-law of  Valentinian I. He led the fleet of the Euphrates in 363 in Julian’s Persian campaign (Amm. Marc. 23,3,9; Zos. 3,13,3). In 370 when tribunus stabuli in Valentinian’s Gaulish campaigns he was killed in an ambush (Amm. Marc. 28,2,10). PLRE 1,221. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Byzantine general under Justinian I Comes sacri stabuli (‘supervisor of the imperial stables’), Byzantine general in the war of  Justinian I against the Goths; from 536 in Dalmatia; after…
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